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Maryland Room 
Collece PMk. M«L 



LIBRARY-COLLEGE PARK 



Class 



Book 




DO SOT CIBCULiTE 



1 




STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 

LIBRARY, UNIV"¥:~~ rr MARYLAND 

Sixty^Fourth Annual Report 

OF THE 

State Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 
OF THE 

Public Schools of Maryland 

FOR THE 

YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1930 




35050 

TWENTIETH CENTURY PRINTING COMPANY, 
BALTIMORE, MD. 



7 

STATE OF MARYLAND 
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION 

DR. HENRY M. FITZHUGH. President Westminster 

ALBERT S. COOK, Secretary-Treasurer Towson 

MARY E. W. RISTEAU Sharon 

EMORY L. COBLENTZ Frederick 

THOMAS H. CHAMBERS Federalsburg 

DR. J. M. T. FINNEY Baltimore 

TASKER G. LOWNDES , -...Cumberland 

E. W. McMASTER Pocomoke City 

OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 
2014 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

ALBERT S. COOK „ State Superintendent of Schools 

I. JEWELL SIMPSON Asst. Supt. in Charge of Elementary Instruction 

SAMUEL M. NORTH „ Supervisor of High Schools 

E. CLARKE FONTAINE (Chestertown) Supervisor of High Schools 

W. K. KLINGAMAN (Hagerstown) Supervisor of High Schools 

M. THERESA WIEDEFELD Supervisor of Elementary Schools 

J. WALTER HUFFINGTON Supervisor of Colored Schools 

J. D. BLACKWELL Director of Vocational Education 

ELISABETH AMERY Supervisor of Home Economics 

JOHN J. SEIDEL Supervisor of Industrial Education 

ROBERT C. THOMPSON Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation and Special Education 

THOMAS L. GIBSON Supervisor of Music 

DR. WILLIAM BURDICK Director of Phj^sical Education 

ADELENE J. PRATT Director of Public Libraries 

BESSIE C. STERN Statistician 

HELEN DODSON Assistant Statistician 

MERLE S. BATEMAN Credential Secretary 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS Financial Secretary 

E. SUE WALTER Clerk 

RUTH E. HOBBS Stenographer 

CLARA McDONAGH SIMERING ...Stenographer 

ELIZABETH McGINNITY _ Stenographer 

FRANCES BELL. Stenographer 

ERNA OPITZ _ Stenographer 

LOUISA STORATH _ Stenographer 

MINDELL SCHAFF Clerk 

PRINCIPALS OF STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS 

LIDA LEE TALL Maryland State Normal School... Towson 

JOHN L. DUNKLE State Normal School Frostburg 

WILLIAM J. HOLLOWAY Salisbury Normal School Salisbury 

LEONIDAS S. JAMES Maryland Normal School (for Colored Students)... .Bowie 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 
2002 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

JOHN M. DENNIS State Treasurer, Chairman and Treasurer 

WILLIAM S. GORDY, JR State Comptroller 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME Superintendent of Montgomery County Schools, Vice-Chairman 

MRS. MARGARET S. UPHAM Principal, Allegany County 

MARGARET BARKLEY _ Secretary 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS Financial Secretary 

HELEN KIRKMAN „ Clerk 



MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISING 
AND HELPING TEACHERS 
1930-1931 



County Address 

ALLEGANY— Cumberland 
Charles L. Kopp, Supt. 
Lillian Compton. Asst. Supt., S. T. 
Anna B. Higgins, S. T. 
Winifred Greene, S. T. 
Loretto McGeady, S. T. 
Mabel Smith. Part-time S. T. 
James E. Spitznas, High School 
Supervisor 



ANNE ARUNDEL — Annapolis 
George Fox, Supt. 
Ruth Parker, S. T.^ 
Vera Pickard, S. T. 
Mary Downs, S. T. 
Howard A. Kinhart, High School 
Supervisor 

BALTIMORE — Towson 
C. G. Cooper, Supt. 
John T. Hershner, Asst. Supt. 
M. Annie Grace, S. T.^ 
Amy C. Crewe, S. T.2 
Jennie E. Jessop, S. T. 
Emma H. Boettner, S. T.2 
M. Lucetta Sisk, High School 
Supervisor^ 

CALVERT — Prince Frederick 
Franklin D. Day, Supt. 
Mattie V. Hardesty, S. T. 

CAROLINE— Denton 

Edward M. Noble, Supt. 
A. May Thompson, S. T. 

CARROLL — Westminster 
M. S. H. Unger, Supt. 
Myrtle Eckhardt, S. T. 
Ruth DeVore, S. T. 
Grace Alder, H. T. 

CECIL— Elkton 

Howard T. Ruhl, Supt, 

Lula H. Crim, S. T. 

Olive Reynolds, S. T. 

Margaret H. Black (Music), H. T. 

CHARLES— La Plata 

F. Bernard Gwynn, Supt. 
Jane Bowie, H. T. 

DORCHESTER— Cambridge 
James B. Noble, Supt. 
Hazel Fisher. S. T. 
Evelyn Johnson, H. T. 

FREDERICK— Frederick 

G. Lloyd Palmer, Supt.' 
James C. Biehl, Asst. Supt. 
Angeline Sunday. S. T. 
Helen Woodley, S. T. 

Hal Lee T. Ott. H. T. 



County Address 

GARRETT— Oakland 

Franklin E. Rathbun, Supt. 
Grace Shatzer, S. T. 
Kate Bannatyne, H. T.^ 
Flossie Skidmore. S. T. 
Gladys B. Hamill, H. T. 

HARFORD— Bel Air 

C. Milton Wright. Supt. 
Jane Naylor, S. T. 
Mary L. Grau. S. T.^ 

HOWARD— Ellicott City 
W. C. Phillips, Supt. 
Gail W. Chadwick, S. T. 

KENT — Chestertown 

Louis C. Robinson, Supt. 
Esta V. Harrison, S. T. 

MONTGOMERY— Rockville 
E. W. Broome, Supt. 
Hulda Brust, S. T. 
Kristin Nilsson, S. T. 
Elizabeth Meany, S. T. 
Fern D. Schneider, High School 
Supervisor 

PRINCE GEORGE'S— Upper Marlboro 
Nicholas Orem, Supt. 
J. A. Miller. Asst. Supt. 
Maude A. Gibbs, S. T. 
Mary Kiemp, S. T. 
Catherine Green, H. T. 

QUEEN ANNE'S— Centreville 
T. Gordon Bennett, Supt. 
Tempe Dameron, S. T. 

ST. MARY'S — Leonardtown 
Lettie M. Dent, Supt. 
E. Violette Young, H. T. 

SOMERSET— Princess Anne 

W. Stewart Fitzgerald, Supt. 
Jane D. Wilson, H. T. 

TALBOT— Easton 

Eugene W. Pruitt, Supt. 
William F. Phipps, S. T. 

WASHINGTON— Hagerstown 

B. J. Grimes, Supt. 
Grace B. Downin. S. T. 
Katharine L. Healy. S. T. 
Anne Richardson, S. T. 
Kathleen Saville, S. T. 

WICOMICO— Salisbury 

James M. Bennett, Supt. 

C. Nettie Holloway, S. T. 
Bessie Brown, S. T. 

WORCESTER— Snow Hill 

Arthur C. Humphreys, Supt. 
Elizabeth Mundy, S. T. 



^ Glen Burnie ^ Grantsville 

- 300 Park Ave., Baltimore ^ Havre de Grace 



S. T. — Supervising Teacher 
H. T. — Helping Teacher 



CONTENTS 



Page 



Letter of Transmittal - _ ; _ 5 

State Public School Budget 1932 and 1933 - 6 

The 1930 Federal Census 15 

White Enrollment, Attendance, Days in Session 16 

White Elementary Schools: 

Attendance, Late Entrants, Withdrawals, Long Absence 19 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, High School Entrants, Non-Promo- 
tions - - 35 

Tests Given; Special Classes 50 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Turnover, 

Experience , 54 

Size of Class, Teachers' Salaries, Men Teaching 69 

Per Pupil Costs, Transportation, Libraries, Health, Consolidation 77 

Supervision 99 

White High Schools: 

Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates and Their Occupations 112 

Enrollment, Failures, Teachers, Distributed by Subjects _ „ 127 

Certification, Resignations, Turnover, Experience, Sex of Teachers... 138 

Number and Size of High Schools 149 

Size of Class, Salaries 155 

Per Pupil Costs, Vocational Education, Transportation, Libraries, 

Health 159 

Supervision of High Schools 172 

Colored Schools: 

Enrollment, Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, 

Withdrawals 178 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions 186 

High Schools; Schools in Baltimore 192 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, 

Turnover, Experience, Men Teachers, Size of Class, Salaries 198 

Cost Per Pupil, Buildings, Rosenwald Fund, Value of School 

Property 211 

Size of School, Transportation, P. T. A.'s, Physical Education. 219 

Supervision of Colored Schools , 224 

Bowie Normal School , _ 229 

The Physical Education Program in Maryland 232 

Summer and Evening Schools 243 

Costs of Maryland Schools, Total and Fer Pupil „ 246 

Financing the Vocational Education Program _ _ _ 260 

Transportation of Pupils and Consolidation of Schools - 263 

Capital Outlay, Bond Issues, Value of School Property 268 

County Budgets, Assessments, and Tax Rates for 1930-31 276 

Parent-Teacher Associations 289 

County School Administration, Conferences 291 

Organization Chart, Objectives for 1930-31 of Members of Staff of 

State Department of Education, Certification - 295 

The Maryland State Normal Schools — Towson, Frostburg, Salis- 
bury _ 309 

Teachers' Retirement System 323 

List of Financial Statements and Statistical Tables 326 

Index „ 381 



March 15, 1931. 

Honorable Albert C. Ritchie, 
Governor of Maryland, 
Annapolis, Maryland. 

My Dear Goveymor Ritchie : 

In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77 of the Laws of Maryland, 
the sixty-fourth "annual report, covering all operations of the State De- 
partment of Education and the support, condition, progress, and needs of 
education throughout the State" for the school year ending in June, 1930, 
and considerable data for the current school year 1930-31, is herewith 
presented to you. 

Reference to the Table of Contents on the preceding page will show the 
rather complete study which is made of the measurable activities in our 
school program. The report shows uninterrupted progress in all phases of 
school work. 

At the beginning of the report is included a statement regarding the 
State Public School Budget for 1931 and the budget requests for 1932 
and 1933. 

The percentage of trained and experienced teachers working under com- 
petent supervision continues to increase making possible more efficient 
instruction of the State's children; in fact, we are reliably informed that 
the percentage of teachers with standard training in all of our schools, 
rural and urban, white and colored, probably leads the country; this is made 
possible by our program for teacher training in our normal schools, largely 
at State expense, and by our equalization program, which makes it possible 
for even our least wealthy communities to employ teachers with standard 
training as vacancies occur, without increasing local tax rates for school 
maintenance beyond the average for the counties of the State in 1922, when 
the equalization fund was first established. More and more boys and girls 
are entering high school and successfully completing the high school course. 
Additional provision for transportation of pupils to larger graded and high 
schools continues to result in the abandonment of one-teacher schools which 
are handicapped in many ways in giving children an adequate school 
training. 

The progress shown in this report was made possible by the enthusiastic 
co-operation received from all county teachers, clerks, attendance officers, 
supervisors, and superintendents, who have in most cases been given the 
whole-hearted moral and financial support of their patrons and county 
commissioners. The improvement would not have occurred without your 
splendid interest and that of the Legislature in the Maryland education 
program. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Henry M. Fitzhugh, President 
Thomas H. Chambers 
Emory L. Coblentz 
J. M. T. Finney 
Tasker G. Low^ndes 
Edgar W. McMaster 
Mary E. W. Risteau 
Albert S. Cook, 

Secreta/ry -Treasurer 
State Board of Education 



5 



THE STATE PUBLIC SCHOOL BUDGET 

Since the legislature of 1931 is called upon to consider the 
Public School Budget requests for 1932 and 1933, a statement 
of the appropriations required by the educational legislation of 
the past ten years is included. 

The taxable basis for State purposes paying the full State 
rate, the amount of the State Public School Budget, together with 
requests for 1932 and 1933, the amount derived from the Direct 
Public School Tax and from General Funds, and the Rate of the 
Direct Public School Tax are shown for the period from 1920 
to 1933. (See Table 1.) 

TABLE 1 

State School Funds and the State School Tax Rates 



Year 
Ending 
Sept. 30 


Taxable Basis 
for State 
Purposes 
Paying 
Full State 

Rate in 
Thousands 


State Public 
School Budget 

Excluding 
Normal School 
Fees and 
Deficits 


Amount Set Up in Budget from 


Rate of 
Direct 
Public School 
Tax 


Direct Public 
School Tax 


General 
Funds 


1920 


$1,176,000 
1,365,000 
1,430,000 
1,452,169 
1,622,679 
1,741,322 
1,871,967 
1,993,278 
2,117,303 
2,385,584 
2,421,422 
*2, 436, 667 
*2, 536, 667 
*2, 661, 179 


$2,000,000 
2,776,755 
2,787,730 
3,477,000 
3,507,000 
3,629,745 
3,742,600 
3,826,681 
3,946,111 
4,027,219 
4,768,178 
4,867,547 
t5, 363, 842 
t5, 609, 550 


$2,000,000 
2,182,755 
2,145,730 
1,650,000 
1,961,537 
2,248,461 
2,362,500 
2,310,192 
2,484,000 
2,550,000 
2,920,080 
3,197,400 




$.17 
.16 
.15 
.11 
.09 
.1215 
.12105 
.1125 
.1064 
.1038 
.1058 
.1095 


1921 


$ 594,000 
642,000 
1,827,000 
1,545,463 
1,381,284 
1,380,100 
1,516,489 
1,462,111 
1,477,219 
1,848,098 
1,670,147 
t5, 363, 842 
t5, 609, 550 


1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


1930 


1931 


1932 


1933 













* Estimated. 

t Recommended by Governor, including deficits for years 1930 and 1931. 



According to Section 205 of the Maryland State School Law, 
State tax of fifteen cents on each $100 of taxable property 
throughout the State shall be levied annually for the support of 
free public schools, which tax shall be collected at the same time 
and by the same agents as the general State levy, and shall be 
paid into the treasury of the State, to be distributed by the 
Treasurer to the Board of School Commissioners of the City of 
Baltimore and the several counties." 

The amount of the State levy was 17, 16, and 15 cents, re- 
spectively, in 1920, 1921, and 1922. When the budgets for the 
years 1923 and 1924 were under consideration in 1922, Dr. Henry 
M. Fitzhugh, President of the State Board of Education, made 
a plea to the Governor and Legislature for the right of the schools 
to a more liberal share of the sources of indirect taxation, which 
were increasing. As a result, since that time, the schools have 



6 



The State Public School Budget 



7 



been apportioned a larger share of the general funds in the 
State Treasury and less from the direct levy. 

When the amounts included in the State Public School Budget 
are divided by the assessable basis taxable at the full rate for 
State purposes, they indicate that had the source of funds been 
solely the direct public school tax, the rate for public school pur- 
poses would have decreased from 23.9 cents in 1923, the first 
year the 1922 legislation was in effect, to 21 cents estimated 
for 1932 and 1933. (See Table 2.) 

TABLE 2 



Rate for 



Taxable Basis for State Public School Public Average Number 



Year 


State Purposes 


Budget Excluding 


Schools 


of Pupils 




Paying Full State 


Normal School Fees 


on Each 


Enrolled in 




Rate in Thousands 


and Deficits 


$100 


Public Schools 


1920 


$1,176,000 


$2,000,000 


$.170 




1921 


1,365,000 


2,776,755 


.203 




1922 


1,430,000 


2,787,730 


.195 




1923 


1,452,169 


3,477,000 


.239 


234,914 


1924 


1,622,679 


3,507,000 


.216 


235,218 


1925 


1,741,322 


3,629,745 


.208 


239,392 


1926 


1,871,967 


3,742,600 


.200 


241,961 


1927 


1,993,278 


3,826,681 


.192 


246,113 


1928 


2,117,303 


3,946,111 


.185 


251,701 


1929 


2,385,584 


4,027,219 


.169 


254,196 


1930 


2,421,422 


4,768,178 


.197 


259,475 


1931 


*2, 436, 667 


4,867,547 


*.200 


266,475 


1932 


*2, 536, 667 


t5, 363, 842 


*.212 


*269,475 


1933 


*2, 661, 179 


t5, 609, 550 


*.211 


♦272,475 



*E3timated. 

t Recommended by Governor, including deficits for years 1930 and 1931. 

The rates shown in column 3 would indicate that the State's 
appropriations for the public schools have not kept pace with 
the increase in the taxable wealth of the State. 

During the same period the average number of pupils enrolled 
in the public elementary and secondary schools has been increas- 
ing. The additional pupils for the most part are in the secondary 
schools, which cost twice as much to operate per pupil as do the 
elementary schools. 

The items making up the total Public School Budget request 
are shown in Table 3. 

Were there no deficit in the 1930 census and attendance fund 
due to the failure to collect from the public school tax as much 
as was estimated, and had the 1929 legislation exempting fidelity, 
casualty, and guaranty companies from taxation at the full rate 
in the counties not passed, the increase in the public school budget 



8 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 3 

Requests for the State Public School Budget 





1931 
Appropria- 
tion 


1932 
Request 


Increase 
Over 
1931 


1933 
Request 


Increase 
Over 
1932 


Retirement System 

City 

Expense Fund 


$ 445,886 
432,487 
7,500 


$ 494,342 
473 , 622 
10,000 


$ 48,456 
41,135 
2,500 


$ 519,059 
497,303 
10,000 


$ 24,717 
23,681 


Total 

Approved High Schools 

Colored Industrial Schools . . ; 




$ 885,873 
518,192 
28,500 
187,000 

1,000 
15,000 
15 000 
11 ! 750 

7,000 

500 
3,000 
76 150 
541 ! 819* 
1,500 
1,900,000 
526 , 563 
5,000 
10,000 


$ 977,964 
561,632 
30,750 
190,000 

1,000 
50,000 
25 000 
121000 

7,500 

3,500 
3,000 
76 650 
550^366* 
2,000 
1,900,000 
793 , 960 
10,000 
10,000 


$ 92,091 
43,440 
2,250 
3,000 


$1,026,362 
581,512 
30,750 
190,000 

1,000 
50,000 

12,000 

7,500 

3,500 
3,000 
76 650 
550 ! 366* 
2,000 
1,900,000 
938,010 
10,000 
10,000 


$ 48,398 
19,880 






Books and Materials 




State Board of Education 






Vocational Education 


36,000 
10 000 
'250 

500 

3,000 




Physical and Health Education .... 




Report and Bureau of 

Publications 




Certification and Medical 

Examination" of Teachers 




Extension Teaching 






500 
8,547* 
500 
















Equalization Fund 


267,397 
5,000 


144 ,050 


Physically Handicapped Children . . 

Total Regular Request 

Normal School Fees 




$4,983,847 
116,300 


$5,455,322 
113,000 


$471,475 
3,300t 


$5,667,650 
113,000 


$212,328 


Total from State for Regular 

Needs 

Deficits 

Equalization Fund 




$4,867,547 


$5,341,322 
(1930) 
102,694 
(1931) 
23,926 


$474,775 
102,694 
23,926 


$5,554,650 
(1931) 
150,000 


$212,328 
47,306 
23,926t 


Total Requested from State 






$4,867,547 


$5,468,942 


$601,395 


$5,704,650 


$235,708 



* Includes Normal School fees, 
t Decrease. 
° New Item. 



from 1931 to 1932 would be $474,775, and from 1932 to 1933, 
$212,328. Necessity of providing for the 1930 deficit and the 
estimated deficit in 1931 add to these increases $126,620 and 
$150,000, respectively. These items for deficits should not be 
considered as increases in the State school budget since they 
duplicate amounts appropriated in the 1930 and 1931 budgets 
which have not been or will not be paid. 

The explanations of the increases which appear in the various 
items making up the public school budget are taken up in order 
of the size of the increase requested. 

Equalization Fund 

The appropriation of $526,563 for the Equalization Fund in 
the 1931 budget is short of the amount required ($609,369), by 
$82,806. Since $23,926 of this deficit is due to the legislation 



Explanation of Increases in Equalization Fund 



9 



exempting fidelity, casualty, and guaranty companies from the 
full county rate of taxation, it is expected that this amount will 
be made available in the 1932 budget. For 1932 the request for 
the Equalization Fund is $793,960, an increase of $184,591 over 
the amount required in 1931, and of $267,397 over the amount 
appropriated in 1931. 

The following facts account for the difference between the 
amount appropriated and required for the Equalization Fund 
in 1931. 

1. Allegany and Anne Arundel Counties, by reason of in- 
creases in elementary and high school enrollment, shared in the 
Equalization Fund in 1930 and are entitled to share in 1931, 
although neither county was included in estimating the Equaliza- 
tion Fund included in the State School Budget for 1930 and 1931. 

2. Instead of the considerable increase estimated in the tax- 
able basis for 1930 used in calculating the 1931 Equalization 
Fund in 1928, there is an actual reduction of $5,729,000 in the 
assessable basis taxable for county purposes at the full rate in 
the twelve counties which have been sharing continuously in the 
Fund. Of this amount, $3,571,000 is accounted for by the legis- 
lation changing the taxation of fidelity, casualty, and guaranty 
companies from the full county rate to a limited rate. Since 
there is an inverse correlation between wealth and the Equaliza- 
tion Fund, when the assessed wealth decreases without a corre- 
sponding reduction in needs, the Equalization Fund increases. 

3. Because of (1) and (2) above, the Equalization Fund in 
the Budget for the current year, 1931, amounting to $526,563, 
is $82,806 less than the actual requirements of the county budgets 
for the current school year; request is made for $23,926 of this 
amount as a deficit appropriation, since it was due to the change 
in the law affecting taxation of shares in surety companies, which 
was passed too late in the legislative session of 1929 to be taken 
care of in the supplementary budget. The counties therefore 
stand to lose $82,806 less $23,926, or $58,880, through the failure 
of the State Department of Education to make a more accurate 
estimate of future needs. This is a serious matter to these less 
wealthy counties, and should not occur again, 

4. Large increases in elementary school attendance and the 
enormous increase in high school enrollment during the past 
several years have brought the educational needs of five more 
counties to a point where they can not support the State minimum 
program on a local tax of 67 cents on $100; these counties (in 
addition to Allegany and Anne Arundel recently sharing as indi- 
cated above) are Prince George's, Talbot, Washington, Frederick, 
and Howard. 



10 



1930 Eeport of State Department of Education 



Retirement System 

The appropriation in the 1931 budget as estimated by Mr. 
Buck, the actuary, in 1928, is lower than the amount actually 
needed, chiefly because the number of teacher members of the 
Retirement system has increased faster than he had estimated 
it would increase in both counties and city. The increase of 
$92,091 from 1931 to 1932 is therefore larger than the usual 
increase because provision must be made for the actual instead 
of the estimated membership. The figures furnished are those 
certified by the actuary which have been carefully checked by 
the Retirement staff and Board of Trustees. (Required by Para- 
graph 99 (62), Chapter 344, Laws of 1927). 

High School Aid 

The increase of $43,440 in high school aid is large because of 
an underestimate of the increase in high school enrollment for 
the current school year over the last school year. The appro- 
priation of $518,192 for 1931, according to a recent check, will 
not make it possible to carry out completely the requirements of 
Section 197 of the School Law and the by-law of the State Board 
of Education, providing for high school aid. 

Each county superintendent has made a careful estimate of 
the number of high school teachers needed in the next two years. 
This has been reviewed and revised by the State high school 
supervisors and is the basis for the requested appropriation. A 
new four-year senior high school in South Baltimore requires 
$6,000 additional aid for the City in 1932. 

In order that the growth in high schools may be evident, the 
enrollment, teachers, and salary budget for county high schools 
are given in Table 4. 

TABLE 4 

Enrollment, Teaching Staff and Salary Cost of County Senior High Schools 



Year Enrollment Teachers Salaries 

1920 9.585 495 $499,996 

1921 11,151 608 772,644 

1922 13.183 649 867,750 

1923 15,335 713 1,010,557 

1924 16,646 785 1,134,458 

1925 18,315 849 1,226,294 

1926 19,977 910 1,348,181 

1927 21,515 962 1,442,758 

1928 23,143 1,023 1,541,949 

1929 24,981 1,074 1,634,961 

1930 26,713 1,144 1,734,113 

1931 *29,213 1,264 1,912,013 



* Estimated. 



Increases for Retirement, High School and Vocational Work 11 

Vocational Education 

In order to give further stimulus and aid in the promotion of 
high school work in vocational education in agriculture, home 
economics, trade and industry, an increase from $15,000 to 
$50,000 is requested in the State aid provided for this work. 
The Federal allotment to Maryland is $96,052. The specific State 
appropriation in Maryland of $15,000 for vocational education 
is the lowest in the entire country for the vocational education 
program. However, through the Equalization Fund and State 
aid for high schools additional support for the vocational educa- 
tion program is available. 

The pupils enrolled in vocational agriculture have increased 
in the decade from 1920 to 1930 from 265 to 955 ; the schools in 
which it is offered from 16 to 40. The State will undoubtedly 
benefit by the training of still larger numbers of boys in scientific 
agriculture, and further State aid will make it possible to in- 
crease the number of centers. 

The Federal allotment to Maryland of $9,684 for the work 
in vocational home economics in accordance with the Smith- 
Hughes act has been apportioned almost entirely as aid toward 
the salaries of teachers of vocational hoitie economics in fourteen 
or fifteen county high schools which offer the work. This means 
that there have been no funds available to apportion to Baltimore 
City for the courses in vocational home economics offered in the 
evening schools. It seems only fair that all work which meets 
the requirements set up in the act shall receive aid, and in order 
to accomplish this, the State vocational fund should be increased. 

The Supervisor of Industrial Arts has stimulated the provision 
of vocational courses in industry and has reorganized the wood- 
working shops by adding activities involving sheet metal, elec- 
tricity, cold metal, concrete, and automobiles. Over one-half of 
the boys enrolled in county high schools are taking courses in 
industrial arts. The Federal Government allots Maryland an- 
nually a maximum of $22,595 to stimulate trade and industrial 
work offered in day and evening schools. Up to five years ago, 
so little was done in the counties that Baltimore City received 
most of the Federal allotment for its offerings in the vocational 
schools and at the Polytechnic Institute. Now that the counties 
are realizing their opportunity and need of training boys in these 
fields, further State aid is required to make it possible to pro- 
mote the work in the counties and to continue the aid which 
Baltimore City has come to depend upon. 

Since the county enrollment in day, evening, part-time, and 
continuation classes has shown a considerable increase in the 
past five years, and the only aid available to the counties from 
Federal Funds must come by decreasing the aid given the City 
of Baltimore, an additional appropriation from State funds for 



12 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



vocational education to help in sharing the extra cost of these 
classes seems imperative. 

Physical Education 

Through the Playground Athletic League there has been com- 
mendable growth in the physical activity program of the cur- 
riculum. For the school year ending in June, 1930, 38,547 white 
boys and girls above the third grade, 48 per cent, qualified in the 
badge tests, whereas the number in 1928 was 35,002. The track 
and field events, team games, tournaments, and relays, which are 
a part of the program of the athletic field-days held in every 
county annually in the spring, give boys and girls opportunities 
to compete for the sake of the team and the school, as well as 
for the joy of the game, physical development, and mental and 
emotional poise. For girls, field ball and basketball tournaments 
and winter carnivals, and for boys, soccer, basketball, and base- 
ball tournaments stimulate physical activity in the fall, winter, 
and spring. The State appropriation of $15,000 does not begin 
to pay for the service rendered the physical education program in 
the county schools by the Playground Athletic League. 

Four State Normal Schools 

The only increase in the budgets for the State normal schools- 
needing explanation is found at Frostburg, where the four- 
teacher campus elementary school, formerly supported largely 
by Allegany County, is being taken over by the State. The 
campus schools connected with the other three normal schools 
are all included in the normal school budgets. Since Allegany 
County shares in the Equalization Fund, this school would be 
supported in either case by the State. 

Vocational Rehabilitation 

As a result of the appropriation recommended by Governor 
Ritchie and approved by the Legislature in 1929, the Supervisor 
of Vocational Rehabilitation started work on October 1, 1929. 
Until June 30, 1930, there were 169 physically handicapped per- 
sons reported. Of this number 79 were definitely found to be 
"eligible for and susceptible of vocational training"; 34 were 
classified as pending, since complete data concerning them had 
not been secured ; and the remaining 56 were declared **not 
eligible for rehabilitation service," due to old age, too serious a 
disability, or other causes. 

The status of the first group of 79 cases mentioned above 
follows : 



Trained and placed in employment 

Taking courses of vocational training 

Job objectives planned and training given 



5 

16 



as openings arise _ 

Guidance and advice being furnished prior 



22 



to ultimate rehabilitation. 



36 



79 



Budget Items Having Siniall Increases and for Deficits 13 

The short time the service has been available, the limitation 
of the funds on hand for use in investigation, in providing ap- 
pliances, in furnishing training, and in securing positions ($5,000 
from the State and $5,000 from the Federal Government), 
coupled with the business depression, have made it possible 
merely to begin to meet the pressing demands for this service. 
As its existence becomes more widely broadcast, the number of 
cases reported will undoubtedly show considerable increase. 
Most of the cases reported as ''eligible for and susceptible to 
training," can be taken care of, if the State eventually matches 
with an equal amount the maximum allotment of Federal funds 
which can be given to Maryland; viz., $13,770.49. Request 
made for $10,000 at this time, and this will make possible as- 
sistance in the field of organization and supervision of classes 
for handicapped children. 

Part-payment of Salaries 

Part-payment of salaries of officials, viz., superintendents, 
supervising and helping teachers, and attendance officers, is in- 
creased by $3,000 to take care of the increased experience of 
these officials, whose salaries vary with their experience, and 
to provide for sharing in the salaries of additional supervisors 
to be appointed in order to fill the quota of supervisors required 
in Allegany, Baltimore, and Washington Counties. (Required by- 
Section 145 of Article 77 of the State School Law) . 

Medical Examinations 

In order to prevent the appointment to the teaching staff of 
any teacher who is suffering from physical defects, chiefly to 
safeguard the children, but also since such teachers must become 
members of the Maryland Teachers' Retirement System, every 
new teacher entering the service must undergo a physical ex- 
amination by a physician appointed by the Medical Board of the 
Teachers' Retirement System. Reports of these examinations 
are reviewed by the Medical Board of the Teachers' Retirement 
System. The State pays for the examinations required of all 
new appointees except graduates of the Maryland State Normal 
Schools, who are examined by the physician who is in attendance 
at each of these schools. The cost is approximately $3,000 a 
year. This item appears in the budget for the first time this 
year. (Required by Section 126 of Article 77 of the State School 
Law and by by-law of the State Board of Education) . 

Deficit Census and Attendance 

Because the collection of the public school tax for the year 
ending September 30, 1930, fell short of the estimated receipts 
by $102,694, this amount is requested in 1932, since all of the 
counties arranged for their expenditures on the basis of receipt 
of the full amount from the census and attendance fund. The 
counties have had to borrow to meet this situation and reim- 



14 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



bursement should be made in full in October, 1931, through this 
deficit approimatio7i. The amount by which each county and 
Baltimore City was short of the amount appropriated in the 
budget is shown in Table 5. In order to care for the estimated 
deficit in 1931, $150,000 is included in the 1933 budget to be 
paid in full in October, 1932, if the deficit materializes. 

TABLE 5 

Deficits in State Payments of 1929-30 Census and Attendance Fund 

Amount of Amount of 

County Deficit County Deficit 

Total Counties _ $ 56,545 Howard _ $ 1,085 

Kent _ 991 

Allegany 5,687 Montgomery _ 3,170 

Anne Arundel _ 3,451 Prince George's 4,402 

Baltimore 7,892 Queen Anne's 1,092 

Calvert _ _ 751 St. Mary's 1,214 

Caroline 1,290 Somerset 1,672 

Carroll 2,239 Talbot _ _ 1,207 

Cecil _ „. 1,620 Washington 4,639 

Charles _ 1,181 Wicomico 2,149 

Dorchester _ 1,850 Worcester _ 1,567 

Frederick _ 3,747 

Garrett _ 1,634 Baltimore City 46,149 

Harford „ _ 2,015 

Total State $102,694 

Deficit Equalization Fund 

Due to the passage of taxation legislation in 1929, removing 
from taxation at the full county rate shares of guaranty, fidelity, 
and casualty companies, beginning in June, 1930, the twelve 
counties continuously sharing in the Equalization Fund have 
lost $23,926 as a source of revenue taxable at 67 cents for county 
school purposes estimated as available when the Equalization 
Fund was calculated in 1928, for insertion in the 1931 budget. 
This must be made up in order that through the Equalization 
Fund the provisions of Section 204 of the State School Law may 
be carried out. This amount should be viade available in full in 
October, 1931. 

State Appropriation from General Funds 

In order to prevent deficits in the census and attendance fund 
in the future, it is requested that the public school budget appro- 
pination in 1932 and 1933 be provided entirely from general 
funds, instead of liaving a part derived exclusively from direct 
taxation. The Public School Budgets will thus be placed in the 
same position as all other State supported institutions. Under 
this plan the amount of the direct tax usually allotted to the 
public schools will become part of the General Fund in the State 
Treasury. Any shortage in the collection of the tax would then 
be shared by all institutions and not fall exclusively on the Public 
School Budget. 



Budget Items for Deficits; the 1930 Federal Census 



15 



THE 1930 CENSUS FOR MARYLAND 

The United States Bureau of the Census has issued its first 
population bulletin for the 1930 census of Maryland showing the 
number and distribution of inhabitants. 

The 1930 population of the counties, 826,652, is an increase 
of 110,817 or 15.5 per cent over 1920. Increases in population 
are found in western and central Maryland, in Prince George's 
and Anne Arundel, Cecil, Talbot, and Wicomico. In Charles, 
St. Mary's, and Calvert, and in Kent, Queen Anne's, Caroline, 
Dorchester, Somerset, and Worcester, there are decreases in 
population. 



TABLE 6 

Comparison of 1920 with 1930 Federal Census 



County 


1930 
Populat ion 


1920 
Population 


Increase 


Per C^ent 
of Increase 


Total Counties 


826.652 


715.835 


110,817 


15.5 


Western Maryland 










Garrett 


19.908 


19,678 


230 


12 


Allegany 


79.098 


69,938 


9.160 


13.1 


Wn ssVi 1 Ti crt An 


fin 882 


59 . 694 


6. 188 


10 4 


Frederick 


54.110 


52 "541 


l!899 


3'6 


Montgomery 


49.206 


34.921 


14,285 


40.9 


Central Maryland 










Carroll. . T 


35.978 


34.245 


1.733 


5.1 


Baltimore 


124.565 


74.817 


49 . 748 


66.5 


Howard 


16.169 


15.826 


343 


2 2 


Harford 


31,603 


29.291 


2.312 


7.9 


Southern Maryland 








Prince George's 


60.095 


43 . 347 


16.748 


38.6 


Anne Arundel 


55. 167 


43.408 


11,759 


27.1 


Charles 


16,166 


17.705 


* 1,539 


*8.7 


St. Mary's 


15.189 


16.112 


*923 


*5.7 


Calyert 


9.528 


9.744 


*216 


*2.2 


Eastern Shore 










Cecil 


25.827 


23,612 


2,215 


9.4 


Kent 


14.242 


15,026 


*784 


*5.2 




14.571 


16,001 


*1,430 


*8.9 


Talbot 


18.583 


18,306 


277 


1.5 


Caroline 


17,387 


18,652 


*1,265 


*6.8 


Dorchester 


26.813 


27,895 


*1,082 


*3.9 


Somerset 


23,382 


24,602 


*1,220 


*5.0 


"V\ orcester 


21 . 624 


22,309 


*685 


*3.1 


Wicomico 


31.229 


28,165 


3,064 


10.9 


Baltimore City 


804.874 


733,826 


71,048 


9.7 


Entire State 


1,631,526 


1.449,661 


181,865 


12.5 



• Decrease. 



16 



1930 Eeport of State Department of Education 



Further analysis of the census data will be included in the 
1931 report when the figures on school attendance, age groups, 
illiteracy, etc., are available. 

Leaving out of consideration the City of Baltimore, the follow- 
ing cities have a population of over 5,000 : 

Cumberland has a population of 37,747 ; Hagerstown of 30,861 ; 
Frederick of 14,434 ; Annapolis of 12,531 ; Salisbury of 10,997 ; 
Cambridge of 8,544 ; Takoma Park of 6,415 ; and Frostburg of 
5,588. (See Table 6). 

PUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENT INCREASES 
The white enrollment in the county public schools (133,500) 
increased by over 2,200 pupils from 1929 to 1930, the number 
belonging by over 2,600 and the average attendance by over 
5,200. Attendance in the year 1929 was unusually low, because 
of epidemics and sickness. The return to more normal conditions 
in 1930 resulted in an increase in average attendance twice as 
great as the increase in average number belonging, and 2.4 as 
great as the increase in the total number enrolled. (See Table 7.) 

TABLE 7 

Enrollment, Average Number Belonging, and Average Number Attending in White 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1930 



County 



Total Counties, 1930t 
Total Counties, 1929 . , 

Total Counties, 1920. 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Washington 

Frederick 

Prince George's 

Montgomery 

Anne Arundel 

Carroll 

Harford 

Wicomico 



Total 
White 
Enroll- 
ment 



=133,497 
=131,280 

114,871 

19,726 
14,753 
13,246 
9,913 
9,459 
7,921 
7,503 
6,449 
5,508 
4,967 



Average Number 



Belong- 
ing 



125,873 
123,255 



18,253 
13,831 
12,555 
9,353 
8,581 
7,245 
6,903 
6,030 
4,998 
4.541 



Attend- 
ing 



115.353 
110,341 

82,017 

16,661 
13,027 
11,492 
8,608 
7,948 
6,666 
6,326 
5,391 
4,514 
4,221 



County 



Garrett 

Cecil 

Dorchester. . . . 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Howard , 

Queen Anne's . 

Kent 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Baltimore City 

State 



Total 
White 
Enroll- 
ment 



4,945 
4,274 
3,995 
3,186 
3,178 
3,115 
2,653 
2,502 
2,210 
2,076 
1,927 
1,328 
1,062 

*92,272 

^225,769 



Average Number 



Belong- 
ing 



468 
914 
713 
927 
982 
844 
475 
2,270 
2,030 
1,960 
1,785 
1,223 
992 



86,511 
212,384 



Attend- 
ing 



* Excludes duplicates. t Data not available until 1923. 

X For similar data for counties arranged alphabetically see the following: Tables II, VI and VII, 
pages 331, 336, 337. 

The counties are arranged in Table 7 in order of size of white 
public school enrollment from largest to smallest. Baltimore 
County's increase in enrollment was close to 550, Anne Arundel 
and Prince George's had gains in enrollment between 400 and 
450, Allegany grew by over 200, and Montgomery, Garrett, and 
Cecil each had over 100 more children enrolled in public schools 



Increase in White School Enrollment 



17 



in 1930 than in 1929. Carroll, Worcester, Somerset, Caroline, 
and St. Mary's, all had decreases in the number enrolled and in 
the average number belonging in the public schools for white 
children. 

In Baltimore City the increase in white enrollment was 975, 
in average number belonging 1,462, and in average attendance 
2,381. 

The enrollment in public schools for white pupils is 92,300 
in Baltimore City compared with 133,500 in the counties. Al- 
though the total white population in the counties does not greatly 
exceed that in Baltimore City, the counties have from 36,000 
to 41,000 more white children to educate in the public schools 
than the City has, depending on whether enrollment or attend- 
ance is made the basis for comparison. Part of this difference 
is due to the fact that a larger number of city than of county 
children attend the parochial and private schools. The remain- 
ing difference is explained by the larger number of children per 
family found in the counties. (See Table 8.) 

TABLE 8 

White Enrollment in 1929-30 
Type of School Counties Baltimore City 

Public „ 133,497 92,272 

Parochial and Private „ 12,745 34,382 

Total 146,242 126,654 

The Superintendent of Catholic parish schools and the princi- 
pals of private schools have furnished information requested 
regarding the enrollment and teaching staff for the year 1929-30. 
The returns with respect to private schools have been more com- 
plete than in any year preceding. Summaries of the enrollment 
in Catholic and non-Catholic private schools are given by counties 
followed by the names of individual schools arranged by county. 
(See Tables III, IV and V, pages 332-335.) 



WHITE SCHOOLS OPEN ON THE AVERAGE 187 DAYS 
For the school year ending in June, 1930, the average length 
of session in the county white elementary schools was 186.9 days, 
.1 of a day longer than for the year preceding. In the white 
high schools the average session of 186.7 days was .2 of a day 
lower in 1929-30 than in 1928-29. No county fell below the 180 
days required. In white schools the number of days open varied 
from just over 180 days in Worcester County to 194 days in • 
Allegany. Allegany, Baltimore, Howard, and Queen Anne's were 
the only counties which kept the schools open at least 190 days. 
The three counties having the shortest school year are Worcester, 
Somerset, and Wicomico, which close schools at the end of May. 



18 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



Baltimore County closed its schools on June 27 and Allegany, 
Anne Arundel, Garrett, and Howard closed on June 20. The 
opening date in 1929 varied from September 2 to September 11. 
(See Table 9.) 

TABLE 9 

Length of Session in White Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1930 



County 



School Year 1929-30 



No. of 
Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



County 



Average Days in 
Session § 



White 
High 
Schools 



White 
Elemen- 
tary 
Schools 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . 
Baltimore .... 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester ... 
Frederick .... 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . 
Prince George'; 
Queen Anne's. 
St. Mary's. . . . 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington. . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Baltimore City 



9/3 
9/9 
9/9 
9/4 
9/9 
9/2 
9/5 
9/3 
9/9 
9/4 
9/9 
9/9 
9/3 
9/9 
9/11 
9/9 
9/3 
9/9 
9/3 
9/9 
9/3 
9/2 
9/3 

9/10 



6/20 
6/20 
6/27 
6/11 
6/13 

6/6 
6/13 

6/6 
6/13 

6/6 
6/20 
6/19 
6/20 
6/13 
6/13 
6/18 
6/13 
*6/16 
5/30 
6/18 

6/6 
5/30 
5/30 

6/25 



County Average 

Allegany , 

Baltimore 

Howard 

Queen Anne's . . , 

Harford 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Caroline 

Cecil 

Garrett 

Prince George's . 

Talbot 

Washington 

Kent 

Dorchester 

Montgomery 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Charles 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. . 

State Average. . . 



186.7 

194.1 
190.0 
194.0 
190.0 
188.8 
181.0 
186.0 
187.1 
189.5 
186.6 
185.0 
185.0 
186.3 
184.0 
183.9 
184.5 
182.7 
186.1 
185.6 
182.0 
182.0 
181.0 
180.3 

184.1 

185.8 



186.9 

193.9 
193.6 
192.2 
189.8 
187.3 
186.8 
186.0 
185.7 
185.5 
184.9 
184.9 
184.7 
184.4 
184.3 
183.8 
183.3 
183.1 
183.0 
182.4 
182.1 
181.7 
180.9 
180.7 

190.0 

188.2 



t Two davs for beginning teachers. t One day for high school teachers. 

* High schools 6/11, 6/12 and 6/13. 

§ For similar data for counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 337, and for 
data for individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, page 366-71. 



Every county, except Talbot, which had a new superintendent 
and supervisor, had a teachers' meeting preceding the opening of 
schools. The meetings varied in length from 1 to 3 days. (See 
Tabled.) 

The number of individual white schools open fewer than 180 
days (28) was smaller in 1930 than in any year preceding. Car- 
roll had 15 schools open less than the number of days required, 
the explanation being a fire in the case of the Charles Carroll 
School ; Charles had 4, and Worcester 3, the remaining counties 
listed having one each. A fire explains the appearance of an 
Anne Arundel County school in the list. It is gratifying to find 
that Garrett, Montgomery, Dorchester, Talbot, Frederick, Queen 



Length of Session; Per Cent of Attendance 



19 



Anne's, and Allegany, which had schools with too short sessions 
in 1929, had every school meet the required number of days in 
1930. (See Table 10.) 



TABLE 10 

Number of Maryland County White Schools in Session Less Than 180 Days, 
Year Ending July 31, 1930 



No. of Schools Open Less Than No. of Schools Open Less Than 

180 Days 180 Days 









Having 


Having 








Having 








More 






Having 


More 






Total 


One 


than One 




Total 


One 


than One 


County 


Year 


No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 


County 


No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 




1930 


28 


22 


6 


Kent 


1 




1 


All 


1929 


62 


45 


17 


Prince George's . , 


1 


1 




Counties 


1928 


33 


25 


8 




1 


1 






1927 


83 


68 


15 




1 


1 






1926 


124 


109 


15 


Worcester 


3 


3 














Charles 


4 


3 


1 


Anne Arundel 




*1 




*1 


Carroll 


**15 


13 








1 




1 











* Each asterisk represents one school open a short session because of fire. 

GAINS IN AITENDANCE MAKE UP FOR LOSSES OF 
PRECEDING YEAR 

For the year ending in June, 1930, all types of white elemen- 
tary schools had a higher percentage of attendance than that 
recorded for any year preceding. The percentage in the graded 
schools was 91.8, in the two-teacher schools 90.1, and in the one- 
teacher schools 88.4 per cent. (See Table 11.) 

TABLE 11 

Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White Elementary Schools, for School 
Years Ending in June 1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1929, 1930 



1930 
Increase 

Type of School 1923 1924 1925 1927 1929 1930 over 1929 

White Elementary 84.2 85.5 87.2 88.7 88.8 91.0 2.2 

One Teacher 79.4 80.9 83.1 85.0 85.7 88.4 2.7 

Two Teacher 82.2 83.8 85.8 87.4 87.5 90.1 2.6 

Graded 87.3 88.3 89.4 90.2 89.8 91.8 2.0 



In the counties the percent of attendance in white elementary 
schools showed gains from 1929 to 1930 in every county. Charles 
County with 87 per cent had the lowest percentage of the average 
number belonging in average attendance. This, however, was 
higher by 3.2 per cent than for the year preceding. Allegany 
stood highest in attendance with 93.8 per cent. (See Table 12.) 



20 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 12 

Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Schools for School Years Ending in 
June 1923, 1927, 1929 and 1930 



County 


1923 


1927 


1929 


*1930 


County Average . . 


S4 


2 


88 


.7 


88.8 


91.0 


Alleganv 


89, 





92. 


6 


91.0 


93.8 


Prince George's. . . 


84 


.9 


90 


2 


91.0 


92.2 


Wicomico 


86. 


5 


90. 


,8 


89.8 


92.1 


Talbot 


85. 


,8 


90. 


5 


89.4 


91.9 


Montgomery 


81. 


.9 


87. 


,9 


88.2 


91.5 


Frederick 


83, 


.6 


87, 


.6 


88.7 


91.3 


Anne Arundel .... 


84, 


. 5 


88, 


1 


89.7 


91.0 


St. Mary's 


74. 


. 5 


81. 





86.4 


91.0 


Kent 


86, 


.7 


89. 


,0 


88.6 


91.0 




84, 





86. 


3 


89.6 


90.9 




84, 


.9 


89 


, 5 


88.7 


90.8 


Caroline 


86 


. 5 


90 


3 


90.0 


90.8 



County 


1923 


1927 


1929 


*1930 




84 


.0 


88 


.6 


88 


.7 


90 


.7 


Cecil 


84 


.8 


88 


.0 


86 


. 7 


90 


.7 


Garrett 


83 


.9 


86 


.7 


86 


.6 


90. 


5 




81 


.2 


87, 


. 5 


88 


.3 


90 


3 


Harford 


84 


. 5 


87, 


,7 


87, 


.8 


89. 


.7 


Queen Anne's . . , , 


85 


.4 


86 


.5 


87, 


.6 


89, 


.4 


Worcester 


83 


. 5 


88 


.1 


88 


.0 


88, 


9 




83 


.3 


90 


.4 


88 


.2 


88, 


.9 


Carroll 


79 


.4 


85 


.8 


86 


.4 


88 


.4 


Calvert 


79 


.9 


81 


.8 


84 


.8 


88, 


.4 


Charles 


79 


. 5 


83, 





83 


.8 


87. 





Baltimore City , . 


89 


.8 


90 


5 


90 


. 5 


91 


,8 


State 


86 


.7 


89. 


5 


89 


5 


91. 


3 



* For similar data arranged by counties alphabetically see Table VI, page 336. 

In view of the great differences in the counties in the propor- 
tion of pupils in rural schools which always suffer in attendance 
in comparison with graded schools, it is fairer to compare the 
attendance according to types of schools. In the one-teacher 
schools, Charles County ranked lowest with 82.7 per cent in 
attendance, while Talbot ranked highest with an attendance of 
92 per cent. The one-teacher schools in seven counties — Talbot, 
Wicomico, Howard, Cecil, Baltimore, Prince George's, and 
Kent — exceeded 89.6 per cent in attendance, and the first two 
were over 90 per cent. In the two-teacher schools the level was 
somewhat higher than in the one-teacher schools, but there was 
a range of 10 per cent between the county lowest in attendance, 
Carroll with 85.3 per cent, and the county highest in attendance, 
Talbot, with 95.3 per cent. In four counties — Talbot, Allegany, 
Worcester, and St. Mary's — the two-teacher schools had an at- 
tendance of 92 per cent or more, while if 90 per cent is taken, 
fourteen counties reached that goal. For the graded schools, 
Calvert ranked lowest with 87.8 per cent, an improvement of 6 
per cent over the attendance of 1929. Allegany at the top had 
94.3 per cent in attendance. The graded schools in eight coun- 
ties — Allegany, Garrett, Wicomico, Prince George's, Kent, Mont- 
gomery, Frederick, and Washington — exceeded 92 per cent, and 
in eighteen counties equalled or made more than 90 per cent in 
attendance. (See Table 13.) 

Certainly pupils have greater opportunities to succeed in their 
school work if their attendance is regular, and the teachers and 
school officials are to be congratulated on the great improvement 
in attendance evident in every county. 



Per Cent of Attendance by Types of Schools and Months 21 



TABLE 13 

Per Cent of Attendance for School Years Ending in June 1924, 1929 and 1930 
In Types of White Elementary Schools 



One-Teacher Schools Two-Teacher Schools Graded Schools 



County 


1924 1929 tl930 


County 


1924 1929 tl930 


County 


1924 1929 tl930 


County Aver. . 


.80. 


9 


85. 


.7 


88. 


4 


County Aver. . 


.83 


.9 


87, 


.5 


90. 1 


County Aver. . 


.88. 


3" 


'89. 


8*91 .8 


Talbot 


87, 


,2 


90 


,7 


92. 





Talbot 


86 


.7 


89, 


,4 


95.3 




92, 


,4^ 


^91. 


,6*94.3 


Wicomico. . . . 


83, 


9 


88. 


6 


90. 


8 


Allegany 


.88. 


9 


91 . 





93.8 


Garrett 


89. 


9 


90. 


3 92.7 




82, 


5 


87, 


6 


89. 


9 


Worcester 


82 


. 6 


89 


, 1 


92.1 




89, 


,3 


90 


. 1 92 . 7 


Cecil 


81, 


7 


84 




89 


8 


St. Mary's. . . , 


81 


4 


89 


,3 


92.0 


Prince George's. 89.0 91 


.6 92.5 


TiflltiTTiore . . . . 


82 


.3 


87' 


2 


89' 


,8 


Cecil 


86 


^5 


89. 
88, 


. 5 


9l!9 


Kent 


88 


3 


89 


.9 92.2 


Prince George's. 83 . 


3 


87, 


3 


89. 


8 


Anne Arundel. 


.81 


,9 


5 


91.8 


Montgomery. . 


.86.3*89 


.3*92.2 


Kent 


84, 


,8 


88, 


,4 


89. 


,7 


Prince George's 85 . 


8 


89. 


4 


91.7 




86, 


,4 


90, 


,6 92.2 


Montgomery. . 


,.78 


.1 


84 


,9 


89. 


3 


Caroline 


87 


.9 


90 


,5 


91.6 


Washington . . . 


.88, 


,8 


89 


.9 92.2 


St. Mary's 


79, 


,3 


84, 


,4 


89. 


1 


Queen Anne's . 


.86 


.5 


90, 


.0 


91.4 








83, 


.2 91.9 


Garrett 


81. 


,2 


84, 


5 


89. 







86 


.3 


91, 


,4 


91.3 


Talbot 


88, 


,5 


89 


.0 91.8 




.82, 


,7 


84 


, 5 


88. 


6 




81 


.9 


89 


.8 


91.2 




85 


.8 


90 


.9 91.4 




88 


,3 


88 


.3 


88. 


.6 


Garrett 


87 


.7 


87 


.4 


90.8 




89 


.5 


89 


.8 91.3 


Frederick 


79, 


.6 


84 


.8 


88. 


,5 


Calvert 


81 


.7 


86 


.5 


90.2 


Anne Arundel . 


.87 


.9 


89 


.8 91.1 


Dorchester. . . 


.81, 


,3 


85 


.4 


88. 


,1 


Kent 


85 


.8 


86 


,0 


90.0 


Baltimore .... 


86 


.2 


89 


.2 91.0 


Somerset 


81 


.7 


87, 


,6 


87. 


.8 


Montgomery. . 


,.80 


.5 


86 


.2 


89.9 




89 


.9 


90 


.3 90.9 


Allegany 


82 


.9 


84 


.9 


87 


,8 


Frederick 


80 


.3 


86 


. 5 


89.7 


Cecil 


87 


.3 


87 


.1 90.7 


Calvert 


77 


.2 


85 


.3 


87, 


.7 




83 


.3 


87 


. 5 


89.5 




88 


.9 


89 


.6 90.5 


Anne Arundel, 


..77 


.6 


90 


.3 


87, 


.1 


Dorchester. . . 


.86 


.7 


86 


.8 


89.2 


Carroll 


84 


.3 


87 


.5 90.0 


Queen Anne's . 


.82 


.9 


86 


.2 


86 


.9 




82 


.5 


86 


.4 


89.0 


Worcester. . . . 


.89 


.3 


88 


.9 89.9 


Washington . . , 


..80 


.1 


85 


.1 


86 


.6 


Harford 


85 


.6 


87 


.3 


88.8 


Queen Anne's. 


.88 


.3 


87 


.3 89.6 


Carroll 


78 


.2 


85 


.4 


86 


.4 


Washington . . 


..80 


.6 


85 


.4 


87.5 




86 


.7 


88 


.5 89.1 




77 


.0 


84 


.8 


84 


.6 




84 


.3 


84 


.0 


87.1 




88 


.4 


84 


.8 88.6 




77 


.3 


81 


.4 


82 


.7 


Carroll 


81 


.4 


84 


.0 


85.3 


Calvert 






81 


.9 87.8 



* Includes Junior High School, Grades 7-8. 

t For similar data by counties arranged alphabetically see Table YI, page 336 

Monthly Attendance 

The enrollment in the one-teacher and graded schools reached 
its maximum in November, the month when the 100 day pupils 
are required to enter school. Thereafter, the number declined 
each month until June, when four counties, Worcester, Wico- 
mico, Somerset, and Washington, did not have their schools open. 
In the two-teacher schools the maximum enrollment was found 
in December. In the high schools the enrollment is invariably 
highest in October. In 1930, due to school consolidation, the 
average number belonging was lower by '2,000 in one-teacher 
schools, and by 300 in two-teacher schools than for the preceding 
year. The graded schools not only took care of these rural 
school pupils but had additional gains, the increase being over 
3,400. For all types of schools the per cent of attendance was 
highest the first and last months of school and lowest in Janu- 
ary. This would tend to indicate that attendance is best for the 
group who enter school early and stay through to the end, and 
that it is poorer for the group which enters late in order to 
comply with the 100 day provision in the law. Sickness, how- 



22 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 14 



Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1930 



iVlUiN 1 rl 


One- 
Teacher 


Two- 
Teacher 


Graded 


All Ele- 
mentary 


High 




Average Number Belonging 




15,978 


12,496 


71,420 


99,894 


23,693 


October 


16,813 


13,047 


73,380 


103,240 


24,004 


November 


17,050 


13,279 


73,803 


104,132 


23,871 


December 


16,965 


13,369 


73,775 


104,109 


23,637 


January 


16,863 


13,320 


73,734 


103,917 


23,346 


February 


16,728 


13,348 


73,565 


103,641 


23,192 


March 


16,543 


13,206 


73,213 


102,962 


22,904 




16,237 


13,119 


72,758 


102,114 


22,555 


Mav 


15,949 


13,011 


72,134 


101,094 


22,267 




12,496 


11,118 


58,676 


82,289 


17,939 


Average for Year 


16,341 


13,247 


73,099 


102,687 


23,186 




Per Cent of Attendance 




92.3 


94.0 


95.9 


95.1 


96.3 


October 


88.5 


90.6 


92.5 


91.7 


94.8 


November 


89.9 


91.2 


92.4 


91.9 


94.5 




86.8 


87.5 


89.3 


88.6 


92.2 




84.7 


86.8 


88.7 


87.8 


93.7 


February 


88.0 


89.4 


90.9 


90.3 


94.4 


March 


87.9 


89.6 


90.9 


90.3 


94.1 




88.6 


89.7 


91.5 


90.8 


93.8 


May 


88.4 


90.4 


92.4 


91.5 


94.3 


June 


92.8 


93.4 


95.0 


94.5 


96.8 


Average for Year 


88.4 


90.1 


91.8 


91.0 


94.4 



ever, is also more prevalent in the winter than in the warmer 
weather at the beginning and at the end of the school year. (See 
Table 14.) 



Fewer Pupils Present Under 100 and 140 Days 

The number of white elementary pupils present less than 100 
days has declined for all types of schools. Pupils who have 
moved, been transferred, or who have died are excluded from 
these figures. Whereas 15 per cent of the pupils in 1924 attended 
fewer than 100 days, this was the case for but 6.6 per cent of 
the white elementary pupils enrolled in 1930. (See Table 15.) 



Attendance by Months and Under 100 and 140 Days 



23 



TABLE 15 



County White Elementary Pupils Present Under 100 and 140 Days, for School Years 
Ending in June from 1924 to 1930 





PRESENT UNDER 100 DAYS 


PRESENT UNDER 140 DAYS 


YEAR 


One- 
Teacher 


Two- 
Teacher 


Graded 


All Ele- 
mentary 


One- 
Teacher 


Two- 
Teacher 


Graded 


All Ele- 
mentary 



NUMBER 



1924 


6,537 


2,655 


5,918 


15,110 


12,684 


5,704 


12,525 


30,913 


1925 


5,179 


2.180 


4,984 


12,343 


10,502 


4,776 


11,219 


26,497 


1926 


4,370 


1,861 


5,302 


11,533 


9,359 


4,196 


11,772 


25,327 


1927 


3,701 


1,572 


5,109 


10,382 


7,749 


3,579 


11,185 


22.513 


1928 


2,805 


1,176 


4,498 


8,479 


5,989 


2,656 


10,067 


18,712 


1929 


2,512 


1,337 


4,843 


8,692 


5,539 


3,121 


11,325 


19.985 


1930 


1,566 


996 


4,326 


6,888 


3,883 


2,329 


9,659 


15.871 



PER CENT 



1924 


23.4 


15.6 


10 


7 


15.0 


45 


4 


33 


5 


22.5 


30 


7 


1925 


19.6 


13.2 


8 


5 


12.2 


39 


7 


29 





19.2 


26 


1 


1926 


17.8 


11.9 


8 


6 


11.3 


38 


1 


! 26 


9 


19.1 


24 


9 


1927 


16.1 


10.9 


7 


8 


10.1 


33 


7 


24 


8 


17.1 


21 


9 


1928 


13.3 


8.7 


6 


6 


8.2 


28 


3 


19 


7 


14.7 


18 


2 


1929 


13.3 


9.6 


6 


8 


8.4 


29 


4 


22 


5 


16.0 


19 


3 


1930 


9.3 


7.4 


5 


8 


6.6 


23 


2 


17 


2 


13.1 


15 


2 



The one-teacher schools still have the highest percentage of 
pupils who attend for fewer than 100 days, 9.3 per cent, the 
two-teacher schools, 7.4 per cent, and the graded schools, 5.8 
per cent. 

A similar decline is evident for pupils present fewer than 140 
days, the number and percentage in 1930 being just one-half of 
the corresponding figures for 1924. In 1930 there were 15,871 
white elementary pupils, 15.2 per cent of the total enrollment, 
who lost at least two months of school. For one-teacher schools 
the percentage was 23, for two-teacher schools 17, and for graded 
schools 13 per cent. (See Table 15.) 

If the proposed legislation eliminating the provisions in the 
law with respect to 100 days of attendance are adopted there 
should be an even more marked decrease in the figures showing 
the number of pupils who attend for only a limited portion of 
the school session after the change in the law has taken effect. 

Among the counties there is considerable variation in the per 
cent of pupils who attend school for only a limited portion of 
the year. Garrett, Frederick, Prince George's, and Kent Coun- 
ties had 4 per cent or less who attended fewer than 100 days. 
On the other hand, over 8.5 per cent of the pupils of Calvert, 
Wicomico, Washington, Montgomery, and Caroline attended for 
so short a period. (See Table 16.) 



24 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 16 

Per Cent of White Elementary School Pupils Attending Under 100 and 140 Days for 
School Year Ending July 31, 1930 



PER CENT OF PUPILS ATTENDING 





One-Teacher 
Schools 


Two-Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All Elementary 
Schools 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Total Number. 


1,566 


3,883 


996 


2,329 


4,326 


9,659 


6,8{ 




15,871 


County Aver. . 


9 


3 


23 


2 


7 


4 


17 


2 


5 


8 


13 


1 


c 
O 


6 


15.2 


Allegany 
Prince George's 


10 


9 


24 


3 


3 


6 


7 


6 


4 


9 


8 


8 


5 


1 


9.6 


3 


6 


14 


5 


4 


4 


10 


4 


3 


8 


10 


6 


3 


8 


10.9 




6 


1 


14 


6 


7 





14 


2 


5 


8 


11 


8 


6 





12.2 


Kent 


4 


8 


13 


8 


4 


7 


13 


4 


3 


3 


12 


7 


4 


1 


13.2 


Frederick 


5 


8 


19 


4 


4 





16 


5 


3 


2 


11 


2 


3 


8 


13.2 


Queen Anne's.. 


13 


4 


23 


4 


6 


6 


13 





6 


4 


12 


1 


8 


1 


14.9 


Anne Arundel . 


15 


7 


31 


3 


6 





12 


7 


7 


3 


15 


2 


7 


3 


15.3 


Howard 


9 





19 


1 


7 


8 


16 


6 


7 


8 


12 


7 


8 


2 


15.3 




2 


8 


19 


9 


2 


7 


15 


2 


2 


2 


8 


3 


2 


6 


15.3 


Harford 


8 


1 


20 


1 


8 


1 


17 


6 


5 


2 


12 


8 


6 


5 


15.5 


Cecil 


12 


5 


21 


8 


7 


9 


13 


8 


5 


9 


13 


9 


8 


2 


16.2 


Montgomery. . 


13 





24 


9 


8 


7 


22 


3 


8 





14 


6 


8 


6 


17.0 


Talbot 


8 


9 


26 


3 


3 


9 


9 


8 


5 


8 


15 


5 


6 


3 


17.3 


Wicomico 


8 


7 


19 


3 


7 


4 


14 


4 


10 


3 


17 


7 


9 


6 


17.9 


Washington. . . 


18 


5 


34 





14 


7 


27 


2 


6 





13 


5 


8 


8 


18.0 


Caroline 


10 


3 


19 


8 


8 


1 


18 


6 


8 


4 


17 


9 


8 


6 


18.2 


Dorchester .... 


11 


6 


26 


1 


6 


5 


19 


4 


7 


3 


17 





8 


2 


19.3 


St. Mary's .... 


8 


9 


25 


5 


7 


9 


17 





9 


4 


17 





8 


5 


20.0 


Carroll 


10 


3 


26 


4 


10 


9 


27 


4 


5 


8 


16 


5 


7 


7 


20.6 




12 





33 


3 


6 


2 


21 


8 


6 


5 


17 





7 


8 


21.5 


Calvert 


9 


8 


11 


2 


12 


9 


25 


9 


4 


6 


17 


9 


9 


7 


21.9 


Somerset 


7 


8 


25 


8 


6 


7 


22 





7 


8 


21 


1 


7 


7 


22.1 


Charles 


12 


2 


37 


3 


8 


5 


19 


7 


6 


9 


20 


3 


8 


4 


24.2 



For pupils who attended fewer than 140 days, Allegany, Prince 
George's, Baltimore, Kent, and Frederick had fewer than 13.3 
per cent while this was the case for at least 20 per cent of the 
pupils in St. Mary's, Carroll, Worcester, Calvert, Somerset, and 
Charles Counties. The most remarkable improvement between 
1929 and 1930 in pupils attending under 140 days appears in 
Garrett, Charles, St. Mary's, Montgomery, and Somerset Coun- 
ties. (See Table 16.) 



FEWER LATE ENTRANTS TO SCHOOL 

A major reason pupils were in school more days was the fact 
that fewer pupils entered school after the first month. Whereas 
in 1924 there were 11,792 late entrants, representing over 10 
per cent of the white elementary enrollment, this was the case 
for but 4,240 or 3.6 per cent of the pupils in 1930. Every deter- 
rent to entry on time — employment, negligence and indifference, 



Attendance Under 100 and 140 Days; Late Entrance 25 



TABLE 17 

Causes of Late Entrance in White Elementary Schools for School Years Ending in 

June, 1924-1930 





ENTERING AFTER 
FIRST MONTH EX- 
CLUSIVE OF TRANS- 
FERS 


PER CENT OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS 
ENTERING SCHOOL AFTER THE FIRST 
MONTH BECAUSE OF 


YEAR 


Number 


Per Cent 


13 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence or 

Indif- 
ference 


Just 
Moving 
to Place 


Under 
13 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


Illness 
or 

Quaran- 
tine 


Under 
School 
Age and 
Other 
Causes 



White Elementary Schools 



1924... . 


11,792 


10.4 


3.5 


2.5 


1.8 


1.4 


1.0 


.2 


1925. . . . 


9,297 


8.2 


2.8 


2.1 


1.6 


.8 


.7 


.2 


1926. . . . 


8,646 


7.6 


2.7 


1.6 


1.3 


.8 


.7 


.5 


1927. . . . 


7,330 


6.4 


2.2 


1.4 


1.1 


.5 


.7 


.5 


1928. . . . 


5,534 


4.8 


1.7 


1.1 


.8 


.4 


.5 


.3 


1929. . . . 


6,227 


5.4 


1.6 


1.0 


1.0 


.4 


.7 


.7 


1930. . . . 


4,240 


3.6 


1.2 


.9 


.6 


.2 


.5 


.2 



One-Teacher Schools 



1924. . . . 


5,644 


17.5 


7.4 


3.5 


1.9 


3.0 


1.4 


.3 


1925... . 


4,349 


14.3 


6.1 


3.1 


1.9 


2.0 


.9 


.3 


1926. . . . 


3,854 


13.7 


6.2 


2.5 


1.5 


1.9 


.9 


.7 


1927. . . . 


3,058 


11.6 


5.0 


2.3 


1.2 


1.3 


.9 


.9 


1928. . . . 


2,178 


8.9 


4.2 


1.7 


.9 


.9 


.6 


.6 


1929... . 


2,160 


9.9 


4.3 


1.5 


1.1 


.8 


.9 


1.3 


1930. . . . 


1,334 


6.9 


3.2 


1.4 


.7 


.6 


.7 


.3 



Two-Teacher Schools 



1924. . . . 


2,183 


11.5 


3.9 


2.6 




1 


.8 


1.6 


1.1 


.5 


1925. . . . 


1,725 


9.4 


3.2 


2.6 




1 


.7 


.8 


.8 


.3 


1926... . 


1,494 


8.6 


3.5 


1.6 




1 


.2 


.9 


.6 


.8 


1927... . 


1,228 


7.6 


3.1 


1.6 






.9 


.6 


.7 


.7 


1928. . . . 


896 


6.0 


2.1 


1.6 






.9 


.4 


.5 


.5 


1929. . . . 


926 


6.0 


2.1 


1.1 




1 


.0 


.4 


.7 


.7 


1930. . . . 


710 


4.7 


1.8 


1.1 






.8 


.3 


.4 


.3 


Graded Schools 


1924. . . . 


3,965 


6.4 


1.4 


1.8 




1 


.7 


.5 


.8 


.2 


1925. . . . 


3,223 


5.0 


1.0 


1.6 




1 


4 


.3 


.6 


.1 


1926. . . . 


3,298 


4.8 


1.0 


1.4 




1 


2 


.3 


.6 


.3 


1927... . 


3,044 


4.2 


1.0 


1.0 




1 


1 


.2 


.6 


.3 


1928. . . . 


2,460 


3.2 


.8 


.8 






8 


.2 


.4 


.2 


1929.. . . 


3,141 


4.0 


.8 


.9 






9 


.2 


.6 


.6 


1930. . . . 


2,196 


2.7 


.7 


.7 






5 


.2 


.4 


.2 



26 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



sickness, people just moving in, under-age pupils, and miscel- 
laneous causes — was less operative in 1930 than in any year 
preceding. (See Table 17.) 

When the counties are ranked according to per cent of late 
entrants to v^hite elementary schools, Allegany, Prince George's 
and Baltimore Counties in 1930 had 1 p^r cent or less of the 
enrollment late entrants. At the other extreme, 4 per cent or 
more of the elementary pupils were late entrants in Queen Anne's 
Garrett, Carroll, Calvert, Dorchester, and St. Mary's. Five 
counties — Queen Anne's, Harford, Kent, and Anne Arundel — 
had a larger percentage of late entrants than in the year pre^ 
ceding. The greatest reductions in the percentage of late entrants 
from 1929 to 1930 occurred in St. Mary's, Dorchester, Carroll, 
Worcester, Garrett, and Cecil. (See Table 18.) 

TABLE 18 



Number and Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Entering School 
After the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference, or Neglect, 
for School Year Ending July 31, 1930 



COUNTY 


Number and Per Cent Entering School After 
First Month for Following Reasons: 


Rank in Per Cent Entering 
After First Month for 
Following Reasons: 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


13 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence 
or Indif- 
ference 


Under 
13 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


13 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence 
or Indif- 
ference 


Under 
13 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


County Aver . . . 


2,744 
78 


2.3 


1.2 


.9 


.2 








.6 


.3 


.3 


2 


2 


5 


Prince George's. 


71 


.9 


.2 


.7 




1 


9 


3 


175 


1.0 


.5 


.5 




4 


5 


4 


Montgomery. . . 
Wicomico 


87 
77 


1.3 
1.8 


.5 
1.1 


.7 
.7 


.1 


5 
8 


8 
11 


7 
1 


Anne Arundel . . 
Cecil 


122 

66 


1.9 
1.9 


.4 
.7 


1.4 
1.1 


.1 

.1 


3 
6 


19 
15 


10 

9 


Kent 


38 
65 


2.3 


1.4 


.3 


.6 


12 


1 


17 


Somerset 


2.6 


1.4 


.9 


.3 


11 


12 


13 


Frederick 


218 


2.6 


1.6 


.8 


.2 


16 


10 


12 


Washington .... 
Talbot 


373 

68 


3.1 
■3.3 


1.4 
2.6 


1.4 
. 5 


.3 
.2 


13 
18 


18 
6 


14 
11 




52 


3.4 


1.5 


1.1 


.8 


14 


16 


19 




72 


3.4 


1.0 


2.4 




7 


22 


2 


Harford 


163 


3.4 


1.4 


1.5 


.5 


10 


20 


15 




90 


3.6 


3.1 


.4 


.1 


20 


3 


8 


Worcester 


100 


3.9 


1.6 


1.7 


.6 


15 


21 


18 


Queen Anne's. . . 
Garrett 


75 
195 
264 


4.0 
4.4 


2.5 
3.9 


.5 
.5 


1.0 


17 

23 


7 
4 


21 

6 


Carroll 


4.8 


3.3 


1.0 


.5 


21 


14 


16 


Calvert 


48 


5.2 


1.2 


3.1 


.9 


9 


23 


20 


St. Mary's 


183 
64 


5.4 
5.5 


3.3 
3.0 


1.0 

1.3 


1.1 
1.2 


22 
19 


13 
17 


22 
23 















Late Entrance and Withdrawals 



27 



FEWER WITHDRAWALS FROM SCHOOL 
Withdrawals from white elementary schools for removal, 
transfer, and death, averaging almost 11 per cent, were greater 
than for the year preceding. The one-teacher schools showed the 
highest percentage of withdrawal for these causes, viz., 14 per 
cent. (See Table 19.) 

TABLE 19 

Causes of Withdrawal from County White Elementary Schools, for School Year 

Ending in June, 1930 





Number Leaving 


Per Cent Lea\-ing 


Causes of Withdrawal 




















One- 


Two- 




All Ele- 


One- 


Two- 




All Ele- 




Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


mentary 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


mentary 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Removal, Transfer, 


















Death 


2,716 


1,657 


8,345 


12,718 


14.0 


10.9 


10.1 


10.9 


Total Other Causes . . . 


1,036 


567 


2,502 


4,105 


5.3 


3.7 


3.0 


3.5 


Employment 


654 


293 


1,035 


1,982 


3.4 


1.9 


1.3 


1.7 


Mental and Physical 


















Incapacity 


169 


158 


883 


1,210 


.9 


1.1 


1.1 


1.0 


Under 7 or Over 16. . . 


85 


65 


273 


423 


.4 


.4 


.3 


.4 




81 


32 


189 


302 


.4 


.2 


.2 


.2 


Other Causes 


47 


19 


122 


188 


.2 


.1 


. 1 


.2 



Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, and 
death decreased in number and per cent in all types of schools 
and for all causes, except per cent of mental and physical in- 
capacity in two-teacher schools. Employment, responsible for 
one-half of the withdrawals for "other causes", still continues 
to be given as the chief reason for leaving school. Mental and 
physical incapacity explain the withdrawal of 1 per cent of the 
pupils. (See Table 19.) 

In individual counties withdrawals for removal, transfer, and 
death affected less than 10 per cent of the white elementary 
pupils in Somerset, Charles, Calvert, Worcester, St. Mary's, 
Frederick, and Anne Arundel Counties. Counties showing at 
least 12 per cent of the white elementary pupils withdrawing for 
removal, transfer, and death are Harford, Wicomico, Prince 
George's, Cecil, Howard, and Garrett. (See Table 20.) 

Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, and 
death vary from 1.9 per cent in Baltimore to 6.4 per cent of the 
white elementary pupils in Garrett County. Six counties — 
Baltimore, Anne Arundel, Queen Anne's, Prince George's, Mont- 
gomery, and Carroll — ^have withdrawals for ''other causes" for 
less than 3 per cent of the white elementary pupils, while there 
are six — Garrett, Dorchester, St. Mary's, Somerset, Calvert, and 
Worcester — which have withdrawals for similar causes for 5 or 
more per cent of the pupils. (See Table 20.) 



28 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE 20 



Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County White Elementary Schools for Year 

Ending June 30, 1930 





Withdrawals 
for 
Removal, 
Transfer or 


withdrawals for FOLLOWING CAUSES 








PER CENT WITHDRAWING FOR 


COUNTY 


Death 




Total 


Total 






Me 


ntal 


Over or 














Num- 


Per 


Em- 


and 


Under 














ber 


Cent 


ploy- 


Phy 


sical 


Compul- 


Pov- 


Other 
















ment 


Inca- 


sory At- 


erty 


Causes 




No. 


Per 












pacity 


tendance 








Cent 
















Age 






Total and Average 


12,718 


10 


9 


4 105 


3 


5 


1 


7 


1 





.4 


.2 


.2 




1,771 


10 


2 


339 


1 


9 




7 




7 


.3 


.1 


.1 




608 


9 


3 


163 


2 


5 


1 


1 




8 


.3 


.2 


.1 




216 


11 


7 


48 


2 


6 


1 


4 


1 







.1 


.1 


Prince George's . . . 


1,074 


13 


2 


212 


2 


6 


7 


1 


1 


.5 


.3 




727 


10 


7 


190 


2 


8 




9 


1 


4 


.3 


.1 


.1 




565 


10 


2 


158 


2 


9 


1 


2 




8 


.5 


.1 


.3 


Kent 


168 


10 





50 


3 





1 


1 


1 


4 


.2 


.1 


.2 


Cecil 


455 


12 


9 


108 


3 


1 




9 


1 


5 


.3 


.3 


.1 


Charles 


111 


7 


2 


50 


3 


2 


1 


5 




7 


.2 


.8 






1,369 


10 


7 


429 


3 


3 


1 


8 




9 


.2 


.2 


.2 


Talbot 


230 


11 


1 


72 


3 


5 


1 


7 




8 


.3 


.5 


.2 




724 


15 


2 


170 


3 


6 


2 


1 




8 


.4 


.1 


.2 




265 


12 


5 


78 


3 


7 


1 


4 


1 





.6 


.3 


.4 




603 


14 


3 


174 


4 


1 


1 


5 


1 


5 


.3 


.6 


.2 




776 


9 


2 


351 


4 


2 


2 


1 


1 


5 


.2 


.3 


.1 




267 


10 


6 


107 


4 


2 


2 


5 


1 


1 


.4 


.1 


.1 




1,326 


11 





548 


4 


5 


2 


4 


1 





.5 


.5 


.1 




225 


8 


8 


129 


5 





2 


7 


1 


2 


.2 


.8 


.1 


Calvert 


75 


8 


2 


47 


5 


1 


2 


2 


1 


3 


.2 


1.0 


.4 




153 


6 


1 


139 


5 


5 


3 


2 


1 


3 


.5 


.2 


.3 


St. Mary's 


109 


9 


3 


66 


5 


6 


3 


3 


1 


7 


.2 


.3 


.1 




374 


11 





195 


5 


7 


3 


4 


1 


1 


.6 


.5 


.1 


Garrett 


527 


12 





282 


6 


4 


4 


1 


1 





.9 


.3 


1 



Less than 1 per cent of the pupils in Baltimore, Prince 
George's, Montgomery, and Cecil leave school to go to work in 
contrast with over 3 per cent in Somerset, St. Mary's, Dorchester, 
and Garrett. 

Mental or physical incapacity is an excuse for withdrawal for 
less than one per cent of the white elementary pupils in Balti- 
more, Charles, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Talbot, Harford, and Al- 
legany Counties. In Cecil, Wicomico, Frederick, and St. Mary's 
from 1.5 to 1.7 per cent of the pupils withdrew for these reasons. 
Poverty was given as the reason for withdrawing from .8 to 1 
per cent of the pupils in Calvert, Worcester, and Charles. A 
county welfare program with the services of a trained social 
worker would undoubtedly make it possible for some children to 
stay in school who now withdraw because of physical or mental 
incapacity and poverty. (See Table 20.) 

CAUSES OF LONG ABSENCE 
The number of white elementary pupils absent 40 days or more 
decreased from 12,896 in 1929 to 9,109 in 1930. The latter num- 



Withdrawals; Causes of Long Absenxe 



29 



ber represented 8.4 per cent of the total enrollment. In the one- 
teacher schools, 12.3 per cent of the pupils lost at least 40 days, 
in the two-teacher schools 10.2 per cent, and in the graded schools 
7.1 per cent. (See Table 21.) 

TABLE 21 



Per Cent of Pupils Absent 40 Days or More, With Cause of Absence for School Year 

Ending June 30, 1930 











All White Ele- 




One- 


Two- 




mentar}' 


Schools 


Cause of Absence 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 








Schools 


Schools 


Schools 














1930 


1929 


Death, Sickness, Physical and 












Mental Defects 


5.3 


4.4 


3.8 


4.1 


6.1 


Poverty, Indifference, Xeglect .... 


4.4 


4.2 


2.8 


3.3 


4.4 


Illegally Employed 


1.0 


.8 


.2 


.4 


.7 




.9 


.5 


.1 


.3 


. 5 


Other Causes 


.7 


.3 


2 


.3 


.3 


Total 


12.3 


10.2 


7.1 


8.4 


12.0 


Number Absent 40 Days or More . . 


2,186 


1,432 


5,491 


9.109 


12.896 



Sickness continues the chief cause of long absence, being the 
explanation for 4.1 per cent of the pupils. Poverty, indifference, 
and neglect accounted for 3.3 per cent of the pupils who lost 40 
days or more. Illegal employment, bad weather, and roads and 
other causes accounted for 1 per cent more of the total white 
elementary school enrollment which lost two months or more of 
schooling. (See Table 21.) 

Illness as a Cause of Absence 

Because of their interest in the effect of sickness on absence 
from school and as a check on reporting of contagious diseases, 
Mr. E. M. Noble, Superintendent of Schools in Caroline County, 
at the request of Dr. E. A. Jones, Deputy State Health Officer 
for Caroline and Dorchester Counties, made a comparison for 
each elementary grade of the number of white children ill from 
certain contagious diseases and the days lost from school with 
the total grade enrollment for the school year of 186 days in 
1929-30. 

The figures indicate that pupils in the white elementary schools 
lost 3 per cent of the possible days of schooling because of 
whooping cough, measles, colds and sore throat, chicken pox, itch 
and pink eye. The loss was greatest for the first grade, 6 per 
cent, and decreased in each succeeding grade so that it was less 
than 1 per cent in Grade 7. (See next to last column in 
Table 22.) 



30 1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 22 



Total Enrollment, Number of Pupils 111, and Number and Per Cent of Days Lost in 
Caroline County White Elementary Schools from Certain Contagious 
Diseases, for School Year Ending June 30, 1930 





llinont, 


Whooping 
Cough 


Measles 


Colds and 
Sore Throat 


Chicken 
Pox 


Itch and 
Pink Eye 


Days Lost for 
These Causes 


Grade 


o 

H 
Is 
o 
H 


*a 

3 


O 

ta 
>. 
ee 

Q 


in 

'H. 


to 
o 

ca 
>i 
c3 

Q 


'a 

Ph 


to 
o 

to 

>i 
Q 


(O 

'ft 

^3 


to 
O 

k:i 

to 

>> 

c3 

Q 


JS 
'a 

3 
Pi 


to 
O 

>> 
Q 


"o 
H 


c 

o 

o 


oj'ft 

> 4) 


Total 


2,251 


225 


4,417 


306 


1,117 


775 


5,555 


214 


1,134 


175 


776 


12,999 


3.1 


5.8 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 


361 
331 
303 
361 
291 
294 
310 


96 
56 
34 
19 

8 
10 

2 


1,896 
1,194 
778 
299 
72 
145 
33 


64 
59 
51 
37 
45 
34 
16 


281 
199 
160 
144 
157 
130 
46 


182 
145 

76 
102 
101 
102 

67 


1,294 
1,128 
750 
809 
642 
540 
392 


88 
62 
23 
22 

5 
13 

1 


379 
427 
142 
132 
20 
29 
5 


53 
30 
17 
49 
15 
6 
5 


197 
158 
111 
167 
58 
64 
21 


4,047 
3,106 
1,941 
1,551 
949 
908 
497 


6.0 
5.0 
3.4 
2.3 
1.8 
1.7 
.9 


11.2 
9.4 
6.4 
4.3 
3.3 
3.1 
1.6 



The average number of days lost per white elementary pupil 
for these particular diseases was nearly 6, but by grades the 
number of days ranged from over 11 in grade 1 to less than 2 
days in grade 7. (See Table 22.) 

When the days reported lost for each of the above diseases are 
divided by the aggregate days of absence reported for the white 
elementary schools of Caroline County, the effect of these dis- 
eases on absence from school is very evident. Over one-third of 
the absence, 34.5 per cent, is due to the diseases listed above. 
Colds and sore throat account for nearly 15 per cent of the ab- 
sence, whooping cough for nearly 12 per cent, measles and 
chicken pox each accounts for 3 per cent, pink eye and itch for 
just over 2 per cent. Colds and sore throat and whooping cough 
accounted for over one-fourth of the absence in the county white 
elementary schools. (See Table 23.) 

The average number of days lost for each of the diseases 
showed considerable variation. Whooping cough meant the loss 
of a month of school, itch of nearly 12 days, colds and sore throat 
of 7 days schooling, chicken pox of slightly more than a week, 
and measles and pink eye each of nearly a week of school. (See 
Table 23.) 

The health department is interested in the fact that while 225 
pupils were reported as absent from school because of whoopmg 
cough, only 35 cases were reported for the county, and while 306 
and 214 pupils were reported absent from school because of 
measles and chicken pox, respectively, only 18 and 28 cases, re- 



Caroline's Study of Relation of Illness to Absence 



31 



TABLE 23 



Absence Due to Certain Contagious Diseases in the Caroline County White 
Elementary Schools, for Year Ending June 30, 1930 





Per Cent of 


Average 


Cause of Absence 


All Absence 


Days Lost 




Due to 


Because of 


Colds and Sore Throat 


14.7 


7.2 


Whooping Cough 


11.7 


19.6 


Measles 


3.0 


3.7 


Chicken Pox 


3.0 


5.3 
3.7 
11.6 

7 . ( 


Pink Eve 


1.6 


Itch 


.5 


Total for above causes 


34.5 



spectively, were reported for the county. Of course some of 
these children were absent because they were quarantined as 
a result of illness for other members of the family. 

The Teacher as a Factor in Preventing Absence 

John L. Fitzwater, attendance officer in Garrett County, made 
a study of long absences which was taken up with the teachers 
of the county. His material was presented somewhat along the 
following lines : 

The following three factors in securing good school attendance 
are still unsolved : 

1. A better control of communicable diseases. 

2. Removal of certain social conditions which react unfavor- 
ably on school attendance. 

3. A deeper consciousness on the part of some teachers of 
the part they should play in keeping- pupils in school. 

During the school year of 1928-29 66 per cent of all absences 
of at least 40 days from Garrett County elementary and high 
schools were due to sickness, physical and mental defects. The 
corresponding percentage for 1929-30 was 61. 

In a recent study of the principals' annual reports it was found 
that in some schools a large number of pupils were absent on 
account of illness, while in other schools in the same district 
there were very few absences on this account. 

A survey was made for 40 schools of the heating, the ventila- 
tion, and the attitude toward wearing out-of-door clothing in 
school. Twenty of these schools had no pupils absent in 1929-30 
for 40 or more days on account of illness, while the remaining 
twenty schools had cases of long absence because of illness. 

It will be noted that there were fewer unfavorable conditions 
in the schools which had no long absences for illness than in those 
which had long absences for illness. (See first and second col- 
umns, respectively, in Table 24.) 



32 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 24 



Per Cent of 20 Schools 
Which Which 
Had No Had Long- 



Long- Absences Absences 



Unfavorable Conditions E 

Overheated Classrooms _ _ 

Little or No Ventilation 

Pupils Wearing- Overshoes, Coats and 



Because of Illness Because of Illness 
20 50 
35 85 



Sweaters Inside Schoolhouse. 



40 



70 



Teachers were advised to help solve the problem of control of 
communicable diseases by adopting the following suggestions : 

1. Co-operate with the County Health Officer and Public Health 
Nurse at all times. 

2. Learn to know symptoms of diseases and exclude a child from 
school upon the first si^ of any contagious disease. 

3. Notify the Public Health Officer if necessary or the Public 
Health Nurse. 

4. Teach pupils the value of health and health habits and insist 
that they practice them in their homes as well as in the school. 

5. Bring to the attention of parents the advantages of having 
defects of children's eyes, teeth, tonsils, ears, etc., corrected. 

6. Secure the co-operation of the parents as well as the children 
toward the prevention of the spread of diseases. 

7. Show interest by visiting the home of the child when reported ill. 

8. Discover whether non-attendance of pupils may be due largely 
to the following causes: 

a. Failure to interest pupils. 

b. Improper attitude toward community, i. e. failure to be 
of lielp to the community, but expecting the community to 
be a servant to you. 

c. Lack of interest in your school work, evidenced by neglect 
to make absences less frequent. 

d. Lack of conviction of responsibility for promoting at- 
tendance. 

9. When a supervising or helping- teacher or any other interested 
and responsible person steps into your school room, ask ques- 
tions such as the following: 

a. Does this room seem well ventilated to you? Does the 
air appear pure, clean, and sweet? 



b. Does the temperature seem too hot, too cold, or about 
right ? 

c. Do any of the children appear to you to have on any un- 
necessary clothing such as hats, heavy coats, overshoes, 
etc.? 



Joseph P. Franklin, M. D., Deputy State Health Officer, Alle- 
gany County, Maryland, says: 



"Unquestionably poorly ventilated and overheated classrooms tend to- 
wards dullness, sleepiness, and inattentiveness on the part of school children. 
The impure atmosphere brought about by such conditions lower the general 
resistance of the individuals concerned, thereby rendering them more sus- 
ceptible to common colds, sore throats and other contagious diseases. This 
in turn affects the attendance of the school due to absenteeism on account 
of illness." 



Garrett's Study of Relation of Teacher to Attendance 33 

According to Dr. Herman J. Norton, Director of Health Edu- 
cation. Public Schools, Rochester, N. Y., 40 per cent of all ab- 
sence from school is due to common colds. The causes are over- 
heated classrooms, poorly ventilated rooms, improper food, 
dothing, and shoes, lack of overshoes in wet weather. 

Prevent rather than cure, by eliminating the above causes. 
Build up health habits through environment, teaching, equipment. 
And at all times breathe fresh air. Do not despise it because 
it is cheap and plentiful; bathe your body in it; absorb it into 
your blood, and it will bless you with the benediction of health. 

The following records of Garrett County schools show the in- 
fluence a teacher has in securing and maintaining good attend- 
ance. The teacher in School A for the last four years never had 
a percentage of attendance for the year above 87.8, while the 
percentage of attendance the preceding three years was consider- 
ably higher. In School B just the reverse was true, the teacher 
at work for the last four years improved the attendance in her 
school considerably above that found in the three preceding years. 

TABLE 25 
Per Cent of Attendance 



Year School A School B 

1923- 24....„ 95 87.1 

1924- 25 90 90.1 

1925- 26 89 89.1 

* * 

1926- 27 87.8 95.6 

1927- 28 84.4 93.2 

1928- 29 85.4 94.6 

1929- 30 - 87.2 94.2 



tTeacher's Relation to Non-Attendance and Its Elimination 

"The teacher is not merely an instrument for instructing- children; 
she is the artist who creates idealistic youth. She looks beyond subject 
matter and sees lives that must be enriched and ennobled. No longer is 
she content to present her material skilfully and well regardless of 
whether or not the pupils attend. Her attention is centered upon the 
child. 

"A poor attendance record is therefore of concern regardless of 
whether or not the absence was legal, for it represents laxity at some 
spot in the school organization. Poor teaching or poor adjustment of 
the pupil to his work may cause such a distaste for schooling that 
pupils will be absent upon the least pretext. Health education may 
be so neglected that the community has more sickness than it need 
have. The relation between the home and the school may be so poor 
that regular attendance is discouraged. 

"If the teacher enjoys teaching, likes children, and makes a study 
of the problem cases, probably no individual in the school system has 
a better opportunity to discover real causes of non-attendance and to 
assist in removing those causes, and, if the teacher is to perform these 
duties understandingly she, as well as the administrator, must know 



* Change in teacher. 

t Excerpt from "Administration of Pupil Personnel," by Arch O. Heck. 



34 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



how large this problem is, what the causes of non-attendance are, and 
what specific steps can be taken to remove these causes. She will 
know, also, how the tasks required of her aid in curing non-attendance. 
Once having seen the extent of the problem, she will find innumerable 
ways of bettering conditions so that the attendance will naturally 
improve." 

EFFICIENCY IN GETTING AND KEEPING CHILDREN IN SCHOOL 
In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance 
thus far presented, viz., per cent of attendance, late entrance 
and withdrawals, the 23 counties have been ranked in accordance 
' with an average of their ranking in these three items for white 
elementary schools. That county is considered highest which 
has the highest percentage of attendance accompanying a low 
percentage of late entrance and withdrawals. A county which 

TABLE 26 

An Index of School Attendance in County White Elementary Schools for School Year 

Ending June 30, 1930 



COUNTY 


PER CENT OF 


RANK IN PER CENT OF 
















Attend- 


Late* 


fWith- 


Attend- 


Late* 


tWith- 




ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


Countv Average 


91.0 


2.3 


3.5 








Prince George's 


92.2 


.9 


2.6 


2 


2 


4 




93.8 


.6 


3.3 


1 


1 


10 


Montgomerv 


91.5 


1.3 


2.8 


5 


4 


5 


Anne Arundel 


91.0 


1.9 


2.5 


7 


6 


2 


Baltimore 


90.7 


1.0 


1.9 


13 


3 


1 




92.1 


1.8 


4.1 


3 


5 


14 


Kent 


91.0 


2.3 


3.0 


9 


8 


7 


Talbot 


91.9 


3.3 


3.5 


4 


12 


11 


Cecil 


90.7 


1.9 


3.1 


14 


7 


8 


Frederick 


91.3 


2.6 


4.2 


6 


10 


15 


Howard 


90.9 


3.4 


3.7 


10 


14 


13 


Queen Anne's 


89.4 


4.0 


2.6 


18 


18 


3 


Washington 


90.8 


3.1 


4.5 


11 


11 


17 


Carohne 


90.8 


3.6 


4.2 


12 


16 


16 


Harford 


89.7 


3.4 


3.6 


17 


15 


12 


Charles 


87.0 


3.4 


3.2 


23 


13 


9 


Carroll 


88.4 


4.S 


2.9 


21 


20 


6 




88.9 


2.6 


5.5 


20 


9 


20 


8t. Mars-'s 


91.0 


5.5 


5.6 


8 


23 


21 


Worcester 


88.9 


3.9 


5.0 


19 


17 


18 


Garrett 


90.5 


4 4 


6.4 


15 


19 


23 


Dorchester 


90.3 


5.4 


5.7 


16 


22 


22 


Calvert 


88.4 


5.2 


5.1 


22 


21 


19 



* For eniployrnent, negligence, and indifference. The county having the smallest percentage of late 
entrants is ranked first. 

t For causes other than removal, transfer and death. The county having the smallest percentage 
of withdrawals is ranked first. 



Index of School Attendance; Enrollment by Grades 



35 



lets its children enter school late and withdraw early may keep 
them in steady attendance while they are enrolled, but it is un- 
questionably doing less for its children than a county which pro- 
motes early entrance and discourages withdrawals and still keeps 
a high percentage of attendance. With this method of ranking, 
Prince George's led the counties of the State, and Allegany, Mont- 
gomery, and Baltimore took positions next in order. Calvert 
stood lowest on the list and Dorchester next to the bottom. (See 
Table 26.) 



DISTRIBUTION OF WHITE COUNTY ENROLLMENT BY GRADES 

CHART 1 



Grade 
or Year 

Kgn. 
1 
2 

1 ' 

> 
> 

> 

> 4 

j 

I ^ 

i 6 

7 
8 



g III 

IV 



NUMBER OF BOTS AND GIRLS HIROLLED BY GRADES 
IN MARYLAND COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS 
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1930 



Total 



B07S 



Girls 




14,778 



12,886 



11,973 




''''' n3iD 



* 4,007 



363 



* Includes 5 boys and 20 girls, post-graduates. 



36 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

The pupils enrolled in the county public schools were better 
distributed among the grades than in any preceding year. Ex- 
cept in grades 2, 6, and 8, the white county enrollment in every 
grade is larger in 1930 than it was in 1929. The largest enroll- 
ment (17,777) is found in grade 1. The enrollment in grades 2, 
3, and 4, just below 15,000, is almost stationary. Above grade 
4 there is a loss in each succeeding grade until in the fourth year 
of high school there are just over 4,000 pupils. (See Chart 1.) 

A glance at the black bars which represent the boys in Chart 
1 will show that after grade 1 there is a smaller number of boys 
in each succeeding grade. The number of boys in the fourth 
year of high school is just over a sixth of the enrollment in the 
first grade, and just over a fifth of the enrollment of grades 
2, 3, and 4. 

The white bars representing the girls show the maximum 
enrollment in grade 1. Grade 3 has the next highest enrollment 
of girls and thereafter there are fewer in each succeeding grade. 
The enrollment of girls in the fourth year of high school is just 
one-third of the enrollment in grade 2. 

Boys exceed the girls enrolled in all grades from 1 to 7, in- 
clusive. For grade 7 in the past few years the girls have always 
been in excess of the boys. This is therefore an indication of 
greater persistence for boys in staying through the elementary 
school course. Above grade 7 there are more girls than boys in 
each high school year, the excess for girls in the last three years 
of high school being over 700. (See Chart 1.) 

The distribution of enrollment by grade in each county shows 
that the maximum enrollment is found in the first grade in every 
county except Talbot and Wicomico. Enrollment in grades 2 
and 3 or in either of these grades, in most counties, is lower than 
the number of pupils found in grade 4. (See Table 27.) 

Allegany, Anne Arundel, and Washington Counties, and the 
Montgomery County schools adjacent to Washington, which 
have been organized on the 6-3-3 plan, provide eight grades for 
the completion of work preparatory to the last four years of 
high school work. All of the other counties have a seven grade 
elementary school course. 

The distribution of enrollment by grade and type of school 
showed very little change since 1929. The proportion that each 
grade was of the average enrollment in grades 2 to 4 indicated 
a slightly better distribution in the one-teacher schools than 
formerly. The graded school enrollment, probably because of 
the inclusion of so many children from consolidated one-teacher 
schools, had a slightly greater concentration in the lower grades 
than in 1929. (See Table 28.) 



Enrollment Distributed by Grades 37 



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•38 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE 28 



Number and Per Cent of Pupils Enrolled in Each Grade of Maryland County White 
Elementary Schools (By Types) Year Ending June 30, 1930 



GRADE 


*Xumber in Each Grade 


Per Cent of Average for 
Grades 2-4 in Each Grade 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Average of Grades 2-4. . . 
Kindergarten 


2,498 


1,981 


10,396 

387 
12.087 
10.400 
10.428 
10.359 
9.734 
9,297 
8.803 
2,468 












4 
116 
100 
100 
100 
94 
89 
85 
24 


1 


3.224 
2.446 
2.592 
2.457 
2.301 
1.952 
1.663 
129 


2.466 
2,077 
1,905 
1.962 
1.841 
1.637 
1.507 
141 


129 
98 

104 
98 
92 
78 
67 
5 


124 
105 
96 
99 
93 
83 
76 
7 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


Total 


16,764 


13.536 


73.963 

















* Exclusive of pupils who \s"ithdrew for removal, transfer or death. 



WHITE COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GRADUATES 
EXCEED 10,000 

The 1930 graduates of white elementary schools totalling 
10,140 included 4,857 boys and 5,283 girls, an increase of 212 over 
the preceding year. This means that 9 per cent of the white boys 
and 10.5 per cent of the white girls enrolled in the elementary 
schools graduated. Assuming a stationary enrollment and that 

TABLE 29 

White County Elementary School Graduates 



Number Per Cent 



Y^ear 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


3.200 


4.136 


7.336 


6.1 


8.5 


7.2 


1924 


3.360 


4.210 


7.570 


6.4 


8.7 


7.5 


1925 


3,705 


4.549 


8.254 


7.0 


9.4 


8.1 


1926 


4,054 


4.599 


8,653 


7.7 


9.4 


8.5 


1927 


♦4,290 


*5,059 


♦9,349 


♦8.1 


♦10.2 


♦9.1 


1928 


*4,329 


*5,029 


♦9,358 


♦8.1 


♦10.1 


♦9.1 


1929 


*4,742 


*5,186 


♦9,928 


♦8.8 


♦10.4 


♦9.6 


1930 


*4,857 


*5.283 


♦10,140 


♦9.0 


♦10.5 


♦9.7 



• Includes eighth grade promotions in junior high schools. 



Grade Enrollment; White Elementary School Graduates 39 
CHART 2 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES 
IN TOTAL COUNTY WHITE ELEJvlENrARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 
1930 



County 


Number 
Boys Girls 


Total and ^ 
Co. Average 


,857 


5,283 


Talbot 


109 


115 


Caroline 


129 


141 


Kent 


79 


101 


Worcester 


130 


133 


Cecil 


169 


178 


Frederick 


406 


442 


Carroll 


257 


288 


Garrett 


228 


196 


Queen Anne's 


83 


94 


V.'icomico 


168 


216 


>ftJontgomery 


328 


314 


Charles 


69 


81 


Calvert 


40 


47 


Harford 


177 


229 


Somerset 


121 


117 


Baltimore 


764 


794 


St. Mary's 


55 


51 


Howard 


98 


84 


Prince Geo's. 


353 


329 


Dorchester 


125 


147 


Y;ashington-'«-^ 


379 


463 


*Allegany«-* 


398 


472 



,Per Cent Boys 



1 Per Cent Girls 



Anne Arundel^l92 251 




* Includes eighth grade promotions in junior high school. 
*♦ County has eight grades in elementary school course. 



40 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

all who entered the first grade completed a grade a year and re- 
mained to graduate from elementary school, the maximum per 
cent of graduates possible in a seven grade system would be 14.3 
per cent and in a county having eight grades in the elementary 
school course 12.5 per cent. (See Table 29.) 

In the individual counties having seven grades in the elemen- 
tary school course, the per cent of boy graduates in the elemen- 
tary school enrollment varied from 7.9 in Dorchester to 11.2 per 
cent in Garrett. For girls the extreme percentages were 9.6 in 
Howard and 14 per cent in Kent. In six counties, Garrett, How- 
ard, Montgomery, St. Mary's, Somerset and Prince George's, 
the boy graduates outnumbered the girl graduates. (See Chart 2.) 

In the counties having eight grades in the elementary school 
course the percentage of boy graduates in the elementary school 
enrollment was 6.4 in Anne Arundel, 6.8 in Allegany, and 7 per 
cent in Washington. For the elementary girls enrolled, Allegany 
had the lowest percentage of graduates, 8.4, Anne Arundel had 
8.6, and Washington 8.7 per cent. (See Chart 2.) 

TABLE 30 



Number of County White Elementary School Graduates in 1930 by Types of Schools. 





Number of White Elementary 
School Graduates in 1930 


Per Cent of White Elementary 
School Graduates in 1930 


COUNTY 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Total and Average 


661 


716 


628 


695 


3,568 
95 


3,872 
97 


7 


5 


9 


1 


8 
8 


9 


10 


7 


9 


4 


10.8 


Talbot 


12 


14 

6 


2 


4 


5 


8 


10 


6 


3 


14 


8 


12 


4 


13.9 




10 


16 


18 


103 


117 


7 


2 


5 


8 


9 


5 


13 





11 


8 


14.2 


Kent 


22 


32 


18 


16 


39 


53 


10 


1 


14 


7 


8 


9 


10 


3 


10 


5 


15.1 


Worcester 


16 


14 


7 


12 


107 


107 


5 


1 


5 


5 


5 


6 


10 


1 


12 


8 


15.6 


Cecil 


48 


48 


29 


39 


92 


91 


9 


9 


11 


3 
6 


9 


8 


14 


1 


10 


8 


12.1 


Frederick 


65 


75 


92 


95 


249 


272 


9 


8 


12 


17 


3 


19 


3 


9 


1 


10.4 


Carroll 


25 


20 


35 


34 


197 


234 


3 


5 


3 


1 


10 


8 


11 


7 


12 


7 


16.4 


Garrett 


112 


118 


38 


12 


78 


66 


10 


5 


12 


5 


12 


2 


4 


3 


11 


8 


10.6 




24 


13 


17 

6 


31 


42 


50 


11 





8 





8 


7 


17 


2 


9 


3 


11.7 


Wicomico 


40 


41 


15 


122 


160 


7 


9 


9 


1 


4 


7 


9 


5 


10 


3 


13.5 


Montgomery 


22 


39 


55 
8 


50 


*251 


*225 


7 





13 


4 


9 


3 


10 


2 


*11 


1 


*10.8 


Charles 


21 


21 


19 


40 


41 
9 


11 


5 


13 


7 


7 





15 


8 


8 


5 


10.4 


Calvert 


19 


22 


12 


16 


9 


9 





10 


5 


9 


8 


12 





12 


7 


8.8 


Harford 


30 


49 


28 


53 


119 
86 


127 


6 


2 


11 


3 


6 


1 


12 


8 


10 


4 


11.4 


Somerset 


28 


26 


7 


7 


84 


11 


6 


11 





5 


1 


6 





10 


2 


10.5 


Baltimore 


37 


47 


105 


100 


622 
8 


647 

8 


8 


3 


10 


4 


10 


9 


11 


9 


9 


3 


10.4 




21 


14 


26 


29 


9 


9 


8 


8 


8 


9 


12 


6 


9 





9.8 




28 


28 


20 


14 


50 


42 


9 


2 


11 


2 


11 


2 


8 


4 


9 


8 


9.1 


Prince George's 


27 


18 


42 


37 


284 


274 


8 


5 


6 


2 


10 

8 


4 


10 


5 


9 


5 


10.1 


Dorchester 


16 


16 


16 


20 


93 


111 


4 


4 


5 





3 


11 


2 


9 





11.9 


Washington 


25 


34 


34 


47 


320 


382 


3 


1 


4 


4 


5 


9 


7 


8 


7 


9 


9.7 


Allegany 


13 


21 


4 


10 


*381 


*441 


3 


4 


6 


3 




9 


2 





*7 


7 


*9.2 




11 


17 


181 


234 










4 


9 


7 


1 


6 


6 


8.9 



























Includes pupils promoted from eighth grade in junior high schools. 



White Elementary School Graduates Continuing Education 41 

All of the counties had more elementary boy and girl gradu- 
ates in 1930 than in 1929 except Kent, Cecil, Frederick, Somer- 
set, St. Mary's, Howard, and Washington. Queen Anne's and 
Allegany had fewer boys and Caroline, Worcester, Garrett, Mont- 
gomery, Prince George's, and Dorchester had fewer girls who 
graduated in 1930 than in 1929. (See Chart 2.) 

The per cent graduating was higher in two-teacher than in 
one-teacher schools, and in graded than in two-teacher schools. 
The number and per cent of girls graduated exceeded the number 
and per cent of boys graduated, except in the one-teacher schools 
of Caroline, Carroll, Queen Anne's, Somerset, St. Mary's, and 
Prince George's, in the two-teacher and graded schools of Gar- 
rett and Howard, and in the graded schools of Montgomery. 
(See Table 30.) 

OVER 78 PER CENT OF 1929 GRADUATES OF COUNTY PUBLIC 
WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS CONTINUED HIGHER 
EDUCATION IN FALL OF 1929 

Of 9,479 graduates of county public white elementary schools 
in 1929, 7,426 or over 78 per cent, continued more advanced 
work in public, private, or parochial schools in the fall of 1929 
for at least one school month. Nearly three-fourths of the grad- 
uates entered high schools in the same county in which the ele- 
mentary schools were located, but close to 3 per cent went to 
public high schools in adjoining counties or in Washington or 
Baltimore. (See Chart 3.) 

Prince George's and Montgomery County sent a large propor- 
tion of their graduates to high schools in Washington, while 
many from Anne Arundel came to Baltimore City. From the 
counties as a group, slightly over 1 per cent went to private or 
parochial schools for advanced work. Seven counties had no 
entrants to private and parochial schools, while at the other ex- 
treme, 18 per cent of the St. Mary's County graduates went to 
private or parochial schools. St. Mary's Seminary and Charlotte 
Hall, semi-public institutions, are included as private schools in 
St. Mary's County. 

In Somerset, Talbot, Charles, and Worcester Counties only 8 
per cent of the graduates did not continue further education be- 
yond the elementary school. At the opposite extreme from 25 
to 51 per cent of the 1929 elementary school graduates of Wash- 
ington, Baltimore, Frederick, Carroll, and Garrett Counties did 
not enter high schools in the fall of 1929. (See Chart 3.) 

NON-PROMOTIONS DECREASE 

There were fewer pupils not promoted in 1930 than in any 
previous year. Of 14,333 county elementary white pupils not 
promoted, 8,962 were boys and 5,371 girls. These numbers rep- 



42 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 3 



NTJIffiER /iJD PER CENT OF 1929 GRADUATF5 OF COUNTY PUBLIC THITE ELFLie^I^J^Y 
SCHOOLS NCT CONTIMUJNG HIGHER EDUCATION IN FALL 0? 1929 



Nirnber and Per Cent Not Continuing Higher 
Education in Fall of 1929 

Per 

Graduates Number Cent ■■■ % Boys CZZD % Girls 



1929 TThite 
^ Elementary 
C°^ty p^.sehool 



Total and 
Average 


9479 


2053 


21.7 


ScuiOrse t 


256 


20 


7.8 


Talbot 


180 


15 


o -z 
D . D 


Charles 


xoi 


1 1 


C . 'i 


V»orcester 


252 


22 


8.7 


Montgonery 


573 


61 


10.6 


Allegany 


682 


96 


10.9 


iTiconico 


208 


25 


12.0 


Pr. George ' s 


672 


89 


13.2 


Harford 


oou 




J.O. o 


Anne Arund. 


406 


55 


13.5 


Dorchester 


281 


41 


14.6 


Kent 


173 


28 


16.2 


Q. Anne's 


180 


31 


17.2 


Caroline 


267 


47 


17.6 


Cecil 


3B8 


70 


16.0 


Hov-ard 


194 


35 


16.0 


St. Very's 


121 


24 


19.8 


C&lvert 


72 


17 


23.6 


'iTashington 


877 


217 


24.7 


Baltimore 


1356 


419 


30.9 


Frederick 


966 


353 


36.5 


Carroll 


244 


103 


42.2 


Garrett 


440 


226 


51.4 



[2^ 




resented 13.7 per cent of the total white elementary enrollment, 
exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, and death. For 
the bo3^s, the percentage of failure was 16.6, w^hile for the girls 



NoN Promotions ix White Elementary Schools 



43 



TABLE 31 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County White Elementary Schools 



Number 



Year Boys Girls 

1923 13,435 8,586 

1924 11,999 7.193 

1925 10.673 6,336 

1926 10.392 6,140 

1927 9,954 6,134 

1928 10,346 6,109 

1929 9.147 5.609 

1930 8,962 5,371 







Per Cent 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


22,021 


25.6 


17.5 


21.7 


19,192 


22.7 


14.8 


18.9 


17,009 


20.2 


13.0 


16.8 


16,532 


19.7 


12.5 


16.3 


16.088 


18.7 


12.4 


15.6 


16,455 


19.4 


12.3 


15.9 


14,756 


17.1 


11.3 


14.3 


14,333 


16.6 


10.7 


13.7 



it was only 10.7 per cent. The reduction in non-promotions since 
1923, the first year figures were available, is very striking. While 
25.6 per cent of the boys failed of promotion in 1923, this was 
true of but 16.6 per cent in 1930. For girls the reduction was 
equally great, from 17.5 per cent in 1923 to 10.7 per cent in 1930. 
(See Table 31.) 

There will always be failures for pupils absent for long periods 
during the year for illness and other causes and for exceptional 
pupils who can succeed only if special classes are organized to 
meet their needs. Thus far this has not been possible in the 
counties. 

In the individual counties the percentage of white boys who 
failed ranged between less than 11 per cent in Cecil and Allegany 
and 25 per cent in Dorchester. Three counties, Allegany, Cecil, 
and Caroline, failed less than 7 per cent of their white girls while 
in Dorchester 15 per cent did not win promotion. (See Chart 4.) 

In every county a larger number and proportion of boys than 
of girls were not considered ready to undertake the work of a 
higher grade the following year. The girls still have a better 
chance than the boys have of accomplishing the school work of- 
fered in the Maryland counties. (See Chart 4.) 

The percentage of non-promotion for county boys was highest 
in the one-teacher schools and lowest in the graded schools. The 
two-teacher and graded schools each had failures for 10.5 per 
cent of the girls while the one-teacher schools had 11.6 per cent 
not promoted. (See Table 32.) 

In the one-teacher schools the per cent of boys who failed was 
as low as 9.9 in Garrett and as high as 29 per cent in Dorchester. 
For girls in one-teacher schools the corresponding extremes were 
3.8 per cent in St. Mary's and 21.3 per cent in Dorchester. 

In two-teacher schools the minimum per cent of non-promotion 
for boys was 10.7 in Caroline, and the maximum 27.6 per cent 
in Wicomico. Similar figures for girls showed 3.7 not promoted 



44 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 
CHART 4 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY UHITE ELBJENTARI PUPILS 
THROUGH GRADE 8 NOT PROMOTED, 1930 



Covint7 

Total and 
Co, Average 



Nxmber 
Boys Girls 

8,962 6,37l' 



Per Cent Boy^Z Z2 Per Cent Girls 



Cecil 170 

Allegany 634 

Garrett 236 

Montgomery 403 

Caroline 173 

St. Mary's 96 

Talbot 162 

Carroll 427 

Anne Arundel 472 

Washington 862 

Charles 133 

Kent 154 

Queen Anne's 160 

Wicomico 334 

Somerset 227 

Howard 164 
Prince George's 683 

Worcester 249 

Calvert 76 

Frederick 730 480 




V/////////77X 



mm 



y///////A 



63 
76 
196 
130 

115.5 Y////////////////////A 



115 1 



/////////////////A 



57 1-^ 



12.9 ////////////////ZZZi 
Baltimore 1,533 1,049 jj^ 

Harford 



Y7/Z/////// /Z777////A 



Dorchester 



486 
398 



241 



215 



1 P . ^ V////////////////A 



-5.0 ///////////////////7Z77V 



in the two-teacher schools of Talbot, while 17.1 per cent failed 
of promotion in Somerset and Wicomico Counties. (See Table 
32.) 

The lowest percentage of failure for boys in graded schools 
occurred in Cecil County, which had failures for 9 per cent. On 



NoN Promotions ix White Elementary Schools 45 



Oi l:^ tC y5 Tti O <N lo ^ ^ ^ CO O !N X lO Tt< ;0 CD 

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OS 



Ox 



o oicxiCrr iccr;-sCcci> Tfi—nocor-^ oocs— '^xx 



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l> X O O Tf rC->*rO(N'^ iO(NCOC^T^ CO'*i-(C: 
(N c: —I I— I CO r-i T-H CO 



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X CO(Ml>i— — ■MCSI — C^O CO^'^C^^rr^ t^t-iC<IC^ 

o 



c3 o 



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46 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



the other hand, Dorchester failed 23.7 per cent of the boys in 
graded schools. Caroline and Cecil each failed 5.6 per cent of 
the girls, while in Baltimore County, 14.4 per cent of the girls 
were not promoted. (See Table 32.) 

Failures by Grades 

There were fewer failures in every grade, except for girls in 
grades 2 and 3, both boys and girls in grade 4, and boys in grade 
5. The third grade showed the lowest percentage of failure and 
the second grade was next lowest. The highest per cent of failure 
occurred in the first grade, in which 24.4 per cent of the boys 
and 18.5 per cent of the girls were considered by their teachers 
as not ready for the work of the second grade. (See Chart 5.) 
Similar facts are shown by grades for the one-teacher, two- 
teacher, and graded schools in Table 33. For non-promotions by 
grades for each county, see Table VIII, page 338. 

CHART 5 



1930 NON-PFJDMOTIONS IN KINDERGARTEN TO GRADE 8 IN 
COUNTY RHITE ELIMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 



Number 



Grade 


307s 


Girls HBPer Cent Boys 


\///A Per Cent Girls 


Kgn. 


28 






1 


2,296 






2 


1,177 


621 f^^)}}}}}}}}}}})})))\ 




3 


950 






4 


1,141 








1,071 


625 f^r/////////////////\ 




e 


1,148 






7 

Q 


921 
230 


Q . ^V/////////////////A 





Causes of Non-Promotion 

Unfortunate home conditions and lack of interest still account 
for nearly one-third of the non-promotions in the white elemen- 
tary schools. Non-promotions for these causes affect between 4 
and 5 per cent of the pupils. In every type of school teachers 
gave these reasons as the chief cause of failure. The increase 
over the year preceding in the number of failures reported as 
caused by unfortunate home conditions and lack of interest may 



Nox Promotions by Grade and Cause 



47 



TABLE 33 



Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Boys and Girls Not Promoted, 
by Grades, Year Ending July 31, 1930 





NUMBER 


PER CENT 


GRADE 


One- 


Tv 


■o- 






One- 


Two- 






Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Kindergarten 










28 


22 










14.5 


11.3 


1 


489 


314 


369 


247 


1,438 


984 


27.6 


21.6 


28.7 


20.9 


22.7 


17.1 


2 


202 


95 


174 


81 


801 


445 


15.1 


8.6 


15.2 


8.7 


14.7 


9.0 


3 


186 


90 


91 


59 


673 


380 


13.5 


7.4 


9.4 


6.3 


12.5 


7.6 


4 


207 


156 


192 


99 


742 


477 


16.2 


13.2 


18.5 


10.7 


13.9 


9.5 


5 


170 


83 


159 


82 


742 


460 


14.5 


7.4 


16.8 


9.2 


14.9 


9.7 


6 


191 


86 


149 


63 


808 


461 


18.2 


9.5 


17.6 


8.0 


17.1 


10.1 


7 


133 


81 


100 


44 


688 


439 


16.2 


9.6 


13.3 


5.8 


15.4 


10.2 


8 


18 


12 


10 


8 


202 


103 


29.5 


17.6 


16.9 


9.8 


16.9 


8.1 


Total 


1,596 


917 


1,244 


683 


6,122 


3,771 


18.0 


11.6 


17.7 


10.5 


16.1 


10 5 



be explained by either a better understanding on the part of the 
teachers of the pupils' home environment or worse conditions 
existing in the homes resulting from the financial depression, or 
a combination of these two factors. (See Table 34.) 

Mental incapacity was given as the cause of failure for 2.7 
per cent of the white elementary pupils. It is unusual to find a 
larger proportion thus reported from the two-teacher and graded 
schools than from the one-teacher schools. All other causes of 
non-promotion showed reductions or no change. (See Table 34.) 

Allegany, Garrett, Montgomery, and Cecil Counties reported 
less than 3 per cent of their white elementary pupils not pro- 
moted because of poor home conditions and lack of interest, 
while, according to the teachers, over 6 per cent of the pupils in 
Dorchester, Harford, and Baltimore Counties failed for these 
reasons. (See Table 35.) 

Less than 1.5 per cent of the pupils in St. Mary's, Queen 
Anne's, Kent, and Harford Counties were reported as failures 
because of mental incapacity, whereas over 4 per cent in Prince 
George's, Carroll, Frederick, and Howard were not promoted for 
this reason. 

Sickness caused the failure of over 2 per cent of the white 
elementary school pupils in Dorchester, Harford, Somerset, Wi- 
comico, Kent, Talbot, Prince George's, and Caroline. 

Irregular attendance not due to sickness was the factor caus- 
ing the failure of nearly 4 per cent of the pupils in Charles and 
2.7 per cent of the pupils in St. Mary's and Calvert. 

Talbot showed the highest percentage of failures due to em- 
ployment, nearly 3 per cent, and Harford and Dorchester showed 



48 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 34 



Causes of Non-Promotions for White Elementary School Pupils Not Promoted for 

Year Ending July 31, 1930 



Causes of Non-Promotion 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All 
Elementary 
Schools 










1930 


1929 



NUMBER 



Unfortunate Home Conditions and Lack 












of Interest 


731 


573 


3,420 


4,724 


4,437 




427 


377 


2,013 


2,817 


2,536 


Irregular Attendance not Due to Sickness 


327 


252 


931 


1,510 


2,039 


Personal Illness 


320 


225 


1,195 


1,740 


1,957 


Thirteen Years or Over, Employed 


235 


117 


655 


1,007 


1,132 


Transfer from Other Schools 


163 


117 


583 


863 


836 


Late Entrance other than 100-Day 












Pupils 


81 


84 


172 


337 


434 


Other Causes 


229 


182 


924 


1,335 


1,385 


Total 


2,513 


1,927 


9,893 


14,333 


14,756 



PER CEXT 



L'nfortunate Home Conditions and Lack 






















4 


4 


4 


2 


4 


6 


4 


5 


4.3 




2 


5 


2 


8 


2 


7 


2 


7 


2.5 


Irregular Attendance Not Due to 






















1 


9 


1 


.8 


1 


3 


1 


4 


2.0 


Personal Illness 


1 


9 


1 


.7 


1 


6 


1 


.7 


1.9 


Thirteen Years or Over, Employed 


1 


4 




.9 




9 


1 





1.1 




1 







.9 




8 




.8 


.8 


Late Entrance other than 100-Day 




















Pupils 




5 




.6 




2 




3 


.4 


Other Causes 


1 


4 


1 


.3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1.3 


Total 


15 





14 


.2 


13 


4 


13 


7 


14.3 



that 2 per cent of their pupils failed of promotion for this cause. 

Harford, Baltimore, Calvert, Wicomico, Queen Anne's, How- 
ard, and Kent all had over 1 per cent of the pupils reported as 
failures because of transfer from another school. 

St. Mary's and Calvert had 1.8 per cent and 1.1 per cent of 
the v^hite elementary enrollment reported as failures due to late 
entrance to school. These pupils were not 100 day pupils. 

Miscellaneous causes explained the failure of 2 per cent or 
more of the pupils in Queen Anne's, Dorchester, Baltimore, Fred- 
erick, and Worcester. (See Table 35.) 



Xox Promotions by Grade and Cause 49 







i 
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50 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TESTS IX WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

A review of the reports of the 53 supervisors of white ele- 
mentaiy schools revealed the fact that county wide testing in 
one or more subjects and grades was reported for all of the coun- 
ties, except Caroline and Cecil. 



Standard Tests Given in White Elementary Schools of Maryland Counties 
September, 1929 to June, 1930 



County 
Allegany 



Time of Testing 

f May 

• May 

> June 



Grades 
Tested 
. 1-3 
. 4-7 
. 4-7 



Anne Arundel . 
Baltimore 



Calvert , 



Carroll . 



May 8 

November 5-7 

December 6-7 

December 6-7 



October 4-7 

October 7 

June 6-7 

January 7 

May 6-7 

October 5-7 

December 7 

Mav 1 

Mav 2-3 

May 4-7 



Tests Given 
Williams' Primary Reading Test. 
Monroe Reading Test. 
Compass Survey Tests in .\rithmetic. 

Otis-Orleans Standard Graduation Examination. 

Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education. 
Monroe Standardized Silent Reading Test. 

Reavis' and Breslich's Diagnostic Tests in the Fundamental Opera- 
tions of Arithmetic and in Problem Solving. 

New Stanford .\chievement Test. 

Sixth Grade History Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 
Md. History Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 

Md. History Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 
Pressey Diagnostic Tests in Granunar and Sentence Structure. 
Illinois General Intelligence Test. 

Md. History Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 

Pressey Word Test. 

Pressey Attainment Scale in Reading. 

Public School Achievement Test in Reading. 



Charles 



January 7 Md. History Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education . 



Dorchester. 



Frederick . 



December 7 

January 7 

■ Mav 7 

Mav 7 

[ May 7 

i Sept€mber 1 



Garrett. 
Harford . 

Howard . 



<f January 
i May.... 



,' January and May ... . 
I January and May 



March . 
March . 



[ November. 

May 

i May 

[ Jime 



7 
4-7 



1- 3 

2- 3 



1-3 
4-7 
7 



Kent 

Montgomery 



f September 1 

< September 7 

I May 



January 



Prince George's. 

Queen .Anne's . . 
St. Mary's 



' April. 
! June. 
-. June. 
^ June. 
June. 



2-7 
2-7 
7 

1- 3 

2- 3 
4-6 

7 



November. 
November. 



Pressey Diagnostic Tests in English Composition. 
Stone Narrative Reading Test. Form I 
Sangren- Woody Reading Test, Form B. 
Clapp-Young English Test. Form A. 

Oleography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education. 
Detroit First Grade Intelligence Test. 

Md. History Tests Prepared by State Department of Education. 
New Stanford Tests in Reading, Form W. 

Williams' Primary Reading Test. Forms .\ and B. 

New Stanford .Arithmetic Tests in Computation and Reasoning, 

Forms V and W. 
New Stanford .A.rithmetic Test, Form W. 
Pressey Diagnostic Tests in English Composition. 

Md. Historj' Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 
Williams' Primary Reading Test. 
New Stanford Reading Test. 
Clapp-Young English Test, Form \. 

Detroit Intelligence Test. 
Terman Intelligence Test 

New Stanford .Achievement Tests in Reading, Spelling, .Arithmetic, 

History, Geography, and Physiologj-. 
New Stanford .Achievement Tests, Form W. 

Md. History Tests Prepared by State Department of Education. 

Williams' Primary Reading Test, Form A. 

New Stanford .Achievement Tests, Form W. 

Los .Angeles Diagnostic Test in Language, Form II. 

Otis and Orleans Standard Graduation Examination, Form .A. 

Md. History Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 

Md. History Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 



Tests in White Elementary Schools 



51 



Grades 

County Time of Testing Tested Tests Given 

r November and May . . 2-3 Williams' Primary Reading Test, Forms A and B . 

I November 4 New Stanford Achievement Tests, Form V. 

Somerset ] November 5-6 Spencer Diagnostic Arithmetic Test. 

November 7 Md. History Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 

[May 3 Wisconsin Inventory Test in Arithmetic. 

Talbot May 1 Williams' Primary Reading Test, Form A. 

f October 3-8 Orleans' Tests in Arithmetic Computation, History and Geography 

I November 7 Md. History Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 

Washington { December 8 Pressey Diagnostic Tests in English Composition. 

I January 2 Gates' Reading Test, Following Directions. 

[May 2-8 New Stanford Achievement Tests, Form W. 

{ October 2-7 New Stanford Achievement Tests in Geography and History. 

Wicomico <! October 4-7 Geography Tests Prepared by Md. State Dept. of Education. 

[ November 7 Md. History Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 

[ October and May 3-7 Orleans' Tests in Arithmetic, Reading, and Language, Forms 

Worcester >1 1 and II. 

[November 7 Md. History Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 



Maryland History and Geography Tests 

The test most widely used was that in Maryland History for 
the Seventh Grade, prepared by Miss 1. Jewell Simpson, Assistant 
State Superintendent of Schools in Charge of Elementary School 
Instruction, and made available to the counties by the State De- 
partment of Education. This was reported on by supervisors 
in thirteen counties — Baltimore, Calvert, Carroll, Charles, Fred- 
erick, Howard, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Som- 
erset, Washington, Wicomico and Worcester. Calvert County 
gave the Sixth Grade History Test prepared by the State De- 
partment of Education to grades 6 and 7 in June, 1930. 

The Maryland Geography Tests prepared by Miss M. Theresa 
Wiedefeld, State Supervisor of Elementary Schools, and Mr. E. 
Curt Walther, Instructor of Geography , State Normal School at 
Towson, were given in Baltimore and Wicomico County upper 
grades and in the seventh grade of Dorchester County. 

Other history and geography tests given were the Orleans 
Tests in grades 3 to 8 of Washington County and the New Stan- 
ford Achievement Test in grades 4-7 in Wicomico in October, 
1929. Calvert, Kent, Montgomery and Washington, which gave 
the complete New Stanford Achievement Test, also tested history 
and geography in the upper grades. 

Many Tests in Reading Used 

Six counties reported the use of the Williams Primary Reading 
Test in one or more of the first three grades. Allegany, Howard, 
Prince George's and Talbot used this test at the end of the year, 
while Garrett and Somerset gave the two forms of the test early 
and late in the year. 

Allegany and Baltimore Counties used the Monroe Revised 
Silent Reading Test, in the upper grades; Dorchester gave the 
Stone Narrative Reading Test and the Sangren Woody Reading 
Test in January and May, respectively, to the seventh grade; 
Carroll tested with the Pressey First and Second Grade Attain- 



52 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



ment Scales in Reading ; Carroll used the Public School Achieve- 
ment Test in Reading and Worcester the Orleans Reading Test; 
Frederick and Howard gave the New Stanford Test in Reading 
to the upper grades ; the reading test was a part of the general 
New Stanford Achievement Test reported on for all grades above 
the first in Kent, Montgomery, and Washington, for grades 2 and 
3 in Prince George's, for grade 4 in Somerset, and for grades 4-7 
in Calvert ; Washington gave the Gates' Reading Test in follow- 
ing directions to the second grade. 

Arithmetic Tested 

Allegany used the Compass Survey Tests in the upper grades ; 
Baltimore gave the Reavis and Breslich Diagnostic Tests in the 
Fundamental Operations of Arithmetic and in Problem Solving 
to grades 6 and 7 ; Somerset used the Spencer Diagnostic Arith- 
metic Test in grades 5 and 6 and the Wisconsin Inventory Test 
in Grade 3 ; the Orleans Test in Arithmetic was given in Wash- 
ington and Worcester ; and the New Stanford Tests in Arithmetic 
Computation and Reasoning were used in the primary grades 
of Garrett and the upper grades in Harford, and as a part of a 
general testing in Kent, Montgomery, Washington, Prince 
George's primary grades, Somerset's fourth grade, and Calvert's 
upper grades. 

Tests in English Widely Used 

The highest elementary grade of Dorchester, Harford and 
Washington was tested with the Pressey Diagnostic Test in Eng- 
lish Composition. The sixth and seventh grades in Baltimore 
County had the Pressey Diagnostic Tests in Grammar and Sen- 
tence Structure in May. Dorchester and Howard Counties used 
the Clapp Young English Test for the seventh grade at the end 
of the year ; Prince George's tested grades 4 to 6, inclusive, with 
the Los Angeles Diagnostic Test in Language; and Worcester 
tested grades 3 to 7, inclusive, with the Orleans Language Test. 
The counties which used the complete New Stanford Achievement 
Test for the upper grades also had a test in Language Usage. 
Survey Tests 

Anne Arundel and Prince George's tested their highest ele- 
mentary grade with the Otis-Orleans Standard Graduation Ex- 
amination, w^hile Kent, Montgomery and Washington used the 
complete New Stanford Achievement Test for all grades above 
the first, and Prince George's tested grades 2 and 3, Somerset 
grade 4, and Calvert grades 4-7 with the New Stanford Achieve- 
ment Test. 

Intellinrence Tests 

Kent gave the Terman Intelligence Test to the seventh grade 
and the Detroit First Grade Intelligence Test to grade 1 early in 
the year. The latter test was also used in Frederick. Carroll 
tested grades 5-7 in October with the Illinois General Intelligence 
Test. 



Tests in White Elementary Schools; Special Classes 



53 



SPECIAL CLASSES 
For the semester ending in June, 1930, Baltimore City had 
107 special classes for white pupils, an increase of 5 over the 
preceding year. The classes added were for subnormal pupils 
and for those in need of sight conservation and Americanization. 
The 65 classes for subnormal white pupils provided for nearly 
60 per cent of the 2,518 pupils enrolled in special classes. For 
white pupils there were also 16 open air classes having 413 pupils 
enrolled, 12 classes for 283 crippled children, 4 for Americaniza- 
tion of 100 pupils, 3 each for 115 pupils in need of discipline and 
for 37 in need of sight conservation, and for 48 deaf pupils. 
There was one class for 20 children suffering from cardiac dif- 
ficulties. (See Table 36.) 

TABLE 36 



Baltimore City Special Classes for Semester Ending June 30, 1930 







No. 






Making 


No. 




Returned 


Average 


Per 


Satisfactory Improve- 


KIND OF CLASS of 


Total 


to 


Net 


Cent of 


ment 


Classes 


Admitted 


Regular 


Roll 


Attend- 


*Per 






Classes 




ance 


No. Cent. 



White Schools 



Subnormal 


65 


1,502 


30 


1,179 


88 


939 


76.8 




16 


413 


46 


330 


89 


260 


78.1 


Crippled 


12 


283 


15 


229 


93 


188 


87.0 




4 


100 


14 


69 


93 


75 


97.4 




3 


115 


20 


67 


98 


50 


65.8 


Deaf 


3 


37 




34 


91 


33 


97.1 


Sight Conservation . . . 


3 


48 


■ 3 


41 


85 


39 


88.6 




1 


20 




19 


70 


12 


60.0 


Total White 


107 


2,518 


128 


1,968 


89 


1,596 


78.9 








Colored Schools 








Subnormal 


6 


103 




91 


74 


57 


62.6 




3 


61 


"i 


58 


84 


47 


81.0 


Disciplinary 


2 


41 


17 


35 


100 


21 


63.6 


Open Air 


1 


21 




19 


88 


17 


85.0 


Sight Conservation. . . 


1 


21 


"i 


17 


88 


16 


80.0 


Total Colored 


13 


247 


19 


220 


83 


158 


71.2 



* Per cent of number admitted, exclusive of pupils returned to regular classes or with- 
drawn in other ways. 

The 13 special classes for 247 colored pupils included 6 for 103 
subnormal pupils, 3 for 61 crippled children, 2 for 41 disciplinary 
cases, 1 open air class for 21 pupils, and 1 for 21 pupils in need 
of sight conservation. This is the first year there has been a 
class for colored children in need of sight conservation. 

The last two columns in the table show the number and per 
cent of pupils in special classes making satisfactory improve- 
ment. For the white pupils, 79 per cent made satisfactory im- 
provement, although for the cardiac cases the improvement reg- 
istered as low as 60 per cent and for the disciplinary cases 66 



54 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



per cent. The Americanization classes and those for the deaf 
brought about satisfactory progress for 97 per cent of their white 
pupils, while those for children crippled and in need of sight 
conservation caused satisfactory improvement for 87 and 89 per 
cent of the pupils, respectively. 

For the colored pupils in special classes, 71 per cent on the 
average made satisfactory improvement. For the subnormal and 
disciplinary classes, desirable progress was evident for 63 and 64 
per cent, respectively, while for the open air class, the crippled 
classes, and the class in need of sight conservation from 80 to 
85 per cent registered satisfactory gains. (See Table 36.) 

REGULAR FIRST GRADE CERTIFICATES HELD BY 2,831 WHITE 
ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

Of the county staffs including just under 3,000 in service in 
October, 1930, there were 2,831 white elementary teachers hold- 
ing regular first grade and elementary principals' certificates. 
This number represents 94.5 per cent of the county staffs, or 
1.2 more than 93.3 per cent for October, 1929. Comparison with 
October, 1921, when the number and per cent holding first grade 
certificates were 1,228 and 40.4, respectively, means a gain in 
the number holding first grade certificates of 1,603 and in per 
cent of 54.1. (See Table 37.) 

TABLE 37 



Increase in Teachers Holding Regular First Grade Certificates, 1921-1930 







White Elementary Teachers 




Total Number 


Holding Regular First Grade 


FALL OF 


White Elementary 


and Elementary Principals' Certificates 




Teachers 










Number 


Per Cent 


1921 


3,040 


1.228 


40.4 


1922 


3,038 


1,351 


44.5 


1923 


3,026 


1,633 


54.0 


1924 


3,019 


1,936 


64.1 


1925 


3,058 


2,212 


72.4 


1926 


3,071 


2,414 


78.6 


1927 


3,037 


2,597 


85.5 


1928 


3,047 


2.756 


90.5 


1929 


3,016 


2,814 


93.3 


1930 


2,996 


2,831 


94.5 



The holder of a first grade certificate has completed satisfac- 
torily at least a two-year normal school course or the equivalent, 
and to keep it valid for renewal, has attended summer school at 
least once in every successive period of four years after the cer- 
tificate has been granted. The holder of an elementary princi- 



Certification of White Elementary Teachers 55 



CHART 6 







TRAINING OF MARYLAND COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 






NUMBER 




■H % REGULAR » 1^ PROVISIONAL 






REG- 


PROVI- 








OCT. 


ULAR 


SIONAL 


FIRST GRADE CERTIFICATES 




1921 




31 








1922 


1351 


52 








1923 


1633 


xo 
od 








1924 


1936 


OO 








1925 


991 9 


27 








1926 


OA! A 


24 








1927 


2597 


21 








1928 


2756 


35 






n 

a 


1929 


2814 


16 




93 




1930 


2831 


14 
















SECOND GRADE CERTIFICATES 




1921 


933 


189 








1922 


894 


175 








1923 


820 


97 








1924 


590 


125 


20 






1925 


617 


55 


17 








405 


21 








1927 


287 


21 










184 


8 








1929 


142 




m 






1930 


118 


1 


D 














THIRD GRADE CERTIFICATES 




1921 


368 


291 


12 


1 1(5 1 




1922 


365 


201 


12 






1923 


320 


124 


11 






1924 


229 


101 








1925 


182 


65 








1926 


161 


46 








1927 


87 


24 


ES 






1928 


60 


4 


a 






1929 


41 


3 


a 






1930 


32 




Q 







paFs certificate has completed at least half a year's work in ad- 
dition to that required for a first grade certificate. Second and 
third grade certificates are no longer issued to new applicants. 



56 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

Those who hold these certificates may keep them valid only by 
attending summer school every year. 

The facts regarding the increase in teachers holding first grade 
certificates and the decrease in those holding second and third 
grade certificates are shown graphically in Chart 6. 

In the graded schools of the counties 97 per cent of the 
teachers hold elementary principals' or first grade certificates. 
In the one-teacher schools 91 per cent and in the two-teacher 
schools 92 per cent of the teachers have had the training con- 
sidered desirable and necessary. (See Table 38.) 

TABLE 38 

Grade of Certificate Held by County White Elementary Teachers in Various Types 

of Schools, October, 1930 



CERTIFICATES 


White Elementary School Teachers 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All 
Schools 


First Grade and El. Principal's 

Regular 

Provisional 


Number 


541 


367 
1 

28 


1,923 
13 

56 
1 

8 


2,831 
14 

118 
1 

32 


Second Grade 

Regular 


34 


Third Grade 

Regular 

Total 

First Grade and El. Principal's 

Regular 

Provisional 


19 


5 


594 


401 


2,001 


2,996 


Per Cent 


91.1 


91.5 
.3 

7.0 


96.1 
.7 

2.8 


94.5 
.5 

3.9 


Second Grade 

Regular 


5.7 


Third Grade 

Total 


3.2 


1.2 


.4 


1.1 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



In the individual counties the per cent of white elementary 
teachers holding regular elementary principals' and first grade 
certificates in October, 1930, varies from 100 to 81, Baltimore 



Certification of White Elementary Teachers 



57 



and St. Mary's Counties being at the two extremes, respectively. 
Last year St. Mary's County had only 71 per cent of its teachers 
holding regular first grade certificates. Charles County had 37 
principals and teachers holding regular principals' and first grade 
certificates in both years, but through consolidation of schools 
the total number of teachers decreased, making the percentage 
93 in October, 1930, when it was only 79 in October, 1929. (See 
Table 39.) 



TABLE 39 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary Teachers Holding Regular First Grade 
Certificates in October, 1930, Compared with 1929 and 1921 



County 



1930 



Number 



Per Cent 



1930 Increase Over 



1929 



Number 



Per Cent 



1921 



Number 



Total Average . 

Baltimore 

fGarrett 

Montgomery. . 

Prince George's 
fKent 

t Allegany 

fCaroline 

tCalvert 

tAnne Arundel . . 
tQueen Anne's . . 

Talbot 

Howard 

fWicomico 

Frederick 

fCharles 

tCarroU 

Harford 

Washington . . . 
fDorchester. . . . 
t Worcester 

tSomerset 

Cecil 

tSt. Mary's .... 



2,831 

387 
143 
183 
197 
49 

324 
59 
27 

150 
48 

48 
55 
92 
191 
37 

141 
115 
279 
79 
62 

61 
75 
29 



95 

100 
99 
99 
98 
98 

98 
97 
96 
96 
96 

94 
93 
93 
93 
93 

92 
92 
90 
89 
89 



82 
81 



17 

14 
*6 
15 
7 
*1 



1 
14 



4 
3 

10 



1,603 

126 
131 

97 
141 

29 

117 
37 
11 
74 
13 

14 
39 
68 
100 
27 

94 
69 
206 
57 
46 

42 
46 
19 



♦Decrease. 

t Received Equalization Fund in 1929-30. 



58 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



All counties, except Caroline, Howard, and Harford, showed 
an increase or no change in percentage of teachers holding ele- 
mentary principals' or first grade certificates. In these three 
counties the decrease in percentages were 2 and 4, respectively. 

All except five counties, St. Mary's, Cecil, Somerset, Worcester, 
and Dorchester, have 90 per cent or more of their elementary 
teachers who hold principals' and first grade certificates. (See 
Table 39.) 

For number and per cent of teachers in all elementary, one- 
teacher and two-teacher schools holding various grades of cer- 
tificates, see Tables X to XH, pages 340 to 342. 

MORE TEACHERS ATTEND SUMMER SCHOOL 
There were 866 county white elementary principals and teach- 
ers and 19 county supervisors in service in October, 1930, re- 
ported by their superintendents as attendants at summer schools 
in 1930. The per cent of the teaching staff that attended summer 
school was 28.9, an increase of 1.5 per cent over last year. The 
counties varied in the per cent of summer school attendants from 

TABLE 40 

County White Elementary Teachers in Service in October, 1930 
Reported by County Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1930 



County 



Teachers Employed 

Oct., 1930, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1930 



Number 



Per Cent 



Summer Schools Attended 



Number of 
White 

Elementary 
School 
Teachers 



Total 

Garrett 

Allegany 

Kent 

Baltimore 

Washington . . . 

Somerset 

Prince George's 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Howard 

Anne Arundel. . 
St. Mary's. . . . 

Harford 

Dorchester .... 
Montgomery. . 

Charles 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Calvert 

Wicomico 

Queen Anne's. . 



tt866 

**59 
*120 
18 
**136 
103 
23 
*65 
27 
**43 
*18 
*53 
*15 
35 
*8 
*27 
19 
***39 
*8 
12 
*10 

17 

G 



28.9 

41.0 

36.1 
36.0 
35.1 
33.2 
32.4 
32.3 
29.3 
28.1 
25.7 
25.7 
25.4 
22.4 
22.2 
21.6 
21.3 
21.0 
20.0 
19.7 
19.6 
17.9 
17.2 
12.0 



Total 

Johns Hopkins University 

University of Maryland 

Frostburg Normal School 

University of Virginia 

Columbia University 

Harrisonburg State Teachers' College . . 

University of Delaware 

Shepherd State Teachers' College 

University of Asheville, North Carolina 

George Washington University 

Shippensburg State Teachers' College . . 

Gettysburg College 

Potomac State Junior College 

University of Pittsburgh 

Fredericksburg Teachers' College 

University of California 

Maryland Institute 

All others 



Jt866 

t324 
278 
81 
37 
t32 
17 
13 
11 
10 
6 
6 
5 
5 
4 
4 
3 
3 
27 



X Excludes twelve supervising or helping teachers, 
t Excludes seven supervising or helping teachers. 

• Each asterisk represents one supervising or helping teacher excluded. 



Summer School Attendance and Extension Work 



59 



12 in Queen Anne's to 41 in Garrett. Seven counties, Garrett, 
Allegany, Kent, Baltimore, Washington, Somerset, and Prince 
George's, had over 32 per cent of their staff this fall in summer 
school the preceding summer. (See Table 40.) 

The largest number, 324 or three-eighths of the teachers and 
principals, studied at Johns Hopkins University. The University 
of Maryland taught 278 or 32 per cent of the county teachers 
who went to summer school. Frostburg Normal School had 81 
summer school students who were county teachers in October, 
1930. The University of Virginia instructed 37 and Columbia 
University 32 of the county teachers. Twelve of the supervisors 
were students at Johns Hopkins University and 7 were at Colum- 
bia. Johns Hopkins, Frostburg, and Harrisonburg Teachers 
College were the only summer schools which registered more 
county elementary teachers in 1930 than they did in 1929. (See 
Table 40.) 

EXTENSION COURSES 
The superintendents and teachers in two counties, Allegany 
and Washington, arranged for extension courses in 1929-30. 
Some of these courses met the requirements set up by the State 
for reimbursement. The enrollment and the State-aid allowed 
are indicated in Table 41. The courses offered in 1929-30 in- 
cluded economics, German 1 and 2, French 1 to 6 inclusive, and 
English Composition. 



TABLE 41 
Extension Courses for White Teachers 



County 


Total 
Enrollment 


Total Number 

for Whom 
Reimbursement 
Was Allowed 


Total 
Reimbursement 


1927-28 


1928-29 


1929-30 


1927-28 


1928-29 


1929-30 


1927-28 


1928-29 


1929-30 


Allegany 

Carroll 


16 
2 
66 


t48 


13 


7 


tl7 


7 


$122.50 


$755* 


$105 


Washington 

Totals 


34 


76 


39 


25 


28 


570.00 


375 


495 


84 


t82 


89 


46 


t42 


35 


$692.50 


$1,130 


$600 



t Excludes teachers doing extension course of study work in connection with Teachers' College, 
Columbia. 

* Includes $500 for partial reimbursement to county for course of study work. 



FEWER COUNTY TEACHERS RESIGN FROM COUNTY WHITE 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 390 county white elementary teachers who gave 
up their positions between October, 1928; and October, 1929. 
This number does not include 31 who took leave of absence, 45 
who transferred from one county to another, and 9 who left ele- 
mentary for high school teaching. There were fewer resignations 



60 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 42 

Estimated Causes of Resignation of White Elementary School Teachers from 
Maryland County Schools at End of or D.uring 1925-26, 1926-27, 
1927-28, 1928-29 



1928-1929 

Cause of Resignation 1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 No. Per Cent 



Marriage 158 

Work Other than Teaching 34 

Dropped for Low Certificate Grade 
or Non-Attendance at Summer 

School 58 

Dropped for Inefficiency 55 

Teaching in Baltimore, Normal or 
High School or Acting as Super- 
visor or Attendance Officer 76 

Teaching in Another State or in 

Private School 

Illness 19 

Retirement 16 

Death 5 

Moved Away 18 

Other and Unknown 27 

Total 466 

Leave of Absence 56 

To Other Counties 43 

To County High Schools ? 



168 


150 


166 


42.6 


42 


44 


37 


9.5 


42 


37 


12 


3.1 


56 

1 


33 


27 


6.9 


61 [ 


30 


23 


5.9 


J 


25 


49 


12.6 


18 


24 


15 


3.8 


39 


14 


27 


6.9 


10 


10 


8 


2.1 


20 


10 


8 


2.0 


26 


27 


18 


4.6 


482 


404 


390 


100.0 


52 


44 


31 




53 


53 


t46 




? 


? 


9 





t Includes a teacher who left a graded school in Anne Arundel to teach in a high school in Mont- 
gomery. 

by 14 and 92, respectively, than were found in the two preceding 
years, indicating greater stability in the better trained teaching 
staff. (See Table 42.) 

Of the 390 teachers who resigned, 166 or 43 per cent did so 
because they married, 49 or 13 per cent took teaching positions 
in other states or in private schools, 37 or 9 per cent went into 
work other than teaching, 27 or 7 per cent were dropped for 
inefficiency, and 7 per cent more retired from teaching service 
because of age or disability. (See Table 42.) For similar data 
by counties, see Table 43. 

The distribution of the teachers who left county elementary 
school positions by years of experience shows that 71, the largest 
number, had taught but two years. Some of these no doubt 
dropped out after fulfilling their pledge to the normal school to 
give service for two years in the elementary schools of the State. 
Others were probably asked to resign before their teaching cer- 
tificates were made permanent after the two-year probationary 
period. The next greatest losses were found after the third, 
fourth and first years of experience. (See Table 44.) 



Resignations from White Elementary Schools 



61 



TABLE 43 

Estimated Causes of Resignations of Teachers from Maryland County White 
Elementary Schools, Year Ending June, 1929 



County 



-3 o 



fi O (B 

IS >>-'5 

15 a 



Total 

Alleganj' 

Anne ArundeL. 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester .... 
Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 
St. Mary's .... 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



390 

33 
20 
40 
6 
10 

33 
11 
7 
15 
31 

28 
13 
7 
3 
17 

29 
11 



166 

18 
3 

17 
2 
3 

17 
4 
3 
7 



37 



12 



27 



23 



18 



t2 



* Total excludes teachers who left to teach in county high schools, who were on leave of absence, 
md who transferred to another county. 

t Includes one teacher doing some substitute work. 

+ Includes a teacher who left a graded school to teach in a high school in ^lontgomery County. 

TABLE 44 

Years of Service for Teachers Who Resigned from Maryland County White 
Elementary Schools from October, 1928 to October, 1929 



Years 

of 
Service 

Total 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 



Number of 

Teacher 
Resignations 

390 

35 
71 
50 
40 
30 
30 
16 
7 



Y'ears 

of 
Service 



9-12 
13-15 
17-20 
21-24 
25-28 
29-32 
33-36 

37 + 



Xumber of 

Teacher 
Resignations 



50 

22 
5 
5 

13 
1 
2 

13 



62 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TURNOVER OF ELEMENTARY TEACHERS REDUCED 

Since there were 31 fewer positions in the county white ele- 
mentary schools, and fewer resignations than in years preceding, 
it naturally follows that there were fewer positions to be filled 
at the beginning of the school year, 1929-30, than in preceding 
years. 

The teachers new to the county white elementary schools have 
been reduced from over 600, or 20 per cent of the entire county 
staff at the beginning of the school year 1925-26, to 400 or 13 
per cent at the beginning of the school year 1929-30. (See 
Table 45.) 



TABLE 45 



October 


New to 
Maryland 

County 
Elementary 
Schools 


Change in No. 
of Teaching 
Positions 


Number New to County Elementary 
Schools Who Were 


Inexperienced 


Experienced But Not 
in Maryland Counties 
Preceding Year 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


1925 


601 
564 
481 
451 
400 


19.7 
18.4 
15.8 
14.8 
13.3 


+39 
+ 13 
—34 
+ 10 
—31 


411 
390 
380 
326 
270 


190 
174 
101 
125 
*130 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 





* Includes one "who taught in Maryland High School. 



In addition to these 400 teachers new to the counties of the 
State there were 45 teachers who changed from one county to 
another. This latter group of teachers was, of course, new to 
the teaching staff of the county to which the transfer was made. 
Including these 45 teachers, the turnover in the county teaching 
staff was 14.6 per cent compared with 16.5 in the preceding 
school year. (See Table 46.) 

The counties varied from Kent, which had a turnover of less 
than 4 per cent, and Anne Arundel, Cecil, Somerset and Allegany, 
which had less than 10 per cent of change, to Calvert with 
changes for 32 per cent of its white elementary school staff, Car- 
roll for 25 per cent, and Garrett for 23 per cent. 

While because of consolidation of schools Garrett showed a 
loss of 15, Anne Arundel of 9, Frederick and Dorchester of 6 
each, and Cecil of 5 white elementary teaching positions, Balti- 
more County exhibited a gain of 12, Montgomery of 7, and Wash- 
ington of 4 elementary teachers. (See Table 46.) 



Turnover of Teachers ix White Elementary Schools 



63 



TABLE 46 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Teachers, New to Maryland 
Counties, in October, 1929, Showing Those Experienced, and from 

Other Counties 



County 



bounty IChange 

Teaching 
Positions 
Oct., 
1928 
to 
1929 



Number New to County Oct 
who were 



1929 



No. 



Per 
Cent 



Inex- 
perienced 



Experi- 
enced 
but New 

I to 
State 



Experi- 
enced in 
Counties 

but not 
Teaching 
1928-1929 



From 
An- 
other 
Countv 



From 
High 
School 



Total and 
Average 

Kent 

Anne Arundel.. 

Cecil 

Somerset 

Allegany 

Frederick 

Dorchester .... 

Wicomico 

Harford 

Washington. . . 

Baltimore 

Charles 

Queen Anne's. . 

Talbot 

Howard 

Montgomery. . 
Prince George's 

Worcester 

St. Mary's 

Caroline 

Garrett 

Carroll 

Calvert 



445 

2 
14 
9 
7 

38 

26 
11 
13 
17 

43 

55 
7 
8 
8 
9 

29 
33 
13 
7 
13 

35 
39 
9 



14.6: 

I 

3.91 
9.3 
9.5 
9.7 
10.2 

12.0 
12.5 
12.7 
13.8 
13.9 

14.7 
14.9 
15.1 
15.1 
15.5 

I 

16.5! 
16. 8i 
17. 6i 
18.4! 
18.8! 

23.3 
24.7 
32.1 



-31 



— o 

— 1 

— 1 

— 6 

— 6 

— 2 



+ 4 

+ 12 

— 1 

— 3 



+ 



—15 
+ 1 
— 1 



270 

2 
11 
6 
5 
tl7 

12 
6 
7 
13 
26 

44 
4 
5 
6 
6 

7 
12 

8 
3 
7 

26 
29 
8 



60 



69 



*1 



t8 

2 
3 
1 
3 
4 

3 
2 



15 
6 
1 
1 
2 

3 
2 
1 



o 

2 
1 
4 

9 
1 
1 
1 
11 

4 
1 
1 



1 
10 
3 
1 
1 



t Includes 2 teachers in Greene St. Junior High School. 

* A teacher changed from H. S. to the seventh grade in the same school. 



There were 270 inexperienced teachers in service in the Mary- 
land county white elementary schools in October, 1929, 60 new 
to Maryland who had probably had experience in other states, 
and 69 who had had previous teaching experience in Maryland, 
but who were not teaching in the counties in the school year, 
1^28-29. 



64 



1930 Eeport of State Department of Education 



Kent and St. Mary's with but 2 and 3, respectively, employed 
the smallest number of inexperienced teachers in October, 1929. 
Baltimore County added to its staff 44, while Carroll, Garrett 
and Washington each employed from 26 to 29 of the recent nor- 
mal school graduates. 

Montgomery, Allegany and Prince George's Counties employed 
the largest number of out-of-state experienced teachers. 

Prince George's and Allegany employed the largest number 
of teachers who had previously taught in other Maryland coun- 
ties. In the case of Allegany, it meant a return to the home 
county of Allegany girls who had had one or more years of suc- 
cessful experience in other counties. (See Table 46.) 



TABLE 47 

White Elementary School Teachers in Service in October, 1929, in Maryland Counties 
Who Were Inexperienced, and Who Came to Maryland Counties After Ex- 
perience in Other States, Distributed by State of Normal School or 
College Attended 



STATE OF 






0) 

-a 


























>> 


JO 

"o 

t£ 


JO 








c 






SCHOOL 






a 

3 


























S 


O 

<i> 


fi 
c 








o 


o 


f-i 


OR 
COLLEGE 




any 


< 


mor 


a 


line 






c 


hcst 


o 




V 

o 






o 

SI 


O 

a> 


< 




o 
cc 
u 


c. 


M 
_C 


mic. 


o 

■ji 
a 


ATTENDED 


Tota 


Alleg 


Anne 


Balti 


Calv. 


Caro 


Cam 


Cecil 


Char 


Dorc 


c 


Gam 


Harf. 


Howl 


Kent 


Mom 


Princ 


Quee 




«j 

s 

C 
X 


Talb. 


Was} 


Wico 


Wore 



INEXPERIENCED TEACHERS 



Total 


270 


17 


11 


44 


8 


7 


29 


6 


4 


6 


12 


26 


13 


6 


2 


7 


12 


5 


3 


5 


6 


26 


7 


8 


Maryland 


261 


15 


11 


42 


8 


6 


29 


6 


4 


6 


12 


26 


13 


5 


2 


6 


12 


5 


3 


4 


6 


25 


7 


8 


Towson 


131 




10 


39 


8 


3 


10 


2 


4 


2 


9 


1 


13 




1 


3 


6 


2 




1 


3 


13 




1 


Frostburg 


66 


14 


1 






2 


8 








2 


25 














2 






12 






Salisbury 


61 




3 




1 


11 


4 




4 


1 




5 


1 


1 


6 


3 


1 


3 


3 


'7 


7 


Others 


3 


i 




























2 




















5 
2 
2 


1 
1 




2 




1 
















1 




















































1 






2 Other States 




























1 








1 

















































TEACHERS WITH PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE, PRESUMABLY OUTSIDE MARYLAND 



Total 


60 


8 




3 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 






15 


6 




1 




2 


4 


1 


1 






28 
10 
9 
4 
5 
6 
4 
4 
4 
3 
2 
9 


6 
5 




3 
3 


1 


2 
1 


1 

i 




1 
1 


1 


2 
1 


1 

i 


2 
2 






2 
1 


1 




1 




1 


1 
1 


1 


1 


Towson 




1 




1 














1 






1 


















1 


1 


Others 


1 






1 








1 










1 
1 

3 
3 










1 








1 


1 








1 














2 


























1 
1 










Washington, D. C 
































































2 














1 


1 






Ohio 


1 
1 














1 






















Nebraska 
























1 

2 
















9 Other States 
















2 










5 

























































Teachers New to Counties; Turnover During Year 65 

Training of Inexperienced Teachers 

Of the 270 inexperienced teachers in service in October, 1929, 
258 received their training in Maryland State normal schools, 
and 3 in other Maryland schools or colleges. Of the 60 teachers 
who had probably taught in other states before coming to Mary- 
land, 23 had been trained in Marj^land normal schools. Mont- 
gomery, Prince George's and Washington were the only counties 
which employed more than two teachers of experience who had 
received their training in states other than Maryland. (See 
Table 47.) 

Turnover During School Year Reduced 

During the school year 1929-30 it was necessary to employ 87 
additional white elementary teachers in order to keep positions 
filled. This represented 2.9 per cent of the white elementary 
teaching positions. These figures represent a reduction of 24 in 
number and of .7 in per cent under figures for the preceding 
year. Four counties, Charles, Kent, Queen Anne's, and Wico- 
mico, lost no teachers during the year and, in the other counties, 
the turnover or replacement during the year varied in number 
from 1 to 10 and in percentage of teaching positions from .9 in 
Allegan v to 5.3 per cent in St. Mary's and Anne Arundel. (See 
Table 48.) 

TABLE 48 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Teachers Employed in Excess 
of the Number of Teaching Positions in Order That Positions Be 
Kept Filled During the School Year Ending July 31, 1930 



REPLACEMENTS REPLACEMENTS 



County- 


Number 


Per Cent 


County 


Number 


Per Cent 




87 


2.9 


Howard 


2 


3.4 








Calvert 


1 


3.6 


Charles 






Talbot 


2 


3.8 


Kent 






Carroll 


6 


3.8 










3 


4.1 










8 


4.1 


Alleeany 


3 


' .'9 


Caroline 


3 


4.3 


Cecil 


1 


1.1 




4 


4.0 




4 


1.3 




7 


4.7 


Baltimore 


10 


2.7 




10 


5.1 




2 


2.8 


St. Marv's 


2 


5.3 


Frederick 


7 


3.2 


Anne Arundel 


8 


5.3 


Harford 


4 


3.3 









Changes Within County Involving Different Types of School 

In addition to changes in the county staffs due to the employ- 
ment of new teachers, there are changes in assignment which 
occur within the county which mean a new teaching situation 
for the teachers involved. Between October, 1928, and October, 
1929, changes from one type of school to another type occurred 
as shown in Table 49. The changes enumerated do not include 
those when a teacher changed her school without involving a 
change in type of school. 



66 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 49 
Number of White Elementary Teachers 



Changing 

Type of Change Schools 

One-teacher to two-teacher 34 

One-teacher to graded 59 

Two-teacher to one-teacher 9 

Two-teacher to graded 35 

Graded to one-teacher 13 

Graded to two-teacher 14 

Total 164 



In Schools 
Which Changed 
in Type of 
Organization 
6 

i 

9 
3 
19 



Of the 164 movements of teachers from one type of school to 
another in the same county, 128 meant that the teachers went 
from smaller to larger schools and but 36 were movements in the 
other direction, i. e., from larger to smaller schools. A few 
schools, 19, changed their status merely because of growth or 
decline in enrollment. (See Table 49.) 

EXPERIENCE OF WHITE COUNTY ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

The median teaching experience in Maryland county white 
elementary schools as of October, 1930, is 6.3 years, an increase 
of .3 over the preceding year. All counties, except Charles, Fred- 
erick, Kent, Prince George's and Talbot, share in the increase. 
The counties vary in the median experience of teachers from 3.8 
years in Garrett and 4 years in Carroll and Howard to 10 years 
or more in Kent, Somerset and Wicomico. (See Table 50.) 

The number of teachers with two years of experience (288) 
is larger than that for any other year of experience, one year 
coming next with 276 teachers, three years next with 247 teach- 
ers, and no experience being lowest for this group with 239 
teachers. The number with four years and five years of experi- 
ence is practically the same, slightly over 200. 

In 594 one-teacher schools, one-half of the county teachers have 
had less than 3 years of experience. The median experience is 
3.2 years, .1 more than for October, 1929. The counties vary 
from Charles with two inexperienced teachers in one-room 
schools, Anne Arundel with a median experience of one year for 
the 6 one-teacher schools, Alleganv with 1.6 years, Carroll and 
Talbot with 2 years, to 9 years in Montgomery, 10 in St. Mary's 
and 10.5 in Prince George's. The group of 103 teachers with 
one year of experience was larger than any other group, those 
inexperienced following next in line with 99 teachers. The num- 
ber of teachers with each added year of experience from two 
years on, shows a constantly decreasing number from 84 with 
two years to 16 with seven years of experience. (See Table 50.) 



Experience of White Elementary Teachers 



67 



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68 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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Experience of Teachers; Size of Class 



69 



The median years of experience for 401 county white elemen- 
tary teachers employed in two-teacher schools in October, 1930, 
was 6.3 years, .5 higher than for the preceding October. In 
Harford, Carroll, Caroline, Dorchester, Anne Arundel and How- 
ard, the median experience was three years or less, while in Kent, 
Somerset, Allegany, Wicomico, Frederick, St. Mary's and Calvert 
it was 10 years or more. The group of teachers with one year of 
experience, 44, was largest. Thereafter there were fewer teach- 
ers for each year of experience up to six years, when the number 
was 17. The inexperienced group of 29 was exceeded by those 
teachers with one, two and three years of experience. (See 
Table 51.) 

For the 2,001 teachers in graded schools the median experience 
of 7 years was the same as for the year preceding. Only St. 
Mary's, Calvert, Charles, Garrett and Carroll had a median ex- 
perience for teachers in graded schools of 5 years or less. At 
the other extreme, five Eastern Shore counties, Kent, Queen 
Anne's, Somerset, Wicomico and Talbot, had teaching staffs in 
graded schools whose median experience ranged from 12.6 to 18 
years. The experience group with the maximum number of 
graded school teachers was that with three years, which included 
168 teachers, the two year group being next with 165 teachers, 
the five year group next with 155 teachers, the four year group 
following with 139 teachers, and the one year and six year group 
each having 129 teachers. The number of inexperienced teach- 
ers in graded schools was 111. (See Table 51.) 

SIZE OF CLASS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS LARGER 

The average number of pupils per teacher in white elementary 
schools, 33.6 in 1930, was larger by .7 than for the year pre- 
ceding. The range in pupils per teacher varied from 40.3 in 
Baltimore County to 24.7 in Garrett. All of the counties except 
six, Caroline, Washington, Calvert, Somerset, Howard, and 
Queen Anne's, increased the ratio of pupils to teachers from 
1929 to 1930. (See Chart 7.) 

The largest increases in ratio of pupils to teachers were found 
in Anne Arundel, which, up to the present time, has grown in 
population without the corresponding necessary construction of 
buildings, in Garrett in which the consolidation program has been 
proceeding rapidly, in Cecil, Prince George's, Allegany, Dorches- 
ter, and Montgomery. 

There are three counties, Baltimore, Anne Arundel, and Prince 
George's, with an average of 35 or more pupils per teacher, while, 
at the other extreme, there are four counties, Garrett, St. Mary's, 
Calvert, and Kent, with fewer than 30 pupils per teacher. These 
latter counties still have a large number of small rural schools. 
(See Chart 7.) 



70 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 
CHART 7 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER IN T7HITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 1928 
Co. Average 32.8 

Baatimore 40.1 
Anne Arundel 34.9 
Pr. George's 32.8 
Frederick 
Allegany 
Washington 
Talbot 
Wicomico 
Dorchester 
Cecil 
Caroline 
Somerset 
Harford 
Howard 

Queen Anne's 
Carroll 
Montgomery 
Worcester 
Charles 
Kent 
Calvert 
St. Mary's 
Garrett 

Baltimore Gily 32.3 
State 32.7 



1929 1930 
32.9 




For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XIV, page 344. 



On the average in 1930 there were 24.7 pupils belonging per 
teacher in one-teacher schools, no change from the year preced- 
ing. The counties ranged from Garrett with 20.1 to Baltimore 
with 31.4 pupils per one-teacher school. Just over one-half of 
the counties registered a gain in size of one-teacher schools while 
the remainder had smaller one-teacher schools or no change from 
the preceding year. (See Table 52.) 



Average Number of Pupils Belonging per Elementary Teacher 71 



TABLE 52 

Average Number of Pupils Belonging Per Teacher in County White Elementary 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1930 



County 



Schools 
Having 
One 

Teacher Countv 



Schools 
Having 
Two 

Teachers Countv 



Schools 
Having 

Three or 
More 

Teachers 



County Average. . . .24.7 

Baltimore 31.4 

Frederick 29.3 

CaroHne 27.7 

Wicomico 27.6 

Harford 27.2 

Anne Arundel 27.0 

Cecil 26.4 

Montgomery 26.2 

Somerset 25.8 

Prince George's. . . . 25.8 

Howard 25.5 

Talbot 25.0 

Calvert 24.9 

Queen Anne's 24.7 

Washington 24.6 

Carroll 24.5 

Dorchester 23.7 

Alleganv 23.5 

St. Mary's 22.3 

Charles 21.6 

Kent 21.4 

Worcester 20.8 

Garrett 20.1 



County Average. . . .29.5 

Baltimore 33.5 

Allegany 32.5 

Washington 31.9 

Cecil 31.8 

Queen Anne's 30.3 

Dorchester 30.2 

Frederick 29.7 

Carroll 29.6 

Worcester 29.3 

Kent 29.2 

Calvert 29.0 

Charles 28.8 

Anne Arundel 28.6 

Garrett 28.6 

Harford 28.1 

St. Mary's 27.9 

Montgomery 27.8 

Wicomico 27.1 

Prince George's. . . . 26.8 

Howard 25.5 

Talbot 25.5 

Somerset 25. 1 

Caroline 24.5 



County Average. . . .37.5 

Baltimore 42.3 

Calvert 41.8 

St. Mary's 41.5 

Dorchester 39.8 

Howard 39.2 

Anne Arundel 39.0 

Wicomico 38.7 

Prince George's. . . . 37.9 

Frederick 37.8 

Cecil 37.8 

Talbot 37.3 

Washington 37.1 

Kent 37.1 

Harford 36.6 

Worcester 36.4 

Somerset 36.3 

Allegany 36.0 

Charles 35.6 

Queen Anne's 35.6 

Garrett 35.2 

Caroline 35.1 

CarroU 34.8 

Montgomery 31.8 



For counties arranged alphabeticallj- see Table XlV, page 344. 



The average two-teacher school in the counties in 1930 had 
29.5 pupils per teacher, a reduction of .3 under 1929. The range 
in size of class was from 33.5 in Baltimore to 24.5 in Caroline. 
The eleven counties having the lowest average class size in two- 
teacher schools all had smaller classes in 1930 than they had in 
1929. The counties having the largest two-teacher schools, with 
the exception of Baltimore, Queen Anne's, Carroll, and Frederick, 
had larger schools on the average in 1930 than in 1929. (See 
Table 52.) 



72 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



The average class in graded schools in the counties in 1930 
had 37.5 pupils, .7 more than in the preceding year. The range 
in average size of class was from 42.3 in Baltimore County to 
31.8 in Montgomery. It is good to note a reduction in the size 
of the very large classes in Baltimore, Calvert, and St. Mary's, 
the three counties at the top of the list with an average enroll- 
ment of over 41 per teacher. Washington, Kent, Queen Anne's, 
and Caroline also had fewer pupils per teacher than the year 
before. The greatest increase in ratio of pupils to teachers in 
graded schools was found in Garrett, Anne Arundel, Dorchester, 
Montgomery, and Howard. (See Table 52.) 

INCREASED AVERAGE SALARY IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The average salary per white elementary teacher and principal 
in 1930— $1,199, was $15 higher than in 1929. The increase was 
smaller than at any time since 1919. Since such a large propor- 
tion of the teaching staff now holds first grade certificates, the 
increases necessary in former years, when trained teachers were 
replacing the untrained, are no longer required. For the average 
salary from 1917 to 1930, see Table 53. 

TABLE 53 

Average Annual Salary Per County White Elementary School Teacher, 

1917-1930 





Average 




Average 




Salary 




Salary 


Year 


\ATiite 


Year 


White 


Ending 


Elementary- 


Ending 


Elementary 


June 30 


School 


June 30 


School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1917 


$491 


1924 


$1,030 


1918 


542 


1925 


1,057 


1919 


521 


1926. 


1,1^^3 


1920 


631 


1927 


1,126 


1921 


881 


1928 


1,155 


1922 


937 


1929 


1 , 184 


1923 


990 


1930 


1 , 199 



Salaries in the individual counties ranged from $1,505 in Bal- 
timore to $1,015 in St. Mary's. Only five counties had decreases 
in average salary — Baltimore, Kent, Talbot, Calvert, and Wor- 
cester. As the schools increase in size with a constantly decreas- 
ing ratio of principals, the average salary will naturally decrease. 
The following seven counties had increases ranging from $23 to 
$57: Montgomery, Caroline, Harford, Cecil, St. Mary's, Dor- 
chester, and Queen Anne's. (See Chart 8.) 



Average Salary per White Elementary Teacher 73 
CHART 8 !^ 1 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Co. Average 


$1126 


$1155 


$1184 


Baltimore 


1507 


1499 


1518 


Montgomery 


1158 


1191 


1228 


Allegany 


1256 


1268 


1262 


Aiixio AX III mcx 


1113 


1148 


XJL9|C 


Pr. George' s 


±±K3 




1194 


ueciJ. 


T 1 no 


Hob 


1170 


Queen Anne's 


1118 


1134 


1151 


Washington 


1104 


1109 


1155 


Kent 


1042 


1092 


1155 


Wicomico 


1090 


1101 


1114 


Harford 


1024 


1036 


1071 


Caroline 


1027 


1062 


1061 


Frederick 


1042 


1071 


1083 


Talbot 


1100 


1105 


1121 


Howard 


1051 


1051 


1074 


Somerset 


980 


1062 


1081 


Garrett 


952 


1016 


1067 


Carroll 


982 


1035 


1064 


Calvert. 


1086 


nil 


1119 


Worcester 


1016 


1052 


1073 


Dorchester 


989 


1025 


1042 


Charles 


954 


995 


1024 


St. Mary's 


820 


901 


991 


Balto. City* 


1646 


1698 


1822 


State 


1352 


1397 


1463 




* Includes $1759 for elementary, $1977 for junior high, and $2035 for vocational teachers 
in 1930. 



For counties arranged alphabetically see Table XV, page 345. 



No county had an average salary under $1,000 in 1930. In 
2 counties the average salary was between $1,001 and $1,050, 
in 9 counties between $1,051 and $1,100, in 3 counties between 
$1,101 and $1,150, in 4 counties between $1,151 and $1,200, in 
2 counties between $1,201 and $1,250, in 2 counties between 
$1,251 and $1,300, and in 1 county over $1,500. (See ChaH 8.) 



74 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 54 

1930 Average Salary Per Teacher in County White 
Elementary Schools Having 



One Teacher 



County 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's. 

Cecil 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel. . 

Kent 

Queen Anne's . . 

Calvert 

Washington .... 

Harford 

Garrett 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

CaroHne 

Frederick 

Howard 

Worcester 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Charles 

St. Mary's 



Average 
Salary 



$1,119 

1,579 
1,286 
1,221 
1,172 
1,132 

1,127 
1,124 
1,113 
1,105 
1,100 

1,098 
1,095 
1,093 
1,093 
1,091 

1.088 
1,085 
1,083 
1,053 
1,047 

1,024 
1,012 
976 



Two Teachers 



County 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Montgomery. . . . 

Cecil 

Kent 

Prince George's . 
Anne Arundel. . 
Washington . . . . 
Queen Anne's. . , 
Worcester 

Wicomico 

Garrett 

Frederick 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Harford 

Carroll 

St. Mary's 

Howard 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Dorchester 

Charles 



Average 
Salary 



$1,178 

1,511 
1,274 
1,256 
1,195 
1,194 

1,186 
1,181 
1,156 
1,148 
1,125 

1,122 
1,086 
1,085 
1,084 
1,076 

1,071 
1,066 
1,059 
1,053 
1,051 

1,029 
986 
948 



Three or More Teachers 



County 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Montgomery. . . 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's . . 
Cecil 

Anne Arundel . . 
Prince George's. 
Washington. . . . 

Kent 

Wicomico 

Harford 

Howard 

Carohne 

Carroll 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Charles 

Worcester 

Garrett 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 



Average 
Salary 



$1,231 

1,497 
1,292 
1,279 
1,225 
1,217 

1,215 
1,205 
1,186 
1,152 
1,145 

1,131 
1,120 
1,111 
1,108 
1,108 

1,106 
1,095 
1,093 
1,074 
1,068 

1,054 
1,004 
976 



For counties arranged alphabetically see Table XV, page 345. 

Salary by Types of Schools 

In one-teacher schools the average salary was $1,119, in two- 
teacher schools $1,178, and in graded schools $1,231. In all types 
of schools the highest salary was found in Baltimore County, and 
the lowest for one-teacher and graded schools was found in St. 
Mary's, and for two-teacher schools in Charles. Only three coun- 
ties, Baltimore, Garrett, and Calvert, gave the highest salary to 
teachers in the one-teacher schools and the lowest to teachers 
in the graded schools. For the reverse situation there were 
eight counties, Allegany, Queen Anne's, Cecil, Anne Arun- 
del, Washington, Wicomico, Carroll, and Frederick, paying the 
lowest salaries to teachers in the one-teacher schools and the 
highest to those in the graded schools. In the remaining coun- 



Salary per White Elementary Teacher 



75 



ties, salaries were highest in two-teacher schools in Kent, Wor- 
cester, and St. Mary's, and lowest in the two-teacher schools in 
Montgomery, Prince George's, Talbot, Caroline, Harford, How- 
ard, Somerset, Dorchester, and Charles. (See Table 54.) 

In one-teacher schools salaries ranged from $976 in St. Mary's 
to $1,579 in Baltimore. There were increased salaries from 1929 
to 1930 in one-teacher schools of all counties, except Baltimore, 
Prince George's, Kent, Calvert, Somerset, Talbot, Wicomico, and 
Worcester. The decreases are explained by the employment of 
a large proportion of inexperienced teachers. 

In two-teacher schools the range in salaries was from $948 
in Charles to $1,511 in Baltimore County. All counties had in- 
creases in salary, except Baltimore, Allegany, Kent, Anne Arun- 
del, Talbot, Calvert, and Charles. 

In the graded schools in which the salary range was from $976 
in St. Mary's to $1,497 in Baltimore County, only Baltimore, 
Washington, Talbot, Charles, Worcester, Calvert, and St. Mary's 
showed lower salaries. (See Table 54.) 

Distribution of Salaries as of October, 1930 

The distribution of salaries of white elementary teachers, ex- 
cluding principals of graded schools, in service in October, 1930, 
indicates no change from October, 1929, in the median salary 
for teachers in one-teacher, two-teacher, and graded schools. The 
median salary is $1,050 in one-teacher schools and $1,150 in two- 
teacher and graded schools. Salaries range from $650 to $1,800 
in one and two-teacher schools and to a maximum of $2,100 in 
graded schools. (See Table 55.) 

There are 72 teachers receiving salaries under $950, the mini- 
mum required for a teacher holding a regular first grade certifi- 
cate. Last year the corresponding figure was 94. No new teachers 
with salaries under $950 are being employed. In one-teacher 
schools, the minimum salary required for a teacher holding a first 
grade certificate is $1,050 and there were 45 teachers receiving 
less than this amount in October, 1930, compared with 64 the 
year preceding. In two-teacher schools 16 teachers, the same 
number as last year, were receiving under $950, the minimum 
salary for a normal school graduate. In graded schools in Oc- 
tober, 1930, there were 25 teachers receiving less than $950, 
while in the preceding year the corresponding figure was 31. 
(See Table 55.) 

For principals of schools having three or more teachers in 
service in October, 1930, the range in salary was from $1,100 
to $3,060, the median being $1,700, an increase of $50 over the 
year preceding. (See Table 55.) 



76 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 55 

Distribution of Salaries of White Elementary School Teachers in Service 
in Maryland Counties, October 1930 



SALARY 



650. . 

700. . . 

750. . . 

800. . . 

850. . . 

900. . . 

950. . . 
1,000... 
1,050... 
1.100... 
1,150... 
1,200... 
1,250.. 
1,300... 
1,350... 
1,400... 
1,450... 
1,500... 
1,550... 
1,600... 
1,650... 
1,700... 
1,750... 
1,800+ 



Total. 
Median . 



TEACHERS IN WHITE ELEMENTARY 
SCHOOLS 



Having 

One 
Teacher 



8 



2 

1 
18 

2 
10 

4 

259 
22 
70 
51 
67 
19 
15 
13 
14 
3 
3 
2 
2 
1 



Having 

Two 
Teachers 



8 



594 
SI, 050 



13 
2 
41 
11 
64 
30 
50 
20 
76 
21 
15 
19 
7 
4 
4 
11 
3 
3 



401 
$1,150 



Graded 
Schools 
Excluding 
Principals 



16 
6 
178 
64 
202 
188 
277 
181 
244 
150 
100 
47 
31 
21 
24 
69 
13 
8 



All Teachers 
Excluding 
Principals 
of Graded 
Schools 



11 



1,825 
$1,150 



3 
1 
47 
10 
229 
79 
525 
240 
397 
252 
387 
190 
130 
79 
52 
28 
31 
82 
18 
12 



SALARY 



17 



$1,100. . . 

1,150. . . 

1,200. . . 

1,250. . . 

1,300. . . 

1,350. . . 

1,400. . . 

1,450. . . 

1 , 500 . . . 

1,550. . . 

1,600. . . 

1,650. . , 

1,700. . . 

1,750. . . 

1,800. . . 

1,850. . 

1,900. . 

1,950. . 

2,000. . 

2,050. . 

2,100. . 

2,150. . 

2,200. . 

2,250. . 

2,300. . 

2,400. . 

2,500. . 
and over 



2,820 
$1,150 



Total 
Median , 



Principals 
of Graded 
Schools 



2 
1 
1 
3 
7 

23 
6 

11 
5 

17 
3 
7 
9 

10 
9 
8 
9 
1 

13 
1 
4 
2 
2 
2 
9 
3 

b7 



175 
$1,700 



a Includes one each at $2,100 and $1,932. 
h Includes one each at $3,060 and $2,880. 

FEWER THAN 200 MEN IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
The number and per cent of men principals and teachers in 
white elementary schools for 1930 were lower than for any pre- 
vious year. The 195 men in service represented 6.4 per cent of 
the white elementary school teaching staff. (See Table 56.) 

Only two counties, Calvert and Queen Anne's, had no men on 
the white elementary school teaching staff. In the other coun- 
ties the number employed varied from 1 in Wicomico, Caroline,. 



Salaries October, 1930; Men Teachers 77 
TABLE 56 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teaching in County White Elementary Schools 



Year Number Per Cent 

1923 287 9.4 

1924 253 8.3 

1925 233 7.6 

1926 224 7.3 



Year Number Per Cent 

1927 218 7.1 

1928 204 6.6 

1929 208 6.8 

1930 195 6.4 



Howard, Kent, and St. Mary's, to 29 in Frederick, 37 in Balti- 
more, and 41 in Washington County. The men represented 10 
per cent of the white elementary teaching staff in Baltimore 
County, and between 12.6 and 13.5 per cent in Carroll, Washing- 
ton, and Frederick. In most counties the men act as principals 
of the larger elementary schools and give instruction in the upper 
elementary grades. (See Table 57.) 



TABLE 57 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County White Elementary 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1930 



COUNTY 



Total and Average . 



Calvert 

Queen Anne's . . 

Wicomico 

Caroline 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Prince George's. 

St. Mary's 

Worcester 

Montgomery. . . 



Men Te.\ching 



Number 



194. 



1 
1 
2 
1 
1 

4.2 
1 

2 
6 



Per Cent 



6.4 



1.0 
1.5 
1.6 
1.7 
2.0 
2.1 
2.6 
2.7 
3.1 



COUNTY 



Dorchester. . . 
Anne Arundel 
Allegany. . . . 
Somerset .... 

Cecil 

Talbot 

Charles 

Garrett 

Baltimore . . . 

Carroll 

Washington . . 
Frederick .... 



Men Teaching 



Number Per Cent 



13 

3 

4 

3 

3 
13 

37.1 

20 

41 

29.2 



3.4 
3.9 
3.9 
4.2 
4.2 
5.6 
6.4 
8.5 
9.8 
12.6 
13.1 
13.5 



COST PER WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPIL $50 

Excluding expenditures for general control and fixed charges, 
the cost of educating the average pupil belonging in the county 
white elementary schools was slightly under $50, a gain of but 
29 cents per pupil over costs for the year preceding. Expendi- 
tures per pupil belonging varied from $44 in Washington, Fred- 
erick, and Wicomico Counties to $61 in Montgomery. It is 
interesting to find that 12 counties showed decreases in cost per 
pupil, while 11 had increases. The counties having the largest 
increases are Charles, Carroll, Harford, Caroline, Washington, 
Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, and Frederick. (See Chart 9.) 



78 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 9 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN TJHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 




' Includes elementary schools, $74 ; junior high schools, $91 
For counties arranged alphabetically see Table 58, page 80. 



vocational schools, $209. 



Salary Cost per Pupil $36 

The largest single item in the cost of instructing a white ele- 
mentary pupil is of course the salary of the teacher. Salary per 
pupil is dependent on the size of the class, the training and ex- 
perience of the teacher and on whether the county pays salaries 
in excess of the minimum prescribed in the State school law. 



Cost per White Elementary School Pupil Belonging 



79 



Consolidation of schools has increased the size of class in many 
of the counties, thus decreasing the average salary cost per pupil 
by 35 cents from 1929 to 1930. Caroline, Carroll, Harford, How- 
ard, Montgomery, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset, and 
Washington show an increase in salary cost per pupil. The range 
in average salary cost per pupil is from $43.89 in Garrett, in 
which the average size of class is smallest, to $31.52 in Frederick, 
in which consolidation has proceeded very rapidly in the past 
few years. (See Table 58, page 80.) 

Supervision Cost $1.49 on the Average Per Pupil 

The per pupil cost of bringing about improvement in instruc- 
tion through supervision, $1.49 in 1930, was higher by two cents 
than in 1929. Expenditures per pupil ranged from less than $1 
per pupil in Caroline, Prince George's, and Washington Counties, 
all of which were short of the number of supervisors needed, to 
close to $3 per pupil in Calvert and Garrett. Because of the 
small size of the county, the ratio of pupils to supervisor is 
smaller in Calvert than in any other county. In Garrett the 
average size of class is smaller than in any other county, the 
county is more mountainous and has a greater area than any 
other county. (See Table 58.) 

All of the counties, except Somerset and Baltimore, w^hich 
spent less than the average county for supervision, viz., Caroline, 
Prince George's, Washington, Allegany, and Anne Arundel, were 
entitled to receive State aid for more supervisors than the num- 
ber actually employed. Caroline and Anne Arundel have the full 
quota of supervisors for the year 1930-31. 

Books, Materials, and Other Costs of Instruction 

The expenditure per pupil for books, materials, and other costs 
of instruction ($2.15) was four cents lower in 1930 than in 1929. 
The counties ranged in expenditure per pupil for these purposes 
from $3.17 in Allegany to $1.23 in Frederick County. For the 
purchase of books and materials there is available $250,000 from 
State funds. With 259,464 pupils belonging in 1930, the average 
State appropriation per pupil was 96 cents. In the counties re- 
ceiving the Equalization Fund additional State aid was distrib- 
uted which was available for the purpose of providing books and 
materials. (See Table 58.) 

Ten counties, Baltimore, Calvert, Carroll, Charles, Garrett, 
Harford, Howard, Kent, Prince George's, and Washington, spent 
more per pupil for books and materials in 1930 than they spent 
in 1929. In Baltimore, Charles, Harford, Howard, and Prince 
George's, the amount spent per pupil in both years was less than 
the expenditure per pupil in the average county. Garrett and 
Kent spent more per pupil than the average county both years. 
Especially in Garrett the lack of books in the schools made these 
expenditures very necessary. Calvert, Carroll, and Washington 



80 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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Cost per White Elementary School Pupil; Transportation 81 



spent less than the county average in 1929 but more than the 
county average in 1930 for books, materials, and cost of instruc- 
tion other than teachers' salaries and supervision. The evidences 
of these expenditures have been gratifying to the county and 
State supervisors of elementary instruction. (See Table 58.) 

Operation Costs Per White Elementary Pupil Lower, 
Maintenance Costs Higher in 1930 than in 1929 

It cost $3.84 to heat and clean school buildings for the use of 
the average white elementary pupil belonging in 1930. The range 
in cost was from $6.63 per pupil in Montgomery to $1.98 per 
pupil in St. Mary's. Expenditure per pupil of $1.89 for repair 
and upkeep of buildings and equipment showed variations from 
an amount of less than $1 per pupil in Somerset, Calvert, How- 
ard, and Caroline to over $3 per pupil in Prince George's, Anne 
Arundel, Montgomery, and Charles. The figures for Charles 
County include expenditures by the Federal Government at In- 
dian Head and the Anne Arundel figures include the repairs re- 
sulting from the fire in the Annapolis school. (See Table 58.) 

Auxiliary Agencies Cost Per Elementary Pupil Greater 

The cost of transportation, health, and libraries per white 
elementary school pupil ($4.69) is an increase of 56 cents over 
the 1929 cost per pupil. Only three counties, Calvert and Anne 
Arundel, which spent the largest amounts per pupil in 1929, and 
Talbot, show a reduction in expenditure per pupil for these pur- 
poses from 1929 to 1930. Expenditures ranged from $11.33 per 
white elementary pupil in Calvert, $11.12 in Charles, and $10.49 
in Queen Anne's, to less than $3 in Washington, Wicomico, Bal- 
timore, Prince George's, and Harford Counties. (See Table 58.) 

transportation costs greater 

The total expenditures for transporting pupils to white ele- 
mentary schools increased by $57,000 from 1929 to 1930, the 
1930 amount being $435,033. The number of pupils transported 
was 16,670, an increase of 2,647 over 1929. There was a reduc- 
tion in cost per pupil transported from $26.97 to $26.10 in the 
year ending in June, 1930. (See Table 59.) 

The largest increases in transportation costs and in pupils 
transported occurred in Frederick, Allegany, Carroll, Dorchester, 
and Harford Counties^ the cost per pupil transported being lower 
in 1930 than in 1929 in the two counties listed first and higher 
in the three last named counties. 

The number of white elementary pupils transported was 325 
or less and the costs under $11,000 in Kent, Calvert, Howard, 
Wicomico, Harford, Cecil, and St. Mary's, as against over 1,000 
pupils transported and costs $33,000 up to $49,000 in Carroll, 
Allegany, Frederick, Baltimore, and Anne Arundel Counties. The 
cost per white elementary pupil transported was between $35 and 
$44 in Calvert, Howard, Kent, Harford, and Garrett, and from 
$17 to under $24 in Baltimore, Anne Arundel, Montgomery, and 



82 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



Wicomico Counties. Baltimore and Montgomery Counties own 
a large proportion of the buses used in transporting pupils. The 
remaining counties had costs per pupil transported varying be- 
tween $24 and $32. (See Table 59.) 

TABLE 59 

Expenditures and Cost Per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies in Maryland 
County White Elementary Schools — Year Ending July 31, 1930 



Transportation 



COUNTY 



Pupils 
Trans- 
ported 
at County 
Expense 



Amount 
Spent 



Cost per 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 



Libraries 



Total Ex- 
penditures 
for Libraries 



Amount per 



School Teacher 



Health 



Total Ex- 
penditures 
for Health 



Amount 
per 
Pupil 



Total and 
Average. . . . 

Calvert 

Charles 

Queen Anne's. . 
Anne Arundel . 

Caroline 

St. Marv's . . . . 

Carroll T 

Dorchester. . . . 

Talbot 

Howard 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Frederick 

Kent 

Montgomery. . 

Garrett 

Allegany 

Cecil 

Harford 

Prince George's 

Baltimore 

Wicomico 

Washington. . . 



16,670 

206 
496 
541 
12,328 
764 
325 

1,076 
857 
446 
258 
529 
525 

1,614 
180 
879 
*419 

1,184 
324 
298 
684 

1.863 
282 
592 



$435,033.01 

9,192.50 
15,587.54 
15.458.66 
49,415.42 
18,343.00 

7,968.22 
33,757.79 
22,085.61 
12,778.20 
10,850.00 
12,952.51 
12,833.93 
39,968.30 

7,021.63 
19,779.97 
14,739.43 
35,977.88 
10,220.37 
10,539.27 
17,079.00 
32,932.10 

6,709.41 
18,842.27 



$26.10 

44.62 
31.43 
28.57 
21.23 
24.01 
24.52 
31.37 
25.77 
28.65 
42.05 
24.48 
24.45 
24.76 
39.01 
22.50 
35.18 
30.39 
31.54 
35.37 
24.97 
17.68 
23.79 
31.83 



$15,048.41 



99.87 
75.41 
794.18 
668.15 
251.12 
160.01 
833.23 
184.61 
46.70 
185.00 
146.21 
420.00 
290.00 
218.10 
2,798.55 
1,163.71 
1,063.00 
491.58 
446.86 
493 . 00 
2,155.00 
931.85 
1,132.27 



$12.74 

4.54 
3.14 
29.41 
20.25 
10.04 
6.15 
10.29 
4.29 
2.22 
5.61 
4.06 
14.00 
3.54 
7.27 
47.43 
10.21 
13.99 
10.03 
7.57 
7.70 
23.42 
18.64 
10.78 



$4.93 

3.44 
1.60 

15.57 
4.31 
3.69 
4.21 
5.23 
2.10 
.86 
3.15 
1.96 
5.83 
1.34 
4.28 

14.36 
7.62 
3.22 
5.22 
3.60 
2.46 
5.70 
9.18 
3.63 



$19,426.66 
2.00 



$.19 



406.80 
2,694.07 
125.50 



2,544.00 



4.00 
3,325.27 
21.12 
1,515.48 



5.80 
1,710.44 
4,752.08 



.52 



2,320.10 



.22 



t Includes 29 children transported to the elementary schools of Prince George's County. 
* Includes 7 children transported to the elementary schools of Allegany County. 

LIBRARY EXPENDITURES GREATER 

For libraries in white elementary schools the counties spent 
$15,048 in 1930, an increase of $4,408 over 1929. The county 
expenditure for libraries per elementary school was $12.74 and 
per elementary teacher $4.93. Large increases in expenditures 
for libraries were made in Montgomery, Garrett, Queen Anne's, 
St. Mary's, Somerset, Washington, Wicomico, Calvert, and Car- 
roll. The expenditure per teacher was $15.57 in Queen Anne's, 
$14.36 in Montgomery, $9.18 in Wicomico, $7.62 in Garrett, and 
between $5 and $6 in Somerset, Baltimore, Carroll, and Cecil. 
The smallest county expenditures for libraries were reported for 
Talbot, Frederick, Charles, Worcester, Dorchester, and Prince 
George's Counties, the amount spent per teacher varying from 
86 cents to $2.46. (See Table 59.) 



Transportation and Library Costs in White Elementary Schools 83 



Statistics furnished by the Maryland Public Library Advisory 
Commission indicate that the county white elementary schools 
were supplied directly with 9,490 volumes in 291 traveling 
libraries and 902 volumes in 185 package libraries, a total of 
10,392 volumes. For the first time it was possible for the Com- 
mission to fill all requests which came from the schools. (See 
Table 60.) 

TABLE 60 



Service of Maryland Library Commission to County White Elementary Schools, 

School Year, 1929-1930 



County 


Total 
No. of 
Volumes 
Supplied 


Traveling Libraries 
(30 to 35 Books in Each) 


Package Libraries 


Number of 


Number of 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Traveling 
Libraries 
Supplied 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Package 
Libraries 
Supplied 


Total 


a6cl0.392 


abcghl32 


abcdefghlSO 


abch29l 


bchoo 


bch92 


bchlSb 


Allegany 


a 285 


a 


a 


a8 


1 


1 


3 


Anne Arundel . . . 


bcl42 


bc2 


bc2 


6c4y hc2 


6c4 


6c3 


Baltimore 


930 


14 


dl7 


27 


4 


5 


8 


Calvert 


35 


1 
6 


1 

6 


1 








Caroline 


259 


7 


1 


2 


6 


Carroll 


1,335 


19 


36 


42 








Cecil 


975 


11 


elS 


30 


2 


3 


5 




c97 


cl 


cfl 


c3 


c2 


c2 


c2 




c487 


c4 


C4: 


c4 


cl5 


c34 


c64 


Frederick 


6c745 


bcl4 


bcl7 


6c22 


bcl 


feci 


bcl 


Garrett 


568 


9 


12 


16 


4 


4 


14 


Harford 


c544 


c9 


c9 


cl3 


c5 


c6 


c32 


Howard 


268 


5 


6 


8 


1 


1 


1 


Kent 


1 








1 


1 


1 


Montgomery. . . . 


126 


3 


3 


4 


1 


1 


1 


Prince George's.. 


1,672 


11 


el7 


48 


4 


8 


19 


Queen Anne '3 . . . 


18 








1 


1 


2 


St. Mary '6 


242 


6 


6 


8 


2 


2 


2 




253 


5 


7 


8 


2 


2 


4 


Talbot 


420 







12 








Washington 


h 


h 




h 


h 


h 


h 




bc28o 


bc6 


6c6 


bc9 


bc2 


bc2 


bc2 




705 


6 


12 


17 


4 


12 


16 



a The Cumberland Library supplied the Cumberland Schools with their own collection in addition 
to books borrowed from the Commission. 

b Limited library service given to schools by County Library. 

c Library privileges extended to any who can conveniently go to county seat on days when libraries 
are open. 

d Includes two librarians and one teacher who distributed books to other teachers in the school, 
e Includes two teachers who distributed books to other teachers in the school, 
f Includes one teacher who distributed books to other teachers in the school. 

g Talbot County Library in order to supplement its collection borrows books from the Commission 
and recirculates to all schools in the Count j' requesting service. 

h Washington's county-wide library ser^•ice takes care of the book needs of the county without 
outside help. 

Only a limited number of schools took advantage of the library 
facilities which the State puts at their disposal through the 
Libraiy Commission. The largest number of white elementary 
schools from any county requesting books was 19 and in a few 
counties only 1 school sent in a request for books. Prince 



84 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



George's and Carroll Counties circulated the largest number of 
books, 1,672 and 1,335, respectively, while Cecil, Baltimore, Fred- 
erick, and Worcester used from 700 to 930 books. 

Until the counties have developed their own county libraries 
to function effectively in meeting the library needs of the schools 
and adults, the supervisors, principals, teachers, and pupils will 
do well to use to the full the library of the Commission to supple- 
ment material available in the schools and homes. 

HEALTH EXPENDITURES INCREASE 

Expenditures for health activities of white elementary pupils 
made by County Boards of Education from county funds were 
nearly $2,000 more in 1930 than in 1929, making the expenditure 
per pupil 19 instead of 17 cents. (See Table 59, page 82.) 

The only County Boards of Education which in 1930 reported 
expenditures from county funds for health activities of $100 or 
more were Baltimore, Montgomery, Anne Arundel, Carroll, 
Washington, Prince George's, Allegany, Queen Anne's, and Cj?ro- 
line. In some counties these amounts which varied from $125 to 
$4,752, paid for the service of one or more nurses, as in Mont- 
gomery, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Washington, and Prince 
George's, or in other counties for medical, referee, and coach 
service and regular instruction furnished by workers from the 
Playground Athletic League. The expenditure per white ele- 
mentary pupil was 56 cents in Montgomery, which spent the 
largest amount per pupil. (See Table 59, page 82.) 

SCHOOL ACTIVITIES OF THE MARYLAND STATE DEPARTMENT 

OF HEALTH* 

Increase in Full Time Health Service 

The number of counties having full time service to June 30, 
1930, was increased to twelve, through the appointment of a full 
time health officer for Kent County. The population of these 
counties is 532,292, or 64.6 per cent of the total outside of Balti- 
more City. Eight of the remaining counties, with a total popu- 
lation of 191,532, or 23.2 per cent of the population outside of 
Baltimore City, are organized into sanitary districts, each con- 
sisting of two counties, and each under the charge of a full time 
deputy State health officer. Three, with a population of 99,714, 
have part time service. The latter constitute 12.1 per cent of 
total population outside of Baltimore. 

Washington and Anne Arundel Counties began the service of 
full time health officers before the close of the year 1930. (See 
Table 61.) 



• Prepared through the courtesy of Dr. Robert H. Riley. Director, Maryland State De- 
partment of Health. 



Library and Health Activities in the Counties 



85 



TABLE 61 

Full Time County Health Departments in the State of Maryland, 1929-30 



COUNTY 



Year 
Started 



Number of 



Nurses 



Clerks 



Total 
Budget 



Receipts From 



County! State '■ OtHer 
Agencies 



Allegany 

Montgomery. . . 

Frederick 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Prince George's 

Talbot 

Harford 

Cecil.. 

Wicomico 

Kent 

Washington 

Anne Arundel. . 



1922 


7 


1 


$29,547 


t$14,620i $14,927 


1923 


4 


1 


12,578 


7,750 


3,928 


1924 


+3 


1 


11,034 


4,700 


3,734 


1924 


7 


*1 


32,596 


19,800 


5,296 


1924 


2 


1 


8,381 


1,900 


5,221 


1924 


2 


*1 


15,161 


5,700 


8,111 


1927 


2 


1 


10,509 


4,500 


6,009 


1927 


1 


1 


10,878 


2,500 


8,378 


1928 


2 


1 


13,738 


5,200 


6,438 


1929 


1 


1 


12,657 


3,200 


9.457 


1929 


3 


1 


18,106 


4,000 


10,006 


1930 


2 


1 


14,350 


3,200 


10,850 


1930 


3 


1 


11,740 


7,800 


3,940 


1930 




1 


11,648 


5,000 


6,648 



900 
2,600 
7,500 
1,260 
°l,3oO 



=2,100 



°4.100 
300 



* Excludes medical oflBcers: Baltimore. 15; Carroll, 14. 

tincludes receipts from towns: Alleganv. S6.300: Frederick, $100. 

° Includes receipts from Red Cross: Carroll, S600: Harford, SI, .500; Wicomico, $600. 

J Includes one nurse who does no work in the schools. 

Medical Examination of School Children 

Medical examination of school children on invitation of the 
school authorities and control of communicable diseases in the 
schools are a part of the regular duties of the State health officers. 
The number of pupils examined during the year ending July 31, 
1930, was 61,153. Allegany led with 10,661 ; Carroll came next 
with 6,080; Frederick was third with 4,493; Washington was 
fourth with 4,412, and Cecil fifth with 3,561. (See Table 62, 
page 86.) 

Visits of Nurses to Schools 

Forty-six nurses were engaged in public health work in the 
counties. Every county had one or more. Eleven had one nurse 
each ; six had two ; four had three ; one had four ; and one, Alle- 
gany, had seven. The nurses assisted the health officers in the 
medical examination of school children and also paid visits of 
inspection under the direction of the health officers, in connection 
with the control of communicable diseases. Allegany, with 614 
visits, led in this particular also. Montgomery came next with 
507 visits; Wicomico was third with 411 visits; Frederick was 
fourth with 378. and Queen Anne's was fifth with 283 visits to 
schools. (See Table 62.) 

Examination of Preschool Children 

Special conferences for the examination of preschool children 
in preparation for their admission to school were held dur- 
ing the spring and summer months, in order that handicapping 
conditions which would interfere with the health and success of 



86 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 62 

School Activities of the Maryland State Department of Health, 1929-30 











Preschool Children Examined 


IN 


Per 










No. of 






Spring and Summer. 1929 




UENT HrXAM- 




JTUDUC 


No of 


No. of 
















ined 




COUNTY 


Health 
Nurses 
W^orking 


Visits to 
Schools 
by 


Pupils 

Ex- 
amined 


NuMPER 


Per CentI 




Requiring 
Vaccination 






NursGs 
























, • 

Counties 


































White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Total 


46 


3,988 


61 , 153 


3,050 


492 


20 


5 


12 


6 


45 


3 


60 





Allegany 


7 


614 


10.661 


957 


1 


60 


1 


2 


6 


20 


3 


100 





Anne Arundel . 


1 


204 


3,067 


141 


54 


17 


1 


12 


6 


58 


2 


66 


7 


Baltimore .... 


4 


8 


552 


40 


11 


1 


8 


4 


1 


70 





63 


6 




2 


224 


2 695 


15 


14 


12 





8 


3 


26 


7 


21 


4 


Caroline .... 


1 


47 


1 ,' 867 


141 


40 


42 


5 


29 


4 


57 


4 


85 





Carroll 


2 


121 


6 080 


52 




7 


4 






73 


1 






Cecil 




110 


3 561 


35 


20 


7 


8 


29 


9 


25 


7 


55 





Charles 




56 


2^458 


20 


29 


9 


3 


12 





95 





100 





Dorchester. . . 


1 


18 


156 


3 


6 




6 


2 


6 


66 


7 


100 





Frederick 


3 


378 


4,493 


210 


1 


19 


2 




8 


91 
69 









Garrett 


1 


150 


2,456 


165 




30 


6 






1 




Harford 


2 


38 


2,215 


279 


34 


47 


2 


32 


1 


41 


9 


41 


2 


Howard 


2 


36 




47 


12 


16 


4 


15 


6 


72 


3 


100 





Kent 


2 


99 


1,718 


88 


132 


40 


6 


98 


5 


85 


2 


75 


8 


Montgomery. 


3 


507 


3,039 


137 


36 


16 


3 


14 


3 


6 


6 


5 


6 


PrinceGeorge's 


2 


231 


2,822 


278 


54 


26 


8 


12 


9 


29 


1 


3 


7 


Queen Anne's. 


1 


283 


898 


71 


12 


29 


7 


9 


1 


85 


9 


100 





St. Mary's 


1 


36 


709 


9 


20 


5 


7 


11 


7 


100 





100 





Somerset 


1 


69 


780 


4 




1 


1 






50 









Talbot 


1 


72 


286 


14 


16 


5 





10 


2 


57 


1 


37 


5 


Washington . . 
Wicomico. . . . 


3 


183 


4,412 


344 




24 


1 






65 


4 






3 


411 


2,793 












Worcester .... 


1 


93 


3,435 





























t Based on the estimate of the number entering elementary schools. 



the children in school could be pointed out to the parents and 
corrections made before the children started to school. Through 
the courtesy of the county school authorities many of the exami- 
nations were held in the school buildings. 

Of the estimated entrants into the first grade of the white 
schools, 3,050 or approximately one-fifth were examined. Wi- 
comico and Worcester were the only counties in which no exami- 
nations were made, and in Dorchester, Somerset, and Baltimore 
Counties, less than 5 per cent of the estimated entrants to white 
schools were examined. Allegany profited most from the con- 
ferences, 60 per cent of its children having the examinations. 
Harford came next with 47 per cent, Caroline with 42 per cent, 
Kent with 41, Garrett with 31, Queen Anne's with 30, Prince 
George's with 27, and Washington with 24 per cent. (See 
Table 62.) 

For the colored children the number and per cent examined, 
492 and 12.6, respectively, showed an increase over correspond- 
ing figures for the preceding year. No examinations of colored 
children were reported for Carroll, Somerset, Washington, Wi- 
comico, and Worcester, and in Frederick and Allegany, only one 
colored child was examined. Kent led the counties with over 98 



State Department of Health Cooperation with Schools 87 



per cent of the colored children estimated to enter the first grade 
examined, Harford came next with 32 per cent, Cecil next with 
30 per cent, and then Caroline with 29 per cent. (See Table 62.) 

Particular attention was given by the examining physicians 
to weight, posture, the heart, lungs, nose, throat, teeth, vision 
and hearing, because of their important bearing upon the gen- 
eral health of the children and their freedom from, and suscepti- 
bility to, disease. A report of each examination was sent to the 
family physician, and parents were urged to have conditions re- 
quiring correction attended to before the children were enrolled 
in school. Of the white children examined, 1,383, or 45 per cent, 
had not been vaccinated against smallpox. The counties varied 
in the percentage of white children found not vaccinated from 
7 in Montgomery to 100 per cent in St. Mary's. Of the 492 col- 
ored children examined, 295, or 60 per cent, required vaccina- 
tion. The parents of all of these children were notified of the 
requirements of the State law. (See Table 62.) 

The preliminary report regarding 2,911 white children exam- 
ined who were to be admitted to school in September, 1930, 
indicated that 62 per cent needed dental attention, 48 per cent 
had unfavorable throat conditions resulting from enlarged or 
infected tonsils, 11 per cent had adenoids, and 5 per cent were 
mouth breathers, 39 per cent were under weight, nearly 4 per 
cent had unfavorable heart and lung conditions, and another 4 
per cent had defective vision and hearing. Over 6 per cent had 
faulty posture and .6 per cent were mentally retarded. 

Of the 446 colored children examined, 55 per cent needed dental 
care, 35 per cent had enlarged or infected tonsils, 9 per cent had 
adenoids, 4 per cent were mouth breathers, 22 per cent were 
under weight, 5 per cent had unfavorable heart and lung condi- 
tions, nearly 2 per cent had defective vision and hearing, nearly 
3 per cent had faulty posture and .9 per cent were mentally 
retarded. 

Dental Clinics 

Extension of the dental work that has been carried on in a 
number of the counties for school children and preschool children 
was made possible by the establishment of a Division of Oral 
Hygiene in the State Department of Health in November, 1929. 
The purpose of the division is three-fold: first, to educate re- 
garding the importance of mouth health and the ways by which 
it may be maintained ; second, to secure an annual dental exami- 
nation of all children in the grades ; third, to provide correctional 
treatment for those children otherwise unable to obtain repara- 
tive work. 

School dental clinics were extended or were established during 
the year in fifteen counties. These vary greatly in scope as the 
following outline indicates : 



88 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



Allegany — a full time program with a clinician devoting all of his 
time to clinic work. 

Talbot and Frederick — half time programs with two local dental 
practitioners devoting one-half of their time to clinic work. 

Kent, Queen Anne's, and Caroline — a three county unit employing the 
services of a full time clinician. 

Calvert, Charles, and St. Mary's — regular monthly clinics averaging 
two clinic days per month. 

Anne Arundel — community clinics with paid clinicians in ten different 
schools. 

Prince George's and Montgomery — numerous clinics in various schools 
manned either by volunteer dental service of local dentists or by paid 
clinicians. 

Garrett — a fairly comprehensive program for the Kitzmiller district 
inaugurated late in 1930 with a paid clinician conducting the work. 

Washington — weekly half-day clinics conducted through volunteer 
services of local dentists. 

Harford — occasional clinics arranged by county nurse. 
A detailed report of the number of children examined and 
treated is impossible due to the failure of many of the clinics to 
furnish statistical material. 

Immunization Against Diphtheria in Maryland 

Diphtheria anti-toxin came into general use in Maryland in 1907. Im- 
munization of school children and of preschool children with toxin-anti- 
toxin was started in 1924. The effect of these measures of control is 
strikingly indicated in the records of cases and deaths. 

In 1900 there were 468 deaths from diphtheria, giving a death rate of 
39.3 per hundred thousand of the population. In 1910, three years after 
the use of diphtheria anti-toxin had become State-wide, the death rate 
dropped to 13.2. That year 600 cases were reported, with 171 deaths. Dur- 
ing the next ten years the death rate remained practically stationary. There 
were 1,013 cases and 192 deaths in 1920, the death rate of 13.2 continuing. 
In 1929, five years after permanent immunization was begun, the number 
of cases reported in the State was 511, with 72 deaths, giving a death rate 
of 4.5 per hundred thousand of the population. * 

Clinics for the immunization of children against diphtheria were held in 
11 counties and 6,379 children were protected against this disease in 1930. 

The use of toxoid for immunization against diphtheria is recommended 
by the State Department of Health in the December, 1930, Bulletin from 
which the following extracts are made. 

The preference for toxoid over toxin-antitoxin as an immunizing agent 
against diphtheria has increased to such an extent that it is now recom- 
mended for general use by many health departments. 

The use of toxin-antitoxin for immunization against diphtheria in human 
beings marked a new era in the control of this disease. Physical and 
chemical methods of modifying the toxin have been sought for and in 1921- 
1923 Glenn and his collaborators in England proposed that toxin, treated 
with formalin be used for the purpose of human active immunization. 
Ramon of the Pasteur Institute, Paris, prepared formalinized toxin which 
was completely atoxic, and established its value by the successful immuni- 
zation of children. The name "anatoxin" has been given by Ramon to his 
product. The English speaking workers use the term toxoid for the product. 

Diphtheria Toxoid. It is important to note the essential difference be- 
tween toxin-antitoxin mixtures and toxoid. Diphtheria toxoid contains no 
antitoxin (serum), therefore there is no possibility of sensitizing an indi- 
vidual to horse or other animal serum, by injections of toxoid. It is ac- 
cordingly to be preferred to toxin anti-toxin. 



Cooperation of State Health Department with Schools 89 

Use of Toxoid. The method employed for human active immunization 
with toxoid consists in the administration of two or three doses by sub- 
cutaneous injection, with an interval between the doses of from two to four 
weeks. The use of two injections of 1 c. c. at intervals of four iveeks seems 
to he given the preference at this time. 

The Reaction Test. In 25,000 inoculations among the primary school 
population in Canada, it was observed that one out of thirty had a reaction 
which kept them out of school for one or two days. In older children and 
adults the action was observed to be more severe. Widespread use of toxoid 
has shown that children under six years seldom, if ever, give any evidence 
of a reaction. 

The opinion of the investigators is that the reaction in the primary school 
population following immunization with toxoid is not sufficiently frequent 
to warrant preliminary testing for possible "reactors." In view, however, 
of the occurrence of marked reactions in older children and in adults, it is 
urged that the reaction test be performed before toxoid is given to such 
persons. 

Immunization of Reactors. The immunization of persons who give a 
positive "reaction test" may be undertaken without fear of reaction, pro- 
viding much smaller doses are given. 

The use of diphtheria toxoid is warranted because the immunizing value 
of the product has been proved by laboratory and clinical trial, because the 
product is atoxic and stable, and because of the absence of serum, there is 
no possibility of sensitizing the person injected to any serum. 

Sanitary Inspections 

Examination of the water supply and sewerage facilities avail- 
able in municipal and rural schools, to the extent normally of 
from 200 to 300 schools each year, are made by the Bureau of 
Sanitary Engineering in the State Department of Health. The 
inspections are usually restricted to the water supply and sewer- 
age facilities, but as occasion has arisen they have included light- 
ing and ventilation where complaint regarding them has been 
made. As a result of the inspections, it has been found that 
many of the schools are being operated without any water sup- 
ply facilities and without minimum sanitary equipment. 

Inspections of the more recently constructed buildings have 
disclosed the fact that many of the new buildings are being con- 
structed without reference to their needs in these particulars. 
Some co-operative plan is desirable whereby the new school sites 
could be passed upon from a sanitary viewpoint before the sites 
are purchased and the buildings constructed. 

COST OF INSTRUCTING PUPIL IN ONE-TEACHER SCHOOLS HIGHER 
THAN IN TWO-TEACHER AND GRADED SCHOOLS 

Excluding supervision, general control, and fixed charges, it 
cost on the average $53.07 to teach a white pupil in one-teacher 
county schools, $51.14 for a pupil in two-teacher schools and 
$46.70 for a pupil in graded schools. These amounts were in- 
creases over 1929 of 54 cents per pupil for one-teacher schools, 
$1.35 per pupil for two-teacher schools, and $.20 per pupil in 
graded schools. (See Table 63.) 



90 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 63 

Cost Per Pupil Belonging in White One-Teacher, Two-Teacher and Graded Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1930, exclusive of Expenditures for General 
Control, Supervision and Fixed Charges 





One- 




Two- 








Teacher 




Teacher 




Graded 


County 


Schools 


County 


Schools 


County 


Schools 



County Average. .$53.07 

Garrett 63.63 

Kent 61.16 

Montgomery 60.41 

Allegany 58.08 

Worcester 57.97 

Baltimore 57.92 

Prince George's. . . 56.60 

Cecil 54.04 

Queen Anne's .... 53.93 

Charles 53.27 

Calvert 52.83 

Carroll 51.09 

Dorchester 51.01 

Washington 50.82 

Howard 50.70 

Anne Arundel .... 50.40 

Talbot 50.23 

St. Mary's 49.37 

Somerset 48.47 

Harford 46.12 

Wicomico 45.71 

Caroline 45.66 

Frederick 42.13 



County Average. .$51.14 

Caroline 62.02 

Montgomery 59.50 

Anne Arundel 59.26 

Kent 58.86 

Talbot 57.97 

Baltimore 56.67 

Prince George's. . . 56.61 

Wicomico 56.48 

Calvert 53.66 

Howard 53.15 

Cecil 51.74 

Queen Anne's .... 50.94 

Garrett 50.12 

St. Mary's 50.04 

Carroll 47.94 

Allegany 47.27 

Somerset 46.76 

Worcester 45.01 

Harford 44.56 

Frederick 44.19 

Washington 43.81 

Dorchester 43.47 

Charles 39.61 



County Average. .$46.70 

Calvert 62.36 

Charles 60.17 

Montgomery 59.36 

Queen Anne's .... 57.24 

St. Mary's 54.68 

Carroll 51.73 

Anne Arundel. ... 51.05 

Allegany 48.94 

Kent 47.90 

Carohne 46.80 

Garrett 46.47 

Talbot 46.29 

Baltimore 45.74 

Dorchester 45.23 

Cecil 44.43 

Worcester 44.42 

Prince George's. . . 44.07 

Howard 43.51 

Harford 43.21 

Somerset 42.90 

Frederick 42.18 

Washington 41.03 

Wicomico 39.49 



For expenditures by types of schools, see Tables XXIX-XXXI, pages 359 to 361. 

In the one-teacher schools costs varied from $42.13 per pupil 
in Frederick to $63.63 per pupil in Garrett, which had the small- 
est number of pupils per teacher in one-teacher schools. Garrett, 
Kent, Worcester, Prince George's, Anne Arundel, St. Mary's, 
Wicomico, and Frederick had lower costs in 1930 than in 1929. 
(See Table 63.) 

In the two-teacher schools the cost per pupil ranged from 
$39.61 in Charles to $62.02 in Caroline. Kent, Baltimore, Wico- 
mico, Calvert, Howard, Cecil, Queen Anne's, Allegany, Worces- 
ter, and Dorchester had lower costs in 1930 than they had in 
1929. (See Table 63.) 

In the graded schools costs per pupil ranged from $39.49 in 
Wicomico to $62.36 in Calvert. Charles, Montgomery, Queen 
Anne's, St. Mary's, Carroll, Kent, Caroline, Harford, Frederick, 
and Washington had higher costs in 1930 than in 1929. (See 
Table 63.) 



Cost per Pupil by Types of Schools and for Capital Outlay 91 



Costs per pupil were highest in one-teacher schools and lowest 
in graded schools in Garrett, Kent, Montgomery, Worcester, Bal- 
timore, Cecil, Washington, Somerset, and Harford. The reverse, 
highest costs per pupil in graded schools and lowest in one- 
teacher schools, were found in Calvert and St. Mary's. In Queen 
Anne's, Charles, and Carroll, the cost per pupil was highest in 
graded schools and lowest in two-teacher schools, while in Alle- 
gany and Dorchester the highest cost per pupil was found in the 
one-teacher schools and the lowest in the two-teacher schools. 
The cost per pupil in two-teacher schools was most expensive in 
Prince George's, Howard, Talbot, Wicomico, Anne Arundel, Caro- 
line, and Frederick and least expensive in graded schools in the 
first four counties listed and least expensive in one-teacher 
schools in the last three counties named. (See Table 63.) 

CAPITAL OUTLAY PER WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPIL NEARLY S14 

The capital outlay per county white elementary pupil of $13.95 
varied from less than $1 per pupil in Calvert, Queen Anne's, 
Cecil, Harford, Carroll, and Anne Arundel to over $40 per pupil 
in Montgomery and Baltimore Counties. Capital outlay in Wor- 
cester, Washington, Wicomico, Frederick, Prince George's, 
Charles, and Kent provided facilities badly needed for growth in 
population or to replace buildings unfit for use. (See Table 58, 
page 80.) 

A table showing the capital outlay for white elementary 
schools by years from 1920 to 1930 and summarized for the 
period shows what the counties have accomplished in the way of 
improving the housing of white elementary school pupils. (See 
Table 64, page 92.) 

FEWER WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The number of county white elementary schools decreased from 
1,262 in 1929 to 1,180 in 1930, a reduction of 82 schools. There 
were 80 fewer one-teacher schools, the number being lowered 
from 741 to 661 in 1930. That the size of school is being in- 
creased is evident from the reduction in the number of schools 
having seven teachers or fewer from 1,178 to 1,084, and the in- 
crease in the number of schools having over 7 teachers from 84 
to 96 between 1929 and 1930. (See Table 65, page 93.) 

Every county had some one-teacher schools. Only three 
counties — Allegany, Baltimore, and Washington — had elemen- 
tary schools with over 20 teachers. The largest school in Wash- 
ington County had over 31 teachers. 

Garrett and Washington had the largest number of white ele- 
mentary schools, 114 and 105, respectively. The number in 
Garrett was 17 fewer than the number the preceding year. Fred- 
erick with 82 schools had 14 fewer in 1930 than in 1929. Car- 
roll, Charles, and Allegany reduced the number of schools in the 
year by 8, 7, and 6, respectively. Only three counties — Calvert, 



92 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



1 

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COUNTY 


Total Counties . 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel. . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 


jiii 


Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 
St. Mary's 


Talbot 

Washington .... 

Wicomico 

Worcester 


Baltimore City. 
Total State 



Capital Outlaw; Number of White Elementary Schools 93 



Kent, and Worcester — had the same number of schools both 
years. All other counties reduced the number by from 1 school 
to 17 schools. 

There were 10 counties which had fewer than 35 schools for 
white elementary pupils. Talbot had 21, Calvert 22, Charles 24, 
Caroline 25, St. Maiy's 26, Queen Anne's 27, Somerset and Kent 
30, Howard and Anne Arundel 33 each. (See Table 65.) 



TABLE 65 

Number of White Elementary Schools Having Following Number of 
Teachers, School Year 1929-1930 



COrXTY 



Total 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel. . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester .... 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 
St. Mary's. . . . 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS HAVING FOLLOWING 
NUMBER OF TEACHERS 



224 

15 
7 

27 
4 
6 

10 



17 
12 
15 
4 
6 
18 
tl6 



73 



12 

5 
3 

i 

2 
4 
1 
4 
3 
2 
2 
10 
4 

3 
1 

5 
4 

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24 


18 


13 


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6 


1 


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1 


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4 


9 




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t Excludes Greene St. Junior High School. 

* Includes 2 one-room schools with two-teacher organization. 

t Includes 2 two-room schools with a graded organization. 

Fewer Teachers in One-Teacher Schools 

The number of teachers working in one-teacher schools has 
been reduced from 1,171 in 1920 to 663 in 1930, a reduction of 
over 500. The percentage of county teachers working with seven 
grades w^hich included 39.1 per cent of the county teaching staff 
in 1920 has been lowered to 21.7 in 1930. (See Table 66.) 

Garrett still has the largest number and per cent of white 
elementary teachers in one-teacher schools — 97 teachers includ- 
ing 63.5 per cent of the staff. Other counties which had over 



94 



1930 Keport of State Depaetment of Education 



TABLE 66 

Decrease in White One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1930 







County White Elementary Teachers 




School Year Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 






Total 












Number 


Per Cent 


1920 




2,992 


1,171 


39.1 


1921 




3,037 


1,149 


37.8 


1922 




3,054 


1,124 


36.8 






3,063 


1,093 


35.7 


1924 




3,065 


1,055 


34.4 


1925 




3,047 


1,005 


33.0 


1926 




3,067 


956 


31.2 


1927 




3,088 


898 


29.1 


1928 




3,070 


823 


26.8 


1929 




3,078 


739 


24.0 


1930 




3,050 


663 


21.7 



one-third of their teachers working in a one-teacher organization 
are Calvert, St. Mary's, Kent, Cecil, Howard, Worcester, Carroll, 
and Wicomico. Anne Arundel has only 4 schools in which the 
teacher is responsible for all of the work of the elementary 
grades and this is true of less than 10 per cent of the teachers 
in Baltimore and Allegany Counties. (See Table 67.) 

Only two counties, Calvert and Garrett, have over one-half of 
the white elementary pupils in one-teacher schools, while St. 
Mary's has just over one-third of its pupils in this type of or- 
ganization. (See Table 67.) 



TABLE 67 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers and Pupils in White One-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31, 1930 





Teachers in 


Pupils 


in 




Teachers in 


Pupils 


in 




One-Teacher 


One-Teacher 




One-Teacher 


One-Teacher 




Schools 


Schools 




Schools 


Schools 


County 










County 












Num- 


Per 


Num- 


Per 




Num- 


Per 


Num- 


Per 




ber 


Cent 


ber 


Cent 




ber 


Cent 


ber 


Cent 


Total and Aver. 


.663 


21.7 


16,341 


15.9 




















Queen Anne's. 


. . 15 


29.4 


370 


23.3 


Anne Arundel . . 


. 4 


2.6 


108 


1.8 


Dorchester , . . 


28 


31.9 


664 


22.7 


Baltimore 


28 


7.4 


871 


5.6 


Charles 


15 


31.9 


324 


23.0 


Allegany 


30 


9.1 


705 


6.2 




34 


33.5 


937 


26.6 


Montgomery. . . 


22 


11.3 


576 


9.7 


Carroll 




34.5 


1.347 


27.7 


Prince George's . 


. 23 


11.5 


594 


8.5 




26 


34.9 


542 


24.1 


Caroline 


9 


13.2 


249 


11.3 




21 


35.8 


536 


29.2 


Frederick 


42 


19.5 


1.229 


16.3 


Cecil 


34 


36.1 


898 


29.3 




63 


20.2 


1.551 


14.6 


Kent 


20 


39.2 


427 


28.8 


Talbot 


13 


24.1 


325 


17.8 


St. Mary's 


16 


42.1 


356 


34.7 




18 


25.0 


465 


20.1 


Calvert 


17 


58.6 


423 


51.5 


Harford 


33 


26.6 


897 


22.5 


Garrett 


97 


63.5 


1.947 


51.6 



One Teacher Schools; Consolidation Costs in Frederick 



95 



Most of the counties have worked out careful plans for the 
consolidation of their rural schools which are accessible to roads 
sufficiently good so that it is possible to provide bus transporta- 
tion for the children. In many of the counties such plans can 
not be put into effect completely until further funds are available 
for construction of additional building facilities at the consolida- 
tion centers. 

Since the cost of instructing a pupil in one-teacher schools is 
higher in most counties than it is in the larger schools, the effect 
of the consolidation program is to decrease current expense costs. 
The following study made by G. Lloyd Palmer, Superintendent 
of Frederick County, and James C. Biehl, Assistant Superin- 
tendent, indicates an annual saving of $20,000 to the county as 
a result of the consolidation of 88 schools from 1914 to 1930. 

*A STUDY OF consolidation COSTS IN FREDERICK COUNTY, MARYLAND 

Some people question the wisdom of the consolidation of one 
and two-room rural schools into larger graded schools. Some 
raise doubts as to the increased efficiency credited to the consoli- 
dated school; the claims of others are largely sentimental and 
traditional ; but many lay much stress on the added costs which 
must be shouldered by the taxpayers. This study is particularly 
intended to throw some light on the last named phase of the 
question. 

From 1914 to 1930, both dates inclusive, there have been closed 
in Frederick County 88 one-room rural schools and 5 two-room 
rural schools. 

For the year 1929-30 the average current expense for the one- 
room schools then in operation in Frederick County was $1,- 
215.20, and for the two-room schools, $2,587.33. 

Certainly, then, if these 88 one-room and 5 two-room schools 
had been open in 1929-30 they would have cost an amount equiva- 
lent to the product of the average current expense for that year 
and the number of schools. 

$1,215.20 X 88 equals $106,937.60 
$2,587.33 X 5 equals $ 12,936.65 

Total $119,874.25 

The total for current expenses, then, of these 93 schools, had 
they been open in 1929-30, would have been $119,874.25. 

According to the contracts on file in the office of the Board of 
Education, it will cost for 1930-31 for transportation of pupils 
from these 93 schools to the consolidation centers the sum of 
$49,612.50. Insurance on school buses will amount to $3,625.58 
f 01" the year. Also, as a result of the increase of pupils at these 



* Study furnished by the courtesy of G. Lloyd Palmer, Superintendent of Schools, and 
J. C. Biehl, Assistant Superintendent in Frederick County, Maryland. 



96 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



consolidated centers it has been necessary to employ 38 additional 
teachers. A saving, therefore, of 60 teachers has been effected 
since 98 teachers in one and two-room schools were no longer 
needed. The average annual salary of these teachers is $1,050, 
making the total annual cost of the 38 additional teachers 
$39,900. 

TABLE 68 
Consolidation Costs 



Annual Cost of Transpor- 
tation of Pupils to Con- 
solidated Centers $49,612.50 

Bus Insurance _ 3,625.58 

Salaries of additional 
teachers needed at Con- 
solidated Centers 39,900.00 



Actual present current 

cost^after consolidation $93,138.08 



Total estimated present 
day annual cost of 93 
white schools closed 
from 1914 to 1930 $119,874.25 

Actual present current 
cost after consolida- 
tion 93,138.08 



Net Gain through Con- 
solidation _ $ 26,736.17 



We are also conscious of the additional capital outlay made 
necessary in carrying out this program of consolidation, al- 
though the aggregate on account of consolidation alone is not 
nearly as great as the capital outlay account might at first glance 
indicate for several reasons. 

A large number of the rural school buildings which were closed 
were wholly unfit for school purposes. The light was from two, 
three, and sometimes all four sides of the room. They were very 
difficult to heat to an even temperature over the entire room. To 
bring them into conformity with modern requirements, most of 
them would have had to be changed to a great extent, and due 
to shifting of population, a number of new buildings would have 
had to be erected during the period 1914 to 1930, or soon there- 
after, even if no consolidation had taken place. In other words, 
the present worth of many of these schools was veiy little. Had 
they been continued in operation, considerable capital outlay 
would have been necessary for the county. 

At a number of points where consolidated schools were located 
there were one or more vacant rooms in buildings which had 
been built earlier, looking to an increased school population. A 
total of eight such rooms were unoccupied before consolidation 
took place. Instead, therefore, of being required to have 38 ad- 
ditional rooms for the teachers added to the staff at the consoli- 
dation centers, only 30 were of new construction. 

Also, while consolidation was being effected, during the period 
from 1914 to 1930, abandoned buildings were sold to the value 
of $38,917.50. This sum was used for building purposes and 
aided in reducing the amount of capital necessary to complete the 
building program for consolidation purposes. 



Consolidation Costs in Frederick County 



97 



The 30 classrooms referred to have cost approximately $120,- 
000. Deducting from this amount the sum obtained from the 
sale of abandoned buildings ($38,917.50) we have $81,082.50 
which it was necessary to secure for new buildings through the 
sale of bonds. The annual cost for interest at 5 per cent and 
payments of principal over a 15-year period is, therefore, ap- 
proximately $9,000. 

Subtracting this $9,000 from the gain of $26,736.17, as shown 
in Table 68, we have as the net annual financial gain on account 
of consolidation over the last 16 years nearly $18,000. When it 
is considered that large numbers of these buildings would have 
had to be rebuilt during this period, even if no consolidation had 
taken place, it is easily seen that the gain is still greater. 

There is also a considerable economy in time and money 
through the reduction in mileage necessary to the visitation of 
these schools by school officials. 

The greatest advantage lies, however, not in financial gain, but 
in economy of effort, increased efficiency in classroom instruction, 
and enrichment of the curriculum for the children. In 1914, the 
93 schools which were later consolidated had an enrollment of 
3,528 pupils, of whom 3,211 were instructed in one-teacher 
schools. These pupils represented approximately one-third of 
the total enrollment in Frederick County at that time. 

This year, 1930-31, there are but 680 pupils attending one- 
room schools, 851 in two-room schools, and 7,543 in graded 
schools. Of this number, 2,275 attending elementary schools are 
being transported. 

Under the consolidation regime, children from the rural sec- 
tions are receiving their education in a type of school which 
makes their opportunities commensurate with those of the urban 
child. Teachers in these schools seldom have more than one or 
two grades to teach as against seven grades in the one-room 
school. There is abundant evidence from the results of tests 
alone to prove most conclusively that greatly improved results 
are to be had in graded schools over those in one-room schools ; 
there is also opportunity for offering an enriched curriculum, and 
for enlarging desirable social contacts of the children. 

*"The consolidated school with fewer grades for each teacher, but 
with larger opportunity for drill in essentials, opens an encouraging 
prospect for some relief from the lamentable overcrowded condition of 
recitations which are found in the average mral schools. Better teachers 
with better qualifications may be induced to stay longer and render 
better sei^ice when physical conditions are better, as they usually are 
in consolidated schools. The school work of the pupils in such schools 
usually is correspondingly improved." 



* U. S. Office of Education, Bulletin (1930) No. 21, Fletcher B. Dresslar and Haskell 
Pruett. 



98 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



There is little wonder that consolidation has been steadily pro- 
moted, because administratively consolidation contributes to the 
provision of the essential conditions — good teachers, adequate 
supervision and equipment, and a pupil group large enough for 
socialized activity. 

That consolidation is still in full swing in many counties of 
Maryland is shown by the reduction in the number of teachers 
in one and two-teacher schools from October, 1929, to October, 
1930. The number of teachers working in one-teacher schools, 
594, is 83 fewer than the corresponding number reported in 
October, 1929, while the number in two-teacher schools is 41 
fewer than it was the preceding year. (See Table 69.) 



TABLE 69 

Decrease in the Number of Teachers in White One- and Two-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, 1920-Oct. 1930 



CbUXTYt 


Number of Teachers in 
One-teacher Schools 


Number of Teachers in 
Two-teacher Schools 


Decrease in 
Number of 
Teachers in 

One- and 
Two-teacher 

Schools 


1920 


Oct., 1930 


Decrease 

1920- 
Oct., 1930 


1920 Oct., 1930 

1 
j 


Decrease 

1920- 
Oct., 1930 


Total 


1,171 


594 


577 


510 


401 


109 


686 


Charles 


44 


2 


42 


14 


6 


8 


50 


Anne Arundel . 


41 


6 


35 


22 


12 


10 


45 


Caroline 


38 


8 


30 


8 


10 


+2 


28 


Talbot 


25 


10 


15 


20 


2 


18 


33 


Queen Anne's. . 


33 


15 


18 


16 


10 


6 


24 


Calvert 


32 


16 


16 


4 


8 


+4 


12 


St. Mary's 


48 


16 


32 


10 


16 


+6 


26 


Somerset 


28 


16 


12 


22 


14 


8 


20 


Howard 


30 


21 


9 


14 


13 


1 


10 


Kent 


24 


21 


3 


10 


10 




3 


Prince George's 


42 


21 


21 


30 


26 


4 


25 


Montgomery. . 


39 


22 


17 


24 


30 


+6 


11 


Worcester 


33 


23 


10 


16 


4 


12 


22 


Frederick 


111 


24 


87 


32 


26 


6 


93 


Dorchester. . . . 


57 


26 


31 


18 


12 


6 


37 


Baltimore 


40 


27 


13 


86 


42 


44 


57 


Allegany 


51 


29 


22 


36 


30 


6 


28 


Wicomico 


43 


31 


12 


16 


10 


6 


18 


Cecil 


57 


33 


24 


10 


18 


+8 


16 


Harford 


51 


33 


18 


24 


28 


+4 


14 


Carroll 


97 


51 


46 


24 


18 


6 


52 


Washington. . . 


81 


55 


26 


32 


34 


+2 


24 


Garrett 


126 


88 


38 


22 


22 




38 







t The counties are ranked in the order of the nuinher of teachers in one-room schools in October 
1930. 



Consolidation; Supervision of White Elementary Schools 99 



Charles County has only 2 teachers in one-teacher schools 
while in 1920 it had 44. Anne Arundel has 6 as against 41 in 
1920. Caroline has reduced its one-teacher schools from 38 to 
8. St. Mary's has lowered the number from 48 to 16. Frederick 
has made the greatest reduction of all from 111 to 24. Carroll 
which has reduced its one-teacher schools from 97 to 51 and 
Garrett from 126 to 88 have made notable progress in carrying 
out their consolidation program between 1920 and October, 1930. 
(See Table 69.) 

SUPERVISION OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The Assistant State Superintendent and the State Supervisor 
of Elementary Schools were the professional leaders of the 52 
Maryland county elementary supervisors. They spent about two- 
thirds of their time visiting schools with the county supervisors 
and attended a number of teachers' meetings conducted by the 
supervisors. In Maryland elementary school supervisors and 
helping teachers are carefully selected persons who have not only 
fulfilled the requirement of at least three or four years' training 
beyond high school, but who also have had at least four years of 
successful teaching experience. Most of the supervisors have 
had far more preparation than this. 

Of the 52 supervisors in service in 1929-30, 18 did not 
have at least a Bachelor's Degree. These 18 had had three or 
four years of study of college grade, but it amounted to less than 
the requirements for the degree. Of the 34 who had the Bache- 
lor's Degree, 13 had completed no work beyond that for the de- 
gree, 7 had done some graduate work, 9 held the Master's Degree, 
and 5 were credited with work beyond the M. A. 

There were few changes in the corps of county supervisors in 
the fall of 1930. The supervisory staffs in Anne Arundel, Bal- 
timore, and Frederick Counties lost four of their members, M. 
Clarice Bersch, E. Heighe Hill, Mary Grogan, and Virginia Har- 
wood, to the faculty of the Towson and Salisbury Normal Schools, 
and Baltimore County made Nellie V. Gray supervising principal 
of the Catonsville elementary school. Anne Arundel added Vera 
E. Pickard, a specialist in primary work, and Mary E. Downs, 
a successful teacher, to its supervisoiy staff. A. May Thompson, 
who spent a year in study at Teachers College, Columbia, re- 
turned to supervise in Caroline County. Prince George's added 
Catherine Green a successful primary teacher to its supervisory 
staff. 

In 1929-30 there was an average of one elementary supervisor 
for every 58 teachers in the white elementary schools. Ten 
counties with a staff of fewer than 80 teachers were entitled to 
only one supervisor. In Caroline County, the only supervisory 
position was vacant during 1929-30. In the four counties whose 
quota of supervisors should be 3, Anne Arundel employed only 



100 1930 Report of State Dep.irtmext of Education 



2 in 1929-30 but added a third supervisor in the fall of 1980. 
Harford continued to employ only 2 supervisors. Garrett, with 
its mountainous regions, large area and large number of one- 
teacher schools, employed four supervising and helping teachers. 
Although Montgomery and Prince George's were entitled to em- 
ploy four supervisors, Montgomery employed only 3 and Prince 
George's 3 for the first part of the year and 2 for the latter part 
of the year. A third helping teacher was appointed in the fall of 
1930. The course of study work being done with the aid of 
professors from Teachers College, Columbia, probably is the 
equivalent of a fourth supervisor in Montgomery County. Al- 
though Allegany and Washington would employ six supervisors 
were their full quota in service, they had only four in 1929-30. 
Course of study work in co-operation with Teachers College, Co- 
lumbia, was probably the equivalent of a fifth supervisor in Al- 
legany. A shortage of two supervisors, however, probably means 
that supervision must be spread too thin to be entirely satisfac- 
tory. (See Table 70 and Chart 10.) 

TABLE 70 

Number of Supervising or Helping Teachers Required and Employed in Maryland 
Counties for Various Numbers of Teachers, Year ending July 31, 1930 



Supervising or Helpixg Teachers 



Xumber of Number 
White Elementary Number of Coun- Name of Counties 

Teachers Required ties 



Less than 80 1 10 Calvert, CaroUne (0), Charles, Howard, 

Kent. Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, 
Somerset, Talbot, Worcester. 

80-119 2 3 Cecil, Dorchester, Wicomico. 

120-185 3 4 Anne Arundel (2), Carroll, Garrett (4), 

Harford (2). 

186-235 4 3 Frederick, Montgomery (3), Prince 

George's (2.4). 

236-285 5 

286-335 6 2 Alleganv (4), Washington (4). 

336-385 7 1 Baltimore. 



( ) The number of supervising or helping teachers actually employed for the year ending in 
.Tuly, 1930, is shown in parentheses when this number differs from the schedule. 

The county superintendents are free to organize the super- 
vision within their respective counties. The details of the several 
plans in use in the various counties were described in the 1928 
Annual Report. 

Distribution of Time of County Supervisors of White Elementary Schools 

Included in the supervisors' annual report to the State Super- 
intendent is a statement of the statistically measureable elements 



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Activities of County Supervisors; N. E. A. Yearbook 105 



of the year's work. These have been summarized, and when 
considered as a whole, show at least the framework of the 
county supervisory work in Maryland. On the average, a super- 
visor in 1929-30 spent 130 days in field work visiting 426 teach- 
ers in 249 schools. This means that a typical day in the "field" 
included visits to 2 schools and 3 or 4 teachers. With a total of 
20,858 visits, the 3,050 elementary teachers were each visited 
about seven times during the year for purposes of supervision. 
The typical supervisor conducted and addressed 13 teachers' 
meetings and attended 6 more. P. T. A.'s and patrons' meetings 
likewise demanded the supervisor's time and service, with an 
average of 4 or 5 meetings addressed and 4 more attended. Of- 
fice work, including preparation for teachers' meetings, sum- 
marizing and studying the results of tests, preparation of letters 
and mimeographed material for teachers, conferences with 
teachers, principals, and superintendents on the average required 
about 38 school days and 27 Saturdays during the regular school 
year. (See Table 71.) 

During the year 1929-30, the following supervisory bulletins 
were prepared : 

Supplement to List of Books for the Elementary School Library, 

annotated list including titles pertaining to the social studies graded, 

and recreational books graded, October, 1929. 

Arithmetic Goals, Suggestions for Testing and Corrective Work, 

third edition, March, 1930. 

participation of the MARYLAND SCHOOL PEOPLE IN THE EIGHTH YEAR- 
BOOK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENCE OF THE 
NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION 

The State Superintendent of Schools, Albert S. Cook, was ap- 
pointed chairman of the Committee which edited the Eighth 
Yearbook of the Department of Superintendence of the National 
Education Association 1930, and the Assistant State Superin- 
tendent of Schools, I. Jewell Simpson, was also a member of the 
Yearbook Committee. The subject of the volume, which is the 
annual official publication of the superintendents of the Ameri- 
can public schools is 'The Superintendent Surveys Supervision." 
Two members of the Maryland State Department of Education 
were thus selected for this piece of work from among the whole 
group of superintendents of the United States. Only nine states 
were represented on this Committee; Maryland's State Superin- 
tendent of Schools was appointed Chairman; and more than 
thirty per cent of the three hundred and fifty pages of the volume 
is devoted to Maryland practice and procedure. 

In addition to individual conferences and school visitation the 
State Supervisors plan for the professional growth of the super- 
visory group through a series of carefully organized meetings of 
the entire staff. 



106 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



The supervisors' meeting on October 24, 1929, just prior to 
the meeting of the State Teachers' Association was based on a 
series of questions suggested in the supervisors' annual reports 
and felt to be worthy of group discussion. 

I. THE COURSE OF STUDY: 

1. Are we ready to combine history and geography in grades four 
to seven into a social studies course? 

2. What is the best content for the history course in the fourth 
grade? 

3. Should the approach to history in the fourth and fifth grades 
be emotional or analytical? 

4. Should the units in fourth and fifth grade history be organized 
around biographies or around periods of progress? 

5. Should the work in history in both fourth and fifth grades be 
devoted to American history? 

6. Could part or all of the fourth grade history be given to a study 
of ancient historical characters and events, including Greek, 
Roman and Norse Myths? 

Suggested by Miss Nilsson. 
Which is preferable, the one-cycle or the double-cycle plan in 
geography? 

Suggested by Miss Chadwick. 

1. With the newer type of textbook, organized on the unit plan, 
what shall go into a course of study in history, geography, and 
civics, in the upper grades (4-7) ? What type of work would 
most help the teachers? 

2. In social studies, in the primary grades, shall the course of 
study contain a minimum amount of material, so that the teacher 
must do some research, or shall it contain a maximum amount 
of material, to force the teacher to select? 

3. How organize the revision of one subject? How long shall it 
take? Shall school days or Saturdays be used? Can the entire 
teaching force have a part? How? 

Suggested by Miss Eckhardt. 
To what extent should any procedure for teaching — such as the 
Morrison plan — be insisted upon? 

Suggested by Miss Mundy. 

1. With the vast amount of material available, to what extent 
is it necessary to give outlines and description in a course of 
study? Would not the better plan be to work on the applica- 
tion of the course, as, for example, the making of units, which 
would give the teachers both background and method? 

2. How can teachers be made to feel the importance of attitudes 
and appreciations as against knowledge for its own sake? 

Suggested by Miss Brown, 

1. In the primary grades, where should emphasis be placed, on 
knowledge or on appreciation? 

2. What amount and kinds of subject matter in the social studies 
would be considered valuable for pupils of Grade I? 

Suggested by Mrs. Downin. 
Are any counties trying in one-teacher schools to combine all 
grades in the social studies, each group contributing to the 
unit in proportion to its level? If so, what are the results? 

Suggested by Miss Devore. 
What material is necessary for a modern reading program in 
the elementary school? 

Suggested by Mrs. Sunday. 



Conferences of Supervisors 



107 



How shall we promote better teaching of art and music in the 
elementary grades? By regular grade teachers? By special 
teachers? What is the best practice? 

Suggested by Miss Harwood. 

II. TEACHERS' MEETINGS: 

1. Are all types of teachers' meetings of equal value, depending 
on the varying purposes for holding the meeting; or is any 
one particular type of outstanding value? 

2. How can the supervisor in charge of a meeting best measure the 
success or failure of her meeting? By teacher participation? 
By carry-over in classrooms? 

Suggested by Miss Jessop. 
How many teachers' meetings should be scheduled during the 
school year? 

Suggested by Mrs. Sunday. 

III. CLASSROOM VISITS: 

Is it advisable to concentrate on one thing, for example, "ques- 
tioning," in a series of visits? 

Suggested by Miss Devore. 
Some teachers come from the normal schools, with a mistaken 
idea of liberty and are weak in classroom management. How 
can we help them when so much time often has to elapse be- 
tween visits? This point assumes importance when an other- 
wise well-trained teacher loses out. 

Suggested by Miss Brown. 
IV. CLASSIFICATION AND PROMOTION: 

1. Will emphasis on elimination of failures cause an acceptance 
of lower standards for capable children? 

2. How meet the problem of the one-hundred-day pupil who with- 
draws before the close of school, but who might otherwise have 
been promoted? 

3. Do we not need a classification in the State report for children 
who only five and a half years of age, enter school in Septem- 
ber but are not ready for the first grade? We have eliminated 
the spring entrance of beginners, which helps materially, but 
we have children entering in the fall who are not ready for 
formal first grade work. Our teachers group these children 
and give them the work suited to their needs. As a rule, they 
gain much but are not ready for the second grade by June. 
Should they be classed as failures? On the teachers' annual 
report they can be classed as in the kindergarten and promoted 
to first grade, but no provision seems to be made for this on 
the State report. 

Suggested by Miss Chadwick. 

1. Does the admission of first grade pupils at the age of five years 
and six months automatically increase the proportion of fail- 
ures or of low class standards in the primary grades? 

2. Under average public school conditions does it pay to main- 
tain a special reading section to try to teach that art to over- 
age non-readers of the fourth grade who have spent five years 
in the primary department? 

Suggested by Miss Thompson. 

1. What is the result of grouping all dull children in one room 
with one teacher? How about one bright and one dull group 
with same teacher? 

2. What is the cause of so many failures in the first grade? What 
is the remedy? 

Suggested by Miss Harwood. 



1930 Report of State Department op Education 

The departmental system in the fifth, sixth and seventh grades 
is an administrative problem. What is being done in other 
counties? Are the advantages greater than the disadvantages? 
Would it be wise to follow a straight class program in one school 
and a departmental program in another? 

Suggested by Miss Mundy. 

How keep the boys in school? 
How cut down the overageness? 

What can be done with children who are not ready for the next 
grade and yet are promoted in accordance with the recommenda- 
tion that only two grades should be repeated during the ele- 
mentary school period? 

Suggested by Miss Harrison. 
What are the arguments that pupils in one-room schools should 
score equal to or as well in reading and content subjects as 
children in the average graded schools? 

How can the work of the one-hundred-day pupils be made most 
profitable for them? 

Suggested by Miss Johnson. 
In view of the fact that we have no kindergartens, what are our 
main problems in teaching beginners? 
V. MISCELLANEOUS: 

1. By what standards should the work of a supervising teacher 
be judged? I think a discussion of the article, "Appraisal of 
Supervision," by Courtis, for instance, would be most advan- 
tageous.* 

2. What are the advantages and the disadvantages of yearly 
supervisory objectives? Are there any worthwhile disadvan- 
tages? 

Suggested by Miss Jessop. 
What is expected of us in our three types of work — field super- 
vision, office and conference work, and direction of local curri- 
culum construction? It does not seem possible that a supervisor 
can give adequate attention to field work throughout the year 
and at the same time do the necessary work upon ever-continu- 
ing courses of study. I am not questioning the wisdom of doing 
these things, but I am anxious to know how all can be done 
well with best results for children. 

Suggested by Miss Bersch. 
It seems to me that in a county where there are several super- 
visors, each making a separate year's report, there is much 
wasted energy and time, and a great overlapping of material 
which could be avoided by a composite county report. This 
would really give a more logical and a better summarized county 
situation than a report sent in in sections. 

Suggested by Miss Brust. 
How much publicity work should a supervisor do and what kind? 

Suggested by Miss Chadwick. 
Is there some way in which we can help to enrich the lives of 
our teachers, so that they will keep up their resourcefulness and 
originality? How can we conserve and promote the creative 
powers of teachers? 

Suggested by Miss Brown. 



108 



2. 



* A reprint of this article was sent by Mr, Cook last year to each supervisor. Please 
familiarize yourself with it. 



Conference of Supervisors; Interchange of Visits 



109 



After the fall conference of supervisors a plan for the inter- 
change of visits among the supervisors was arranged so that 
every supervisor had an opportunity to visit another supervisor, 
and, as a corollary, every supervisor was visited by another 
supervisor. 

PROGRAM OF INTERCHANGE OF VISITS BY COUNTY 
SUPERVISORS IN MARYLAND 

The following plan for the interchange of visits among the 
supervisors is submitted with the hope that it will be satisfactory 
to everyone concerned. It will be necessary to follow the pro- 
gram exactly because a single deviation will throw out the rest 
of the schedule. 

In order that the visiting may be completed within the next 
two months, it will be well for the dates for the visits to be 
agreed upon before the close of the supervisors' conference. A 
record of these dates should be left with the State Super\isors. 

Alleg-any : 

Miss Compton to visit Miss Eckhardt (Carroll). 

Mrs. Hig-gins to visit Miss Richardson (Washington). 

Miss Greene to visit Miss Ott (Frederick). 

Miss McGeady to visit Miss Hill (Baltimore). 
Anne Arundel: 

Miss Bersch to visit Miss Crewe (Baltimore). 

Miss Parker to visit Miss Kemp (Prince George's). 
Baltimore : 

Miss Grace to visit Mrs. Downin (Washington). 
Miss Crewe to visit Miss Healy (Washington). 
Miss Jessop to visit Miss Gibbs (Prince George's). 
Miss Hill to visit Miss Chadwick (Howard). 
Miss Gray to visit Miss Skidmore (Garrett). 
Miss Grogan to visit Miss Greene (Allegany). 
Miss Boettner to visit Miss DeVore (Carroll). 

Calvert : 

Miss Hardesty to visit Miss Grogan (Baltimore). 

Carroll : 

Miss Eckhardt to visit Miss Parker (Anne Arundel). 
Miss DeVore to visit Miss Jessop (Baltimore). 
Miss Alder to visit Mr. Phipps (Talbot). 

Cecil : 

Miss Crim to visit Miss Woodley (Frederick). 
Miss Reynolds to visit Miss Meany (Montgomery). 

Charles : 

Miss Bowie to visit Miss Reynolds (Cecil). 
Dorchester : 

Miss Fisher to visit Miss Harrison (Kent). 

Miss Johnson to visit Miss Mundy (Worcester), 
Frederick : 

Miss Woodley to visit Miss Compton (Allegany). 
Miss Ott to visit Miss Grace (Baltimore). 
Mrs. Sunday to visit Mrs. Higgins (Allegany). 
Miss Harwood to visit Miss Shatzer (Garrett). 

Harford : 

Miss Naylor to visit Miss Boettner (Baltimore). 
Miss Grau to visit Mrs. Post (Worcester). 

Howard : 

Miss Chadwick to visit Miss Naylor (Harford). 

Kent : 

Miss Harrison to visit Miss Holloway (Wicomico). 
Montgomery: 

Miss Nilsson to visit Miss Gray (Baltimore). 

Miss Brust to visit Miss Crim (Cecil). 

Miss Meany to visit Miss Hardesty (Calvert). 
Prince George's: 

Miss Gibbs to visit Mrs. Sunday (Frederick). 

Miss Kemp to visit Miss Grau (Harford). 



110 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



Queen Anne's : 

Miss Dameron to visit Miss Alder (Carroll). 
St. Mary's: 

Miss Young to visit Miss Bowie (Charles). 

Somerset: 

Miss Wilson to visit Miss Brown (Wicomico). 

Talbot: 

Mr. Phipps to visit Miss Bersch (Anne Arundel). 
Washington : 

Mrs. Downin to visit Miss Brust (Montgomery). 
Miss Healy to visit Miss Nilsson (Montgomery). 
Miss Richardson to visit Miss Bannatyne (Garrett). 
Miss Saville to visit Miss McGeady (Allegany). 
Wicomico : 

Miss Holloway to visit Miss Fisher (Dorchester), 
Miss Brown to visit Miss Dameron (Queen Anne's). 
Worcester : 

Miss Mundy to visit Miss Wilson (Somerset). 
Mrs. Post to visit Miss Johnson (Dorchester). 

^PROGRAM OF CONFERENCE OF SUPERVISORS ON SUPERVISION, 
FRIDAY, APRIL 4, 1930 
Topic of Conference: Raising Supervision in Maryland to Higher 

Levels. 

Reference-: "THE SUPERINTENDENT SURVEYS SUPERVISION." 

Eighth Yearbook of the Depai'tment of Superintendence. 
"Supervision has for its object the development of a group of professional 
vi'orkers, vi^ho, free from the control of tradition and actuated by the spirit 
of inquiry, attack their problems scientifically in an environment in which 
men and women of high professional ideals may live a vigorous, intelligent, 
creative life." — Page 9. 

I. Study the chart on page 143 according to directions given 
on page 142. Locate your own level. For the highest 
level, the word ''science" is mentioned five times. What 
do you understand by scientific supervision? Can you 
give a concrete illustration for each reference to science? 

II. Evaluate the experimental studies outlined on pages 152- 
169, in the light of the following statements : 

"The use of survey technics such as those described will give 
the supervisor much more complete and accurate information re- 
garding instruction than can be secured by a general impression 
method based on vague and indefinite reaction." — Page 169. 

"Many of these devices may be used directly as a part of a self- 
survey program by teachers.'' — Page 169. 

III. Do you agree with these statements : 

"The evaluation of the work in any classroom under present 
conditions is largely determined by the personal prejudices of the 
observer. There is little agreement among educators as to what 
constitutes the most effective methods of instruction." — Page 108. 

Can you supplement the Minneapolis supervisory pro- 
gram in reading (pages 108-114) and the Hamtramck 
supervisory program in spelling (pages 115-118) by sug- 
gestions as to technics for making your own supervision 
more objective? 

* The program for the joint conference of superintendents and supervisors held on 
Thursday, April 3, 1930 will be found on page 293. 



Conference of Supervisors on N. E. A. Yearbook 



111 



IV. On page 128 are listed eleven objections to supervision 
made by certain teachers in Oakland County, Michigan. 
Rank these objections, placing first the objection about 
which you are most concerned in your own county, and 
placing last the objection about which you are least con- 
cerned. Bring your list to the Conference. Is there any- 
thing in the Melby data (pages 130-133) and the Oak- 
land, California, study (pages 133-139) which might lead 
you to a change of emphasis and practice? 

V. In the light of your own experience discuss the following 
ideas : 

1. "Supervisor inaugurates a pattern program of remedial v/ork." 
—Page 346. 

2. "Supervisor is available on call." — Page 143. 

3. "Supervisor is on a service basis." — Page 143. 

4. "Supervisor develops a degree of enthusiasm, a fine attitude, 
and a healthy morale." — Page 346. 

5. "Supervisor realizes it takes time and opportunity for a teacher 
to grow." — Page 345. 

6. Supervisor develops "maximum of self-control and self-direc- 
tion.'' — Page 11. 

7. Supervisor "discovers successful performances and interprets 
them in relation to the philosophy of education and to scientific 
inquiry." — Page 11. 

8. "Great leadership is dependent upon social intelligence, pro- 
fessional scholarship, professional insight, and professional 
imagination." — Page 13. 

VI. How may supervision in Maryland be raised to higher 
levels ? 

1. Philosophy of supervision and skill in applying it might be con- 
sidered from the standpoint of our present level in connection 
with: 

a. Teachers' meetings. 

b. Classroom visiting. 

c. Curriculum construction. 

2. Achievements in supervision might be considered in the light of : 

a. Percentage of trained te^jaers. 

b. Age-grade distribution. 

c. Improvement in school aJBdance. 

d. Skill in the three R's. 

e. Teaching the social studies. 

f. Enrichment of primary program. 

g. Progress in literature, music, fine and industrial arts. 

h. Status of physical education. 



112 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
COUNTY ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE 
Although for a number of years past, many have been pre- 
dicting that the high school enrollment had reached the satura- 
tion point and would no longer continue to increase, the actual 
mounting high school enrollment is positive proof that the peak 
has not yet been reached. For the year ending in June, 1930, 
the white high school enrollment totalled 24,760, an increase of 
1,389 over the year preceding. Although the increase for 1930 
over 1929 is slightly lower than corresponding increases for the 
two years preceding, it appears that the increase for 1931 over 
1930 will probably be larger than that recorded for any preced- 
ing year. The availability of fewer positions where boys and 
girls may find work, because of the business depression and 
drought, undoubtedly explains the extraordinary increase for 
1931. (See Chart 11.) 

CHART 11 

GEOWTH IN WHITE HI(2T SCHOOL ENROLLMENT' 



7,000 

7,936 
8.302 




I £,026 
17.453 

19,003 




20,358 



23,371 




■ 


24,760 





1914- 1915 

1915- 1916 
1915-1917 

1917- 1918 

1918- 1919 

1919- 1920 

1920- 1921 

1921- 1922 

1922- 1923 

1923- 1924 

1924- 1925 

1925- 1926 

1926- 1927 

1927- 1928 

1928- 1929 

1929- 1930 



In 1915 the white high school enrollment was 6,213. By 1920 
it was 50 per cent greater, or 9,392. By 1925 the 1920 enroll- 
ment had nearly doubled, the figure being 17,453. The 1925 en- 
rollment increased again by nearly one-half when the 1930 
enrollment reached 24,760. (See Table 72.) 



INC31EASED ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE WHITE HiGH SCHOOLS 113 



TABLE 72 



Enrollment and Attendance in Approved White County High Schools of Maryland, 
School Years Ending June 1916 to 1930 



Year Ending 
July 31 


Enroll- 
ment 


Average 
Attend- 
ance 


Annual Increase 


Per Cent of 
Increase 


Ji/nroii- 
ment 


Atiena- 
ance 


jjjnroii- 
ment 


ATtenQ- 
ance 


1916 


7,000 


5,804 


787 


528 


12.6 


10.0 


1917 


7,567 


6,327 


567 


523 


8.1 


9.0 


1918 


7,936 


6,477 


369 


150 


4.9 


2.4 


1919 


8,302 


6,685 


366 


208 


4.6 


3.2 


1920 


9,392 


7,798 


1,090 


1,113 


13.1 


16.7 


1921 


10,900 


9,294 


1,508 


1,496 


16.1 


19.2 


1922 


12,815 


11,188 


1,915 


1,894 


17.6 


20.4 


1923 


14,888 


12,716 


2,073 


1,528 


16.2 


13.7 


1924 


16,026 


13,696 


1,138 


980 


7.6 


7.7 


1925 


17,453 


14,982 


1,427 


1,286 


8.9 


9.4 


1926 


19,003 


16,218 


1,550 


1,236 


8.9 


8.2 


1927 


20,358 


17,504 


1,355 


1,286 


7.1 


7.9 


1928 


21,811 


19,080 


1,453 


1,576 


7.1 


9.0 


1929 


23,371 


20,275 


1,560 


1,195 


7.2 


6.3 


*1930 


24,760 


21,890 


1,389 


1,615 


5.9 


8.0 



* For individtial high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 366-371. 



Although the enrollment for 1930 over 1929 increased by 
1,389, the attendance showed a gain of 1,615, v^hich increase was 
exceeded in only one year since 1916. (See Table 72.) Every 
county, except Kent and Somerset, had an increase in high school 
enrollment, and Kent was the only one which did not have a 
larger high school attendance in 1930 than it had in 1929. In 
order that the growth in enrollment by counties may be easily 
available, it is given for every county for 1920, 1925, 1929 and 
1930 in Table 106 on page 160. 

The enrollment in parochial and private high schools is given 
in summary and in detail by counties and schools making it pos- 
sible to present a rather complete picture of the high school en- 
rollment in the State. The Catholic schools doing commercial 
and secondary school work for white pupils enrolled 1,112 county 
and 2,478 city pupils. Non-Catholic private schools enrolled 1,653 
pupils in the counties and 878 pupils in Baltimore City. Some 
of these schools probably enrolled pupils from other states. The 
total enrollment, therefore, in Maryland county secondary 
schools, both public and private, was 27,425 pupils in 1930. (See 
Tables III-V, pages 332-335.) 



114 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

PERCENTAGE OF ATTENDANCE 

Every county had a higher percentage of attendance in white 
high schools in 1930 than in 1929. All counties, except Dorches- 
ter, Talbot, and Kent, had a higher attendance percentage than 
at any time since 1923, at which time the percentage of attend- 
ance was first based on the average number belonging. Not only 
are more children entering high school but the attendance is 
better after they enroll than it was when a more limited group 
sought education above the elementary school. (See Table 73.) 

TABLE 73 

Per Cent of Attendance in White High Schools, School Years Ending in 
June 1923, 1928, 1929 and 1930 



1928 1929 1930 



County 



1923 1928 1929 1930 



County 1923 

County Average 91.9 

Wicomico 92.3 

Allegany 94.8 

Calvert 93.5 

Washington 93.1 

Frederick 91.5 

Anne Arundel 92 . 1 

Baltimore 91. 3 

Prince George's 91.8 

Queen Anne's 91 .9 

Montgomery 88 . 9 

Dorchester 92 .4 

Talbot 93.2 



93 


.6 


93 


.0 


94 


.4 


95 


.8 


95 


.1 


96 


.1 


95 


.4 


94 


.6 


95 


.9 


95 


.3 


93 


.1 


95 


.8 


94 


.9 


93, 


.9 


95 


.2 


94, 


,1 


93. 


.6 


95 


.2 


93. 


1 


94. 


,1 


95 


.0 


93. 


,2 


93.3 


94 


.6 


93. 


,7 


93. 


5 


94 


.5 


93. 


1 


92. 


1 


94, 


3 


92. 


4 


92. 


6 


94, 


.2 


94. 


2 


93. 


2 


94, 


.2 


94. 


9 


93. 


2 


94, 


.1 



Charles 88.7 

Worcester 91.7 

Caroline 91.2 

Howard 89 . 9 

Somerset 91. 4 

Carroll 88.7 

Cecil 92.0 

Garrett 90.2 

St. Mary's 86.8 

Harford 91.2 

Kent 90.2 

Baltimore City 91.5 

State Average 91.6 



93 


.8 


91 


.7 


94.0 


93 


.9 


92 


.7 


93.9 


93 


.6 


92 


.6 


93.8 


91 


.8 


92 


.9 


93.7 


93 


.1 


91 


.9 


93.5 


91 


.8 


90 


.8 


93.4 


92 


.3 


91, 


. 5 


93.1 


92 


.5 


90 


. 5 


92.9 


91 


.4 


90 


,9 


92. & 


91 


.6 


91 


2 


92.5 


92, 


3 


90. 





90.4 


92, 


5 


92, 


3 


93.1 


93. 


,2 


92. 


8 


93.9 



For attendance in individual high schools in 1930, see Table XXXVI, pages 366-71. 

OVER THREE-FOURTHS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GRADUATES 
ENTER HIGH SCHOOL 

A study made at the beginning of the school year ending in 
June, 1930, showed that of 9,479 graduates of county public white 
elementary schools, 7,426, or over 78 per cent, continued more 
advanced work in public, private or parochial schools in the fall 
of 1929 for at least one school month. Nearly three-fourths of 
the public elementary school graduates entered high schools in 
the same county in which the elementary school was located, but 
nearly 3 per cent went to public high schools in adjoining coun- 
ties or in Washington and Baltimore. Slightly over 1 per cent 
of the county public elementary school graduates entered private 
and parochial schools for advanced work. 

For the percentage of entrants to high schools from individual 
counties, which showed great variation, see Chart 3, page 42. 

Another way of measuring the increasing importance of the 
high school is obtained from the ratio between high school en- 
rollment or attendance and enrollment or attendance in elemen- 
tary and high schools combined. For every 100 white pupils 
attending county public elementary and high schools, 19 were 
in high school in 1930. This is an increase of .6 over the year 
preceding. For Baltimore City the per cent in high school has 
also increased from 15.3 to 15.4. (See Chart 12.) 



Larger Proportion of Pupils Enter White High Schools 



115 



CHART 12 



THE NUJffiER OF PUPILS ATTENDING WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR EVERY 100 V?HITE PUPIIS ATTEIJDING SCKOOIo 
IN THE CODIFIES AND BALTIMORE CITY 
1917 - 1929 



l&ryland Counties 



Baltimore City 



1917- 1918 

1918- 1919 

1919- 1920 

1920- 1921 

1921- 1922 



1923-1924 IPIIIIIIIPIIIIIIIIPIPI^IPP^^pWMp SI 

1925- 1926 

1926- 1927 

1927- 1928 

1928- 1929 

1929- 1930 



Y///////////////////////// ////////////, 



CO 



In the individual counties the ratio of high school enrollment 
to combined elementary and high school enrollment has increased 
in every county, except Kent and Wicomico, which showed slight 
decreases, and Worcester, which was stationary. All of the 
Eastern Shore counties had over 21 per cent of their enrollment 
in high school, Talbot being at the top with 26.1 per cent. In 
Baltimore, Anne Arundel, Garrett, Washington, and St. Mary's, 
the percentage the white high school enrollment was of the total 
white enrollment varied from 15.1 to 16.2. St. Mary's County 
showed the greatest increase from 1929 to 1930. (See Table 74.) 

In the counties having the 8-4 or 6-3-3 plan, the maximum 
percentage possible in the last four years of high school, with 
a stationary enrollment and no retardation, would be 33.3 per 
cent, whereas in the seven grade counties with the 7-4 plan, the 
corresponding percentage would be 36.4 per cent. 



116 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE 74 

Ratio of "Number Belonging'* in White High Schools to "Number Belonging' 
White Elementary and White High Schools Combined, by Counties 



County 



1924 1929 1930 



County 



1924 1929 1930 



County Average 13.3 17.7 18.4 

Talbot 18.7 25.4 26.1 

Kent 15.2 24.6 24.4 

Worcester 18.9 23.0 23.0 

Caroline 18.8 21.6 22.9 

Wicomico 19.9 22.6 22.5 

Somerset 15.2 21.9 22.4 

Queen Anne's 18.3 20.2 21.8 

Cecil 14.3 20.0 21.7 

Charles 5.5 20.0 21.1 

Dorchester 16.7 20.7 21.1 

Harford 14.8 19.6 20.3 

Frederick 14.9 18.3 19.5 



Carroll 13.7 18.8 19.3 

Howard 12.7 18.1 19.2 

Montgomery 13.9 17.1 18.3 

Prince George's 11.6 17.3 18.1 

AUegany 13.5 17.3 17.6 

Calvert 15.5 16.2 17.1 

St. Mary's 3.0 14.1 16.2 

Washington 11.1 14.1 15.6 

Garrett 8.4 14.1 *15.6 

Anne Arundel 10.2 14.8 15.4 

Baltimore 11.0 14.9 15.1 

Baltimore City 9.7 15.0 15.2 

State Average 11.8 16.6 17.1 



Excludes 18 boys and 25 girls attending high school in Bayard, W. 



TABLE 75 

Number of Boys in High School for Every 100 Girls for School Years Ending in 
June 1922, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1929 and 1930 



COUNTY 


1922 


1924 


1926 


1928 


1929 


1930 


County Average 


74.3 


76.2 


78 


6 


79 


8 


81 





82.7 


Howard 


56 


8 


63 


1 


87 





89 


6 


96 





98.7 


St. Marv's 






96 


6 


68 


5 


76 


2 


85 


1 


94.5 


Baltimore 


79 


2 


87 


4 


85 


2 


84 


3 


90 


7 


94.0 


Charles 


82 


8 


69 


4 


89 


6 


80 


5 


84 


9 


88.0 




85 


5 


84 


8 


89 


9 


84 


4 


83 


3 


85.4 


Prince George's 


74 


8 


77 


8 


80 


2 


81 


5 


86 


4 


85.2 


Cecil 


85 





74 


2 


69 


4 


76 


8 


82 


1 


85.0 


Washington 


94 


6 


87 


6 


81 


2 


78 





81 


8 


84.5 


Somerset 


82 


1 


86 


1 


74 


2 


80 


5 


80 


2 


84.5 


Carroll 


72 





74 


2 


83 


8 


84 


5 


84 


6 


82.8 


Anne Arundel 


75 


5 


60 


1 


82 


6 


82 


7 


84 


2 


82.7 


Allegany 


61 


9 


67 


7 


75 


7 


71 


9 


75 


5 


82.5 


Calvert 


77 


6 


71 


8 


59 


1 


62 





66 


7 


82.3 




72 


5 


68 


6 


66 


3 


79 


9 


79 


1 


80.9 


Montgomery 


63 


7 


76 


7 


90 


9 


86 


2 


77 


5 


80.6 


Garrett 


76 


5 


78 


5 


75 


7 


72 


4 


75 


3 


78.2 


Worcester 


63 


4 


67 


3 


69 


6 


80 


5 


81 


7 


77.7 


Harford 


66 


2 


84 


8 


72 


5 


80 


2 


79 


6 


76.7 


Caroline 


68 





69 


4 


68 


2 


72 


5 


72 


1 


74.5 


Dorchester 


78 


6 


71 


7 


74 


7 


80 


4 


77.0 


72.9 


Kent 


68 


5 


75 


7 


69 


4 


76 


4 


70.9 


70.9 


Talbot 


79 


7 


78 





79 


5 


86 


1 


81 


4 


70.7 


Queen Anne's 


61 


8 


68 





63 





66 


9 


57 


3 


66.7 



More Boys in and More Graduates from White High Schools 117 

HIGH SCHOOLS ARE ATTRACTING MORE BOYS 
For every 100 girls in high school there were about 83 boys, 
an increase of nearly 2 boys over the year preceding, a larger 
annual increase than has ever been recorded. The counties varied 
in their ratio of boys to girls from 98.7 in Howard to 66.7 in 
Queen Anne's. All of the counties, except Talbot, Dorchester, 
Harford, Worcester, Anne Arundel, Carroll, and Prince George's, 
shared in the increase. Calvert, St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, and 
Allegany showed unusually large gains in boys from 1929 to 
1930, while Baltimore, Charles, Somerset, Cecil, and Montgomery 
had increases above the average. (See Table 75.) 

GRADUATES OF FOUR-YEAR COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 
INCREASE TO 3,785 

The graduates of white high schools have increased steadily 
in number since 1919, the increases for the past two years being 
greater than for any years preceding. The number of boys 
graduated, 1,534, was smaller than the number of girls gradu- 
ated, 2,251. The increase from 1929 to 1930 in boys graduated 
(195) was exactly equal to the increase in the number of girls 
graduated. (See Table 76.) 

TABLE 76 



Four- Year White High School Graduates in Maryland Counties, 1919 to 1930 



Year 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Annual 
Increase 


1919 


323 


681 


1,004 




1920 


378 


772 


1,150 


146 


1921 


470 


893 


1,363 


213 


1922 


599 


1,034 


1,633 


270 


1923 


686 


1,267 


1,953 


320 


1924 


813 


1,405 


2,218 


265 


1925 


929 


1,610 


2,539 


321 


1926 


1,045 


1,574 


2,619 


80 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


2,887 


268 


1928 


1,142 


1,851 


2,993 


106 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


3,395 


402 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


3,785 


390 



For 1930 data for individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 366-71. 



The counties varied in number graduated from 432 in Allegany 
to 29 in St. Mary's. Every county, except Montgomery, Wico- 
mico, Worcester, Cecil, and Charles, had more graduates in 1930 
than in 1929. Worcester had fewer boys and girls graduated; 
Montgomery, Wicomico, Cecil, Caroline, Somerset, Howard, and 
Queen Anne's had fewer girls graduated in 1930 than in 1929; 
and this was the case for the boy graduates of Charles, Prince 
George's, Dorchester, and Kent. (See Chart 13.) 



118 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 13 



NDB4BER OF BOIS MD GIRLS GRADOATED FROM WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



Count/ 


1929 


1930 


Allegany 


ADA 


io<, 


Baltimore 


347 


407 


Washington 


265 


336 


Frederick 


272 


326 


Pr. George's 


194 


217 


Anne Arundel 


151 


203 


Montgomery 


199 


196 


Carroll 


171 


190 


Harford 


146 


162 


Wicomico 


144 


144 


Dorchester 


125 


138 


Caroline 


106 


120 


Talbot 


85 


120 


Worcester 


131 


111 


Cecil 


115 


110 


Somerset 


105 


110 


Garrett 


98 


107 


Kent 


93 


94 


Howard 


69 


72 


Queen Anne's 


61 


71 


Charles 


64 


56 


Calvert 


24 


34 


St. Mary's 


26 


29 



1930 

Boys Girls 
264 

24l 



M3 


1 193 1 


139 


187 1 



83 


1 134 


83 


1 120 1 


91 


I 105 i 


80 


1 110 1 


I 


101 1 


58' ■ 


86 1 




48 PER CENT OF FIRST YEAR ENROLLMENT GRADUATE 
A rough approximation of persistence to graduation is derived 
from the percentage relation of graduates to the first year en- 
rollment four years before. The percentage obtained is lower 
than the actual persistence since the first year enrollment in- 
cludes not only the entrants of that year, but the repeaters of 
the preceding year or years who did not succeed in completing 
sufficient work satisfactorily to be classified as second year pupils. 
On the other hand, the graduates may include pupils transferred 
to the school who were not in the first year enrollment figures 
four years before. 

Comparable figures of this sort have been available since the 
1926 report and show that the persistence is higher for the 1930 
graduates than it has been for any year in the past. The average 
persistence is 47.9 per cent, for boys only 40.3 per cent, and for 
girls 55 per cent. (See Table 77.) 



Graduates and Persistence to High School Graduation 



119 



TABLE 77 
Persistence to Graduation 

First 

Year Year Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 

Enrollment Four Years Later 



Total Boys Girls 

1923 5,756 45.3 38.4 51.8 

1924 6,311 45.7 36.0 54.5 

1925 6,772 44.2 35.6 52.0 

1926 7,548 45.0 38.2 50.9 

1927 7,895 47.9 40.3 55.0 



Among the counties, Charles appears to have had the highest 
per cent of persistence to graduation for both boys and girls, 
partly because the La Plata High School was not in existence 
for the school year 1926-1927. This school replaced the former 
privately endowed McDonogh Institute. Talbot ranked second 
with 74 per cent of the girls and 51 per cent of the boys remain- 
ing to graduate. Allegany held two-thirds of its girls and over 
52 per cent of its boys to completion of the high school course. 
Washington and Anne Arundel ranked next in the holding power 
of their high schools. (See Chart 14.) 

Baltimore, Dorchester, Calvert, and Wicomico Counties had 
less than one-third of their boys persisting to graduation, while 
Montgomery, Wicomico, Somerset, and Queen Anne's had less 
than 46 per cent of the girls staying to graduate. 

The only counties showing a decrease from 1929 to 1930 in 
persistence to graduation are Carroll and Somerset ; Kent, Wor- 
cester, and Dorchester, especially for boys; and Montgomery, 
Queen Anne's, and Cecil, particularly for girls. 

Every county had a higher persistence for girls than for boys. 
Whether this is due to the economic urge which drives boys to 
seek remunerative employment earlier than girls, or to a lesser 
interest in the high school curriculum on the part of boys, is a 
question which the principal and teachers of each high school 
must undertake to study for their own locality. (See Chart 14.) 

FEWER ENTRANTS TO NORMAL SCHOOLS 
Probably as a reflection of the smaller number of teaching 
positions available, but also the result of a more careful scrutiny 
of the high school record of each normal school entrant, the 
number of 1930 county girl high school graduates who entered 
the normal schools was lower in number and per cent than for 
any recent year. Of the 1930 county girls who graduated from 
high school, 268, or 11.9 per cent, entered the normal schools in 
the fall of 1930. The number of girls who entered varied by 
counties from 1 in Cecil and Charles to 38 from Allegany and 
42 from Baltimore County high schools. In per cent of girl 
graduates who entered normal schools, the range was from 33 



120 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 14 



County 



PER CENT OF PEP.SISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GFiiDUATION 
First Year Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 

, Girls 

[3570^ 



Enrollment 





1927 


1930 


Total and 
Co. Average 


7895 


47.9 


Charles 


67 


83.6 


Talbot 


190 


63.2 


Allegany 


719 


60.1 


Washington 


581 


57.8 


Frederick 


610 


55.4 


Anne Arunoel 


386 


52.6 


Caroline 


c.o<. 


m 7 


Kent 


183 


51.4 


Worcester 


217 


51.2 


Howard 


142 


50.7 


St. Mary's 


59 


49.2 


Calvert 


71 


47.9 


Cfl TVOl 1 

vC? X i. V 1 1 


410 


46.3 


Harford 


554 


45.8 


Queen Anne's 


160 


44.4 


Garrett 


243 


44.0 


Cecil 


250 


44.0 


Dorchester 


319 


43.3 


Pr. George's 


504 


43.1 


Somerset 


265 


41.5 


Montgomery 


485 


40.4 


Baltimore 


1064 


58.3 


Viicomico 


384 


37.5 



1 67,e 





in Calvert to less than 2 per cent in Cecil. Baltimore, Calvert, 
Prince George's, St. Mary's, Garrett, and Caroline were the only 



Persistence to Graduation; Normal School Entrants 121 
CHART 15 



GIRL GRADUATES OF WHITE COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 
ENTERING MARYLAND NORMAL SCHOOLS 
1929 and 1930 



County 


Number 




1929 


1930 


Co. Average 


315 


268 


Calvert 


1 


8 


Dorchester 






Caroline 


13 


14 


Garrett 


10 


12 


Baltimore 


31 


42 


Queen Anne's 


9 


7 


St. Mary's 


1 


3 


Somerset 


13 


10 


Wicomico 


19 


13 


Allegany 


49 


38 


Talbot 


6 


9 


Worcester 


15 


9 


Howard 


11 


4 


Anne Arundel 


11 


12 


Harford 


13 


10 


Montgomery 


12 


9 


Frederick 


19 


16 


Washington 


30 


16 


Carroll 


10 


7 


Pr. George's 


2 


6 


Kent 


6 


2 


Charles 


3 


1 


Cecil 


10 


1 




for 1930 data for individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 366-71. 

counties which had an increase in number and per cent of 1930 
normal school entrants from the group of 1930 girl high school 
graduates over similar figures for 1929. Washington, Allegany, 
Cecil, Howard, Wicomico, and Worcester had the largest de- 
creases from 1929 to 1930 in normal school entrants. There 
were 16 boy high school graduates of 1930 who went to Towson 
and Frostburg. Allegany sent 5, Frederick, Washington, and 
Baltimore, 3 each, and Wicomico and Prince George's, 1 each. 
(See Chart 15 and Table 78.) 



122 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 78 

Boy Graduates from White County High Schools Entering Maryland Normal Schools, 

1930 





Total 


Boy Graduates Entering 




Number 


Maryland Normal 


r^OTTAJTV 
v_> U U IN i X 


White 


Schools 




Boy 








Graduates 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and County Average 


1,534 


16 


1.0 


Allegany 


168 


5 


3.0 


Frederick 


139 


3 


2.2 


Washington 


143 


3 


2.1 


Baltimore 


166 


3 


1.8 


Wicomico 


58 


1 


1.7 


Prince George's . 


83 


1 


1.2 



For 1930 data for individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 366-71. 

OCCUPATIONS OF 1929 HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 
Continuing Education Beyond High School 

On the high school subject report, principals were asked to 
state the occupations of their 1929 graduates during 1929-30, 
the year following graduation. Over one-half of the girls and 
over 39 per cent of the boys were reported as continuing their 
studies in colleges, universities, schools of various kinds and in 
hospitals. Although the number entering colleges and universi- 
ties and normal schools, 270 boys and 533 girls, was larger, the 
percentage going to liberal arts colleges and normal schools, 20.2 
for boys and 26.0 for girls, was smaller than for the preceding 
year. (See Table 79.) 

The number and per cent of boys and girls going to commercial 
schools were slightly lower than in the preceding year, while 
the number and per cent going to college preparatory schools 
and taking post graduate high school courses increased. 

Hospitals where high school graduates took training to become 
nurses attracted 226 girls, or 11 per cent of all girls who gradu- 
ated from county public high schools. This was an increase of 
52 in number and 1.5 in percentage over figures for the preceding 
year. 

Occupations Outside and Inside the Home 

More 1929 graduates went into office work and banking than 
was the case for graduates of 1928, but the corresponding per- 
centages were lower. The number and per cent of graduates 
taking positions as clerks in stores and as salespeople increased 
for both boys and girls. 



Occupations of 1929 County High School Graduates 123 



TABLE 79 

Occupations of 1929 Graduates as Reported by Principals of White County High 

Schools 





Number 


Per Cent 


OCCUPATION 










Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


/^nnfini liner TTrliiPtif inn 

V^LIll vxlX IXIllg X-iH LlL/cX UlLUJ. 










Tiil^AT*Ql ArfQ r^nllpcrpQ onrl TTni^T'^vcif tog 

JUXUClCtl .rX.1 UO v^WllC^t/O CLLIKJ. l^' 111 V d &l Ulco . • . . 


252 


232 


18.8 


11.3 




18 


301 


1.4 


14.7 


iVTpriiPinp Tipn'i'i Gi'fi'AT" T^nciT*Tnci pat T.qtxt" 










A DTi Pill f.ii TP jjnrl A'Timsif.T'v 


25 




1.9 




Engineering Courses 


50 




3.7 




Art. nnrl TVTiisip SrVirtols 


4 


18 


.3 


.9 


Physical Education, Home Economics, 










and. Kindergarten Training Schools 


1 


10 


.1 


.5 


Army and Navy Academies 


2 




.1 




Commercial Schools 


120 


214 


8.9 


10.4 


College Preparatory Schools 


39 


24 


2.9 


1.2 


Post Graduate High School Courses 


16 


26 


1.2 


1.3 






226 




11.0 




114 


261 


8.5 


12.7 


Clerks in Stores, Salesmen and Saleswomen, 










Business 


1 AO 


1 nn 


1 O 1 


. o 


Staying at Home 


50 


232 


3.7 


11.3 


Working in Own or Others' Home 


75 


128 


5.6 


6.2 


Farming, Fishing, Forestry, Nurserymen, 










Surveyor 


127 


4 


9.5 


.2 


Married 




95 




4.6 


Manufacturing, Mechanical (Garage), 








Building, Mining 


108 


22 


8.1 


1.1 


Transportation, Railroad, Chauffeur 


36 


1 


2.7 




Communication, Newspaper, Telephone 






and Telegraph Operators 


10 


31 


.7 


1.5 


Teaching and Library W^ork 


1 


1 


.1 




Army, Navy, Aviation 


11 


.8 




Miscellaneous and Unknown 


120 


119 


8.9 


5.8 


Total 


1,341 


2,054 


100.0 


100.0 



More boys and girls were reported as staying at home, more 
girls but fewer boys as working in their own or others' homes, 
a larger number and per cent were farming, fishing, doing for- 
estry or nursery work or surveying, but a smaller number and 
per cent of girls had their occupation given as being married. 

Manufacturing, mechanical work, including garages, building 
and mining, occupied a larger number of boys and girls as did 
transportation and communication services, except for girls. 

The miscellaneous and unknown group was definitely larger 
than for the year preceding. (See Table 79.) 



124 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



Continuing Education Beyond High Schools for Individual Counties 

In the individual counties the per cent of boys who went to 
colleges or universities, 24.5 per cent for the counties as a group, 
varied from 10 per cent in Howard, 11 in Cecil, and 12 in Gar- 
rett and Caroline, to 40 in Calvert and 46.7 per cent in Queen 
Anne's. Charles, Dorchester, Frederick, Queen Anne's, St. 
Mary's, Talbot, Washington, and Allegany all showed increases 
in the percentage who went to college over corresponding figures 
for the preceding year. Only 11 per cent of the girls went to 
colleges or universities, a slight decrease from the preceding 
year. None went from St. Mary's, only 3 per cent from Charles, 
4 per cent from Dorchester and 5 from Worcester, Washington, 
and Wicomico, whereas 20 per cent of the girls from Caroline, 
25 from Carroll, and 28 from Kent entered colleges. Perhaps 
the location of Western Maryland and Washington Colleges 
wuthin the borders of the last named counties explains the high 
percentage going to college. (See Table 80.) 

Since the normal school entrants for a year later than the 
figures included in Table 80 have been given on pages 119-22, 
no further comment on these figures is given here. 

None of the graduates from Howard County were reported as 
entering commercial schools after graduation, and this was the 
case for boys in Calvert and Charles. The largest high schools 
in Howard and Charles Counties offered work in commercial 
courses. Large percentages of boys graduated from Caroline, 
Worcester, Cecil, Harford, Somerset, and Queen Anne's entered 
commercial schools, and this was the case for a large proportion 
of the girls graduated from St. Mary's, Charles, Montgomery, 
Cecil, Harford, Kent, Caroline, and Talbot. Since neither Queen 
Anne's nor St. Mary's Counties offered commercial work in the 
county high schools, it is to be expected that those graduates 
who wished to work in the commercial field should require prepa- 
ration in special schools. In the other counties, commercial work 
was available in the largest high schools only, so that graduates 
from the smaller schools could only obtain such work by attend- 
ing special commercial schools. (See Table 80.) 

No girls from Calvert and St. Mary's entered hospitals for 
training as nurses, and this was the case for but 3 per cent of 
the Prince George's County girls and 5 per cent of those in Mont- 
gomery and Harford. On the other hand, over one-fourth of 
the Queen Anne's County graduates went into nursing, 19 per 
cent of those graduated in Wicomico and Frederick, 18 per cent 
of those in Dorchester, and nearly 15 per cent of those from 
Allegany County. 

College preparatory schools were entered by considerably more 
than the average proportion of the graduates from Wicomico, 
Garrett, Cecil, Worcester, and Queen Anne's, and by boys gradu- 
ated from Howard and Anne Arundel. 



Occupations of 1929 High School Graduates 



125 





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9 . 5 
13.7 

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10.2 
3.4 
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4.7 
14.7 
5.7 
3.3 
9.3 
2.4 
4.4 
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3.8 
3.2 
3.1 

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10.4 
18.9 
10.4 
18.8 
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11.8 
11.3 
23.4 
21 () 
12.0 
12 2 
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5.7 
7.9 
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12.5 
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4.3 
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24.3 

9.3 
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11.5 




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14.0 
12.7 
10.7 

13.7 
8.1 

9.4 
15.9 

2.9 
18.8 
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7.0 
13.3 

7.8 

14.3 
18.4 
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11.1 
5.7 


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14.2 

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27.3 

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10.3 
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15.5 
18.3 

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14.4 
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11 .4 
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18,8 
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12,8 
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12,7 
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126 



1930 Report of State Department of Educatiop^ 



Occupations Inside and Outside the Home for Individual Counties. 

Commercial courses in high schools seem to be justified by 
the large proportion of graduates going into office work. One- 
fifth of the boys, and over one-fourth of the girls graduated from 
Baltimore County went into office work and the field of com- 
munication. Over one-fourth of the Talbot County girls and 
one-fifth of those from Howard and Washington entered this field 
of work. (See Table 80.) 

Clerical work and salesmanship took from 16 to 20 per cent 
of the boy graduates in Frederick, Talbot, Harford, and Howard, 
and 11 and 19 per cent of the graduates from Carroll and St. 
Mary's, respectively. 

The report on the percentage of boys staying at home showed 
variations from none in Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, Queen 
Anne's, and St. Mary's to 9 and 11 per cent in Caroline and 
Wicomico, respectively. For the girls staying at home the per- 
centages varied from 4 in Allegany and Montgomery to 20 per 
cent in Frederick, 24 per cent in Somerset and 44 per cent in 
St. Mary's. St. Mary's still offers no work in home economics 
to prepare these girls for a better adjustment in their home life. 

The percentage of boys reported as working in their own or 
others' homes varied from in several counties to 17 per cent in 
Somerset and for girls from in two counties to 22 per cent in 
Worcester. 

Farming, fishing, forestry, surveying and nursery work en- 
gaged the services of none of the boys graduated from Calvert 
while, at the opposite extreme, 50 per cent of those from St. 
Mary's entered this field of service. In Dorchester, Cecil, Queen 
Anne's, Kent, and Howard from 18 to 23 per cent went into 
these activities. (See Table 80.) 

The percentage of girls whose occupation after graduation was 
reported as marriage varied from in Dorchester, Howard, and 
St. Mary's to over 10 per cent in Calvert and Cecil. Probably 
principals of some high schools reported girls who were married 
as staying or working at home. 

The counties reporting the greatest proportion of boy gradu- 
ates in manufacturing, mechanical work or building were Alle- 
gany, Cecil, Garrett, and Baltimore. 

In several counties the proportion of graduates whose occupa- 
tions were unknown was very high. This was especially true in 
Calvert, Anne Arundel, and Charles. It would probably be de- 
sirable if those principals who fail to follow up their graduates, 
would become conscious of the value in planning their curricula 
of knowing the fields of work their graduates expect to enter, 
and of obtaining suggestions from graduates of ways of improv- 
ing the school's offering so that it would better meet actual needs 
of those graduates who will come forth later. 



Occupations of Graduates; Subjects Offered in High Schools 127 



WHAT THE HIGH SCHOOL OFFERING WAS IN 1929-30 

With a larger high school enrollment, one would expect to find 
an increase in the enrollment for all of the subjects offered in 
the high schools. In the regular so-called academic subjects, 
except Latin for girls and French for boys and girls, these in- 
creases do appear. The enrollment taking science showed greater 
gains than did the enrollment in other subjects. (See Table 81.) 

Practically the entire enrollment took courses in English. The 
social studies enrolled 82.5 per cent of the high school students, 
mathematics 80 per cent of the boys and 71 per cent of the girls, 
science 74 per cent of the boys and two-thirds of the girls. 

Just over 21 per cent of the boys and nearly 26 per cent of 
the girls were taking Latin offered in 94 schools, while 14 per 
cent of the boys and 20 per cent of the girls had work in French 
which was given in 119 schools. 

Courses in industrial arts and vocational courses in industry 
were taken by 5,719 boys in 65 schools. Agricultural work was 
taken by 932 boys in 39 schools. Courses in home economics for 
girls paralleling the industrial arts and agriculture were given 
to 8,263 girls in 102 schools. The number of schools offering 
this special work was lower than for the year preceding, and 
in home economics the enrollment was smaller. The decrease 
in the proportion of the enrollment taking industrial arts and 
home economics is explained by the change in the plan of organi- 
zation. Formerly, the schools offering these subjects on a non- 
vocational basis provided instruction for two periods a week for 
the entire enrollment for the four years. Under the present plan 
of operation, general classes in industrial arts and home eco- 
nomics meet from three to five clock hours a week for two years. 
Electives are offered in the third and fourth years for those who 
choose to continue advanced work in these subjects. Although 
this plan makes it possible to actually give more instruction in 
these subjects, a smaller proportion of the enrollment is taking 
the subject at any one time. 

With 56 schools offering commercial courses to third and 
fourth year pupils, an increase of 2 over 1929, the per cent of 
the third and fourth year enrollment taking commercial courses 
has increased to close to 27 per cent for boys and 36 per cent 
for girls. The per cent of boys taking stenography has decreased 
slisfhtly. (See Table 81 and Table XXXVIII, pages 378-80.) 

There has been a decrease to 8 in the number of schools offer- 
ing junior business training with a consequent smaller enroll- 
ment. Although only 7 schools offered second year typing, the 
enrollment taking it increased. 

The enrollment of boys taking physical education courses in 
30 schools increased while there were fewer girls enrolled in 



128 



1930 Report of State Depaktment of Education 



1930 than in 1929. Slightly over 28 per cent of the boys and 
24 per cent of the girls enrolled had scheduled physical educa- 
tion classes. 

TABLE 81 



Distribution of Enrollment* in Maryland County White High Schools by Subjects 
Taken for Year Ending July 31, 1930 



feUBJlLlCl 


Number 
Enrolled 


Per Cent 


High Schools 
Offering Subject 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


No. 


Per 
Cent 




fl 1,074 


tl3,319 






152 




Tr,r» rrlicV* 


all, 134 


al3,258 


100.0 


99.5 


152 


100.0 




69,130 


610,987 


82.4 


82.5 


150 


98.7 




8,914 


9,470 


80.5 


71.1 


152 


100.0 




8,194 


8,818 


74.0 


66.2 


150 


98.7 




^ , ooo 


O , IID 


91 1 


. if 


on 


KQ 9 


Ti von ri 


1,567 


2,713 


14.2 


20 A 


126 


82.9 




46 


57 


.4 


.4 


3 


2.0 


Industrial Arts 


c5,719 


2 


52.5 




65 


42.8 


Home Economics 






102 


67.1 


General 




7,766 




58.3 


87 


57.2 






497 




3.7 


16 


10.5 


Agriculture 








39 


25.7 


All Day Courses 


865 




7.8 




33 


21.7 


Unit Courses 


67 


1 


.6 




6 


3.9 


^Commercial Subjects 




Stenography III-IV 


705 


1,795 


6.4 


13.5 


56 


36.8 


Typing III-IV 


1,037 


1,918 


9.4 


14.4 


56 


36.8 




1,021 


1,703 


9.2 


12.8 


55 


36.2 


Jr. Business Training 


198 


218 


1.8 


1.6 


8 


5.3 


Commercial Arithmetic .... 


477 


593 


4.3 


4.5 


20 


13.2 


Typing II 


118 


158 


1.1 


1.2 


7 


4.6 


d Other Commercial 














Subjects 


204 


244 


1.8 


1.8 


14 


9.2 


Physical Education 


3,120 


3,255 


28.2 


24.4 


30 


19.7 


Music 


6,742 


8.285 


60.9 


62.2 


119 


78.3 


Art 


319 


386 


2.9 


2.9 


9 


5.9 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer and death, 
t Excludes 4 boys and 20 girls — post-graduates. 
a Excludes 25 boys and 35 girls taking dramatics. 
b Includes 4 boys and 7 girls taking public speaking. 

c Includes 19 boys taking auto mechanics, 98 boys taking vocational courses in industry and 
drawing. 

t The percentages are as follows when based on enrollment for 

3rd and 4th years 2nd year 

Commercial Subject Boys Girls Commercial Subject Boys Girls 

Stenography III-IV 18.5 34.1 Jr. Business Training 7.1 6.2 

Typing III-IV 27.3 36.5 Commercial Arithmetic 17.1 16.9 

Bookkeeping III-IV 26.8 32.4 Typing II 4.2 4.5 

d Other Commercial Subjects 7.3 7.0 

d Includes commercial geography, spelling, penmanship, office practice. 

For data for individual high schools, see Tables XXXVII and Table XXXVIII, pages 
372-380. 



Subjects Offered ix White High Schools 



129 



Music showed greater gains than any other subject in the 
number of schools offering the subject, and in enrollment. Nearly 
61 per cent of the boys and 62 per cent of the girls in 119 
schools, 78 per cent of the entire number, had work in music. 

The enrollment in art grew so that nearly 3 per cent had w^ork 
in the subject which was offered in 9 high schools. (See 
Table SI.) 

Subject Offerings in Individual Counties 

In the individual counties there is considerable variation in 
the per cent of pupils taking various subjects. In some cases 
this is due to choice on the part of the students, but the factor 
which, more than any other, controls the offering is the size of 
the school. The small schools must of necessity plan for a limited 
program with few electives, and, in order to complete the total 
number of units required for graduation, the majority of the 
pupils must take the entire limited offering of the school.* 

Less than two-thirds of the enrollment in Carroll and Fred- 
erick and of girls in Prince George's, Allegany, Howard, and 
Montgomery took mathematics, while over 90 per cent of the 
enrollment in Calvert, Queen Anne's, Kent, and St. Mary's, and 
of the boys in Cecil and Washington took this subject. (See 
Table 82.) 

Every pupil in Calvert, Charles, and St. Mary's was enrolled 
for the social studies and over 90 per cent in Cecil, Anne Arundel, 
and Harford, while in Queen Anne's, less than 50 per cent of 
the boys and only 60 per cent of the girls were enrolled for these 
subjects. In Garrett, Howard, and Talbot less than 75 per cent 
of the pupils were required or elected to take the social studies. 

Calvert, Charles, and Cecil had the highest percentage of their 
enrollment taking science, while Washington, Queen Anne's, 
Talbot, Harford, Montgomery, Wicomico, Frederick, and Balti- 
more had less than 75 per cent taking science courses. 

Latin was not offered at all in Cecil, and in Calvert it was 
taken by only 4 per cent of the boys. Garrett, Charles, Somerset, 
and Carroll had less than 10 per cent of their enrollment taking 
Latin. At the opposite extreme, in Queen Anne's, over half the 
girls and nearly two-thirds of the boys took Latin, in Baltimore 
County between 40 and 45 per cent, in St. Mary's over a third 
were enrolled for Latin, and this was the case for over one-third 
of the girls in Worcester, Washington, Dorchester, and Caroline. 
(See Table 82.) 

French was available in every county, except St. Mary's. 
Queen Anne's had the largest percentage taking French as well 
as Latin, and the pursuit of foreign languages by so large a pro- 
portion of Queen Anne's pupils probably explains the small per- 
centage of the enrollment taking the social studies and science. 

* See State policy regarding small high schools, pages 153-4. 



130 



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1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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Subjects Offered in White High Schools 



131 



Wicomico, Montgomery, Caroline, and Kent all had approxi- 
mately one-fourth of their enrollment taking French. 

Industrial arts courses were available to the boys in all coun- 
ties except Calvert, Charles, St. Mary's, Garrett, and Howard. 
The two counties last named had a large enrollment for voca- 
tional agriculture which served adequately as a substitute for 
industrial arts. In Kent, Queen Anne's, and Carroll, practically 
the entire enrollment had work in industrial arts. In other 
counties the new plan for having the work in industrial arts 
offered five times a week in the first and second years and as an 
elective thereafter for those desiring a higher degree of speciali- 
zation meant that a smaller percentage appeared as enrolled than 
in previous years although actually the time given to and the 
efficiency of the work were greatly improved. Baltimore, Cecil, 
Caroline, Worcester, Allegany, Harford, and Prince George's 
had from 57 to 79 per cent of the boys enrolled in industrial arts. 
(See Table 82.) 

Montgomery County organized a unit trade preparatory course 
in automobile mechanics for 27 pupils at Rock\dlle and one in 
carpentry for 22 pupils at Chevy Chase. At Hagerstown 112 
pupils had opportunities for courses in carpentry, automobile 
mechanics, electricity and sheet metal. A part-time co-operative 
class was started at the Allegany High School for 16 boys. Each 
boy alternated in spending two weeks in industry and two weeks 
in school. 

Home economics courses paralleled the courses in industrial 
arts. The same counties which offered no industrial arts offered 
no general home economics. Those which emphasized work in 
industrial arts also stressed courses in home economics. Garrett 
had vocational home economics for one-half of the girls enrolled 
and 28 per cent of those in Howard took vocational work in home 
economics. Harford, Prince George's, Montgomery, Anne Arun- 
del, and Allegany were the only additional counties which had 
pupils enrolled for vocational home economics. 

Fifteen counties offered work in agriculture. Baltimore, Cal- 
vert, Caroline, Cecil, Kent, St. Mary's, Talbot, and Wicomico 
were the only ones which did not offer work in agriculture in 
any high school. Garrett and Howard had the highest percent- 
ages enrolled, 44 and 26, respectively. Queen Anne's, Somerset, 
Harford, Frederick, Dorchester, and Worcester had over 10 per 
cent of the boys enrolled in agriculture. (See Table 82.) 

Classes in physical education were reported for pupils in nine 
counties. Baltimore County had over 90 per cent enrolled for 
classes taught regularly by leaders assigned by the Playground 
Athletic League. Allegany County had physical education for 
approximately 60 per cent of the enrollment, Howard for nearly 
one-half, Talbot and Frederick for a third, and Washington for 
nearly a fourth of those enrolled. 



132 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



Music was reported for every county except Queen Anne's. 
The counties enrolled from one-third to all of the high school 
pupils for music. St. Mary's, Carroll, and Howard made pro- 
vision for music for practically all high school pupils. In Caro- 
line, Charles, Montgomery, and Kent about one-third of the en- 
rollment had courses in music. The percentage enrolled in- 
creased from 1929 to 1930 in every county, except Montgomery. 
A new plan was put into effect in Montgomery making classes 
in music entirely elective, classes in other special subjects being 
put on the same elective basis as music. Caroline, which in 1929 
limited instruction in music to the elementary schools, brought 
it back into the high schools in 1930. Dorchester, St. Mary's, and 
Somerset exhibited a great increase in the percentage of high 
school pupils taking work in music. (See Table 82.) 

FEWER WITHDRAWALS AND FAILURES IN COUNTY 
HIGH SCHOOLS 

The percentage of boys and girls withdrawn and not promoted 
in the various high school subjects was with few exceptions con- 
siderably lower in 1930 than in 1929. From 12 to 13 per cent 
of the boys and from 7 to 8 per cent of the girls were withdrawn. 

Latin had the highest percentage of failures for boys, 16 per 
cent, while mathematics and French showed failures averaging 



TABLE 83 

Number and Per Cent of Withdrawals and Failures in Maryland County 
White High Schools by Subject, for Year Ending July, 1930 





NUMPER 


Per Cent 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Subject 




























c 
















c 




c 














5 . 




s 




S£ 


T3 










0) 














e3 


aj 




<u 




•T! 


C 




o 




o 


-5 


O 


-5 


o 


u 
T3 


o 




With> 


Not 
Prorti 




Not 
Proni 


With 


1 Not 
1 Prom 


With 


1 Not 
1 Proir 


With 


Not 
Pronr 


With 


Not 
Pron 




2,280 


1 ,792 


1.352 1.230 


928 


562 


9.3 


7.3 


12.1 


11 .0 


7.0 


4.2 




1 001 


1 ,972 


1.14011,184 


761 


788 


10.3 


10.7 


12.8 


13.3 


8.0 


8.3 


Social Studies 


1,877 


1 .408 


1 .081 


806 


796 


602 


9.3 


7,0 


11.8 


8,8 


7.2 


5.5 


Science 


1,804 


1 194 


1 .074 


721 


730 


473 


10. (i 


7.0 


13.1 


8.8 


8.3 


5.4 




326 


645 


163 


373 


163 


272 


5.<) 


11.2 


7.0 


16.0 


4.7 


7.9 


French and Spanish 


253 


336 


139 


203 


114 


133 


5.8 


7.7 


8.6 


12.6 


4.1 


4.8 


AEcriculturo (Vocational) 


126 


45 


126 


45 






13.5 


4.8 


13.5 


4.8 






*Conimprcial Subjects: 










15 


.0 


Stenogranhv HI-IV 


454 


185 


269 


18 


.2 


26 


.2 


Typing III-IV 


446 


199 


247 


15 


.1 


19 


.2 


12 


.9 


Bookkopping III-IV 


423 


187 


236 


15 


. .5 


18 


.3 


13 


.9 


Junior Business Training 




T2 


45 


27 


17 


.3 


22 


.7 


12 


.4 


CoininereiHl Arithmetic 


191 


107 


84 


17 


.9 


22 


.4 


14 


.2 


Typing II 


6() 




^2 


34 


23 


.9 


27 


.1 


21 


.5 


Other Commercial Subjects. . . . 


74 


51 




23 


16 


. 5 


25 


.0 


9 


.4 



* For data on individual high schools, see Table XXXVIII, pages 378-380. 



Withdrawals and Failures by Subject in White High Schools 133 

approximately 13 per cent. Combining withdrawals and failures, 
the loss from the various subjects for boys varied from 20 to 26 
per cent, mathematics causing the greatest mortality. (See 
Table 83.) 

For girls mathematics and Latin had failures which averaged 
8 per cent. In other subjects failures averaged between 4 and 
6 per cent. The combined loss of girls by withdrawal and fail- 
ure varied between 9 and 16 per cent, mathematics appearing to 
be the most difficult of the subjects. 

Among the commercial subjects stenography for boys and typ- 
ing II for boys and girls had the greatest losses. (See Table 83 
and for individual high schools see Table XXXVIII, pages 378- 
380.) 

Withdrawals and Non-Promotions in Individual Counties 

The percentage of boys ivithdrawn in the various subjects was 
lowest in Calvert, Frederick, and Washington, and of boys not 
promoted was lowest in Caroline, Kent, and Washington. At 
the opposite extreme the high schools of Dorchester, St. Mary's, 
Somerset, and Wicomico lost the highest percentage of boys by 
withdrawal and those of Howard and Dorchester failed the 
largest percentage of bovs in the various subjects. (See 
Table 84.) 

For girls the high schools of Calvert and Caroline showed the 
smallest percentage of withdrawals and Calvert also showed the 
smallest percentage of failures. Cecil had the greatest percent- 
age of withdrawals for girls in the various subjects and Howard 
showed a high percentage of failure. 

Eliglish Summarizes School Conditions 

The withdrawals and failures in English are probably typical 
of general conditions in the high schools. There were few with- 
drawals of boys from English from Calvert, Frederick and Wash- 
ington, but in St. Mary's, Dorchester, and Wicomico from 16 to 
18 per cent of the boys enrolled withdrew from school. The per- 
centage of boys who failed was less than 8 in Caroline, Kent, 
Washington, and Calvert, while in Dorchester and Howard it 
was close to 16 per cent. 

For girls as few as 4 per cent withdrew from English in Cal- 
vert, Caroline, Worcester, and Queen Anne's, while withdrawals 
reached close to 10 per cent in Cecil and Prince George's. Fail- 
ures for girls were 1 per cent or less in Calvert, St. Mary's, and 
Worcester, while in Howard 14 per cent of the girls taking Eng- 
lish were not promoted. (See Table 84.) 

Mathematics' Withdrawals and Failures 

With the addition of Anne Arundel, the counties having few 
withdrawals of boys for English corresponded with those having 
the fewest withdrawals from mathematics. The highest per- 
centage of withdrawals of boys from mathematics were found 



134 



1^30 Report of State Department of Education 



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Withdrawals and Failures by Subject in White High Schools 135 

in Dorchester, Garrett, Worcester, Wicomico, Howard, and Som- 
erset. Less than 10 per cent of the boys failed mathematics in 
Washington, Calvert, Worcester, Charles, Kent, Frederick, Caro- 
line, and Talbot, while nearly 20 per cent failed in Allegany, 
Somerset, Howard, and Queen Anne's. 

Calvert, Kent, Charles, and ^Caroline showed the lowest per- 
centage of withdrawal of girls from mathematics while Talbot, 
Cecil and Dorchester had the greatest loss of girls. Failures in 
mathematics for girls ranged from 1 per cent in Calvert to close 
to 16 per cent in Somerset, Howard, and Dorchester. (See 
Table 84.) 

The Social Studies and Science 

In the social studies the percentage of boys withdrawn varied 
from 5 in Calvert to 16 in Wicomico, Caroline, St. Mary's, Somer- 
set, and Dorchester. In Queen Anne's only 3.5 per cent of the 
boys failed, while in Howard, Talbot, and Harford the percent- 
age of boys who failed was three and four times as great as it 
was in Queen Anne's. For girls, withdrawals from the social 
studies ranged from 3 per cent in Calvert to 10 and 11 per cent 
m Cecil, Harford, and Prince George's. Failures of girls varied 
from 1 per cent in Calvert to 10 and 11 per cent in Howard and 
Dorchester. 

The holding power of science was similar to that in the other 
subjects, Calvert, Frederick, and Washington showing the small- 
est percentage and Wicomico, Somerset, and Garrett having the 
highest percentage of withdrawals of boys. Failures of boys 
were below 5 per cent in Caroline, Kent, Washington, Charles, 
Garrett, and Calvert, and 14 per cent or more in Dorchester, 
Howard, and Queen Anne's. For the girls withdrawals ranged 
from 2 per cent in Queen Anne's, 4 per cent in Calvert and Wor- 
cester to 10 per cent or more in Talbot, Cecil, Frederick, and 
Allegany. Failures were 3 per cent or less in Calvert, Worcester, 
Anne Arundel, Kent, Caroline, and Washington, while in How- 
ard, they were 10 per cent, and in Queen Anne's, 17 per cent. 
(See Table 84.) 

Langiuages 

Latin had heavy withdrawals for boys in St. Mary's, Dor- 
chester, Charles, and Talbot, in contrast with none or few in 
Caroline, Carroll, Washington, Wicomico, Anne Arundel, and 
Kent. Failures in Latin included from 20 to 30 per cent of the 
boys taking the subject in Montgomery, Queen Anne's, Dorches- 
ter, Harford, and Anne Arundel. For girls, withdrawals from 
Latin were none or few in Garrett, Anne Arundel, Carroll, and 
Prince George's, and only in Talbot and Dorchester did they reach 
from 9 to 11 per cent. Less than 5 per cent of the girls were 
not promoted in Latin in Kent, Worcester, Prince George's, Fred- 



136 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

erick, Somerset, and Baltimore, while this was the case for 16 
per cent in Dorchester, for nearly 20 per cent in Queen Anne's, 
and for 49 per cent in St. Mary*s. 

French lost only 2 per cent of the boys by withdrawals from 
Queen Anne's, while in Talbot, Somerset, Kent, and Wicomico, 
16 to 18 per cent withdrew. Non-promotions of boys in French 
ranged from none in Worcester and Charles to 20 per cent or 
more in Allegany, Talbot, Harford, and Montgomery. With- 
drawals of girls from French varied from none in Howard to 8 
and 9 per cent in Cecil, Kent, and Wicomico. Failures for girls 
varied from 2 per cent or less in Somerset, Worcester, Kent, and 
Queen Anne's to 10 per cent in Howard, Prince George's, and 
Montgomery. 

Agriculture 

Withdrawals from vocational agriculture varied from less than 
5 per cent in Somerset and Carroll to 26 per cent in Worcester 
and 40 per cent in Queen Anne's. There were no failures in 
Allegany, Anne Arundel, Carroll, and Worcester, and less than 

2 per cent in Montgomery and Prince George's. Dorchester had 
16.7 per cent of the pupils failing in vocational agriculture, while 
this was the case with 9 per cent in Harford and 7 per cent in 
Queen Anne's and Garrett. (See Table 84.) 

MORE TEACHERS OF ALL SUBJECTS EXCEPT LATIN, AGRI- 
CULTURE AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION 

In the school year 1929-30 the county white high schools em- 
ployed a teaching staff equivalent to the full time service of 1,076 
teachers, an increase of 58 full time teachers over the correspond- 
ing figure for the preceding year. Every subject showed an in- 
crease, except Latin which lost 1.3 teachers, agriculture which 
lost 3.6 teachers, and physical education which had .7 fewer 
teachers on a full time basis. (See Table 85.) 

The largest increase in teaching staff was required for music 
which needed 43 full time teachers in 1930 as compared with 27 
in 1929. English and the social studies, which in 1930 used the 
full time service of 189 and 152 teachers, respectively, each had 
an increase of 11.4 teachers over the number the year before. 
Science's full time staff of 149 teachers was a gain of 7 over the 
year before. Mathematics, with the equivalent of 144 full time 
teachers, had 6 more than in 1929. French, with 52 teachers on 
a full time basis, had 1 more than the year preceding, while 
Latin, with 51, had a loss of 1.3 teachers on a full time basis. 

Commercial subjects with 84 teachers showed a gain of 4, 
home economics with 70 teachers on a full time basis added over 

3 to its staff. The actual number of teachers giving instruction 
in home economics was 85 working in 102 schools. Of the 85 
teachers, 17 visited 42 different schools. Although there were 



Distribution of High School Teiachers by Subjects Taught 137 



TABLE 85 

Number of Teachers Distributed by High School Subjects in 
White County High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1930 



subjects 



Number of 
Teachers on 
Full-Time 
Basis Dis- 
tributed by 
Time Devoted 
to Different 
Subjects 


Number of 
High Schools 
Offering 
Subjects 


Number of Cases Where 
Special Teachers Instruct in 
More Than One School 
Each Week or Term 


.\p proximate 
Number of 
Different 
Teachers of 
Special 
Subjects 


Teachers 


Schools 


189.1 
152.1 
149.1 
143.6 
51.9 
51.3 

84.0 
69.7 
42.7 
a42.2 
21.3 
17.3 
8.8 
3.5 

49.7 

1,076.3 


152 
150 
150 
152 
126 
90 

57 
102 
119 
65 
39 
30 
13 
8 












































17 
*623 
*15 
10 


42 
*57 
*35 

23 


85 
87 
a49 
26 
30 










8 






152 















English 

Social Studies 

Science 

Mathematics 

French and Spanish. 
Latin 

Commercial Subjects 
Home Economics. . . 

Music 

Industrial Arts 

Agriculture 

Physical Education . 

Library 

Art. 

Administration and 
Supervision 

Total 



* Includes 1 teacher who teaches both industrial arts and music in two schools. 
a Includes 4 Teachers of Vocational Industrial Arts. 

6 Includes orchestra leader in Carroll County who instructs in 10 schools already having a regular 
music teacher. 

only 43 music teachers on a full time basis, there were actually 
87 teachers who taught music in 119 schools on either full or 
part time, 23 of the teachers visiting 57 different schools to give 
instruction in music. (See Table 85.) 

Although there were only 42 teachers of industrial arts on a 
full time basis, actually 49 gave instruction in 65 schools, 15 of 
the teachers visiting 35 different schools. Agriculture was 
taught in 39 schools by 26 teachers. If the schedule for agri- 
cultural teachers had included no other subjects, only 21 would 
have been needed on a full time basis. Considerable of their time 
is given to teaching related science which is not considered here. 
Ten of the agricultural teachers visited 23 schools. (See 
Table 85.) 

There were 30 schools which had instruction in physical edu- 
cation, the number of teachers employed on a full time basis 
aggregating 17. Thirteen schools had libraries requiring the full 
time service of nearly 9 teachers. Administration and super- 
vision required the full time service of 50 principals. According 



138 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



to the annual reports of the county superintendents, there were 
only 7 high school principals who did no class room teaching. 
(See Table 85.) 

Ten of the high schools in five counties had clerks, the salaries 
varying from $400 to $900. Allegany County had clerks in five 
of the largest schools as did Baltimore County in the two largest 
high schools. Anne Arundel, Frederick, and Washington each 
also employed one clerk in their largest high school, the clerk 
being found in most cases in the same school employing a non- 
teaching principal. 

FEWER PROVISIONALLY CERTIFICATED TEACHERS 
The number and per cent of high school principals and teach- 
ers holding provisional certificates in October, 1930, 79 and 6.6 
per cent, respectively, were lower than for previous years. By 
counties the number varied from none in Calvert to 8 in Carroll 
and the percentage with provisional certificates ranged from less 
than 5 per cent in Calvert, Frederick, Baltimore, Howard, Cecil, 
and Queen Anne's to 10 per cent or more in Worcester, Somerset, 
Caroline, St. Mary's, and Carroll. The only counties which had 
an increase in provisionally certificated high school teachers were 
Worcester, Carroll, Talbot, Kent, and Baltimore, the increases 
varying in number from 1 to 3. (See Table 86.) 

TABLE 86 



Number and Per Cent of Provisionally Certificated White High School 
Principals and Teachers 





Num- 








Num- 








ber 


Per Cent 




ber 


Per Cent 


COUNTY 








COUNTY 










Oct. 


Oct. 


Oct. 




Oct. 


Oct. 


Oct. 




1930 


1930 


1929 




1930 


1930 


1929 


Total and Average . . 


.. 79 


6.6 


8.5 




3 


6.4 


6.7 








Allegany 


7 


6.5 


10.5 








28.6 


Anne Arundel 


4 


7.0 


10.0 




1 


'i'.2 


1.3 


Prince George's 


7 


7.6 


14.5 


Garrett 


1 


2.6 


2.8 




2 


8.3 


4.2 


Baltimore 


3 


2.6 


1.1 


Talbot 


3 


8.6 


3.1 




1 


3.8 


7.7 




4 


9.8 


12.5 


Cecil 


2 


4.2 


7.0 


Carroll 


8 


10.0 


9.3 




1 


4.5 


9.1 


St. Mary's 


1 


10.0 


27.3 


Charles 


1 


5.0 
5.8 


11.1 




5 


12.5 


12.9 


Harford 


3 


5.9 




4 


12.9 


16.7 




6 


6.1 


9.5 


Worcester 


7 


17.5 


10.3 






6.1 


10.3 











SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANTS FROM COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

INCREASE 

That the high school teaching staff is continuing its training 
through summer school attendance year by year is evident from 
the following figures: 



Provisional High School Certificates; Summer School Attendants 139 





TABLE 87 






Summer School Attendants 


Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


1924 


232 


31.0 


1925 


280 


32.3 


1926 


281 


30.7 


1927 


319 


32.7 


1928 


296 


28.4 


1929 


367 


33.5 


1930 


410 


34.3 



In addition to one county supervisor of high schools, there were 
410 high school principals and teachers, over one-third of the 
number in October, 1930, who attended summer school in 1930. 
The counties varied in the per cent of the staff employed who 
were in summer school from over 45 per cent in Calvert, Alle- 
gany, Montgomery, St. Mary's, Somerset, and Baltimore, to less 
than 25 per cent in Dorchester, Washington, Howard, Wicomico, 
Queen Anne's, Kent, and Talbot. (See Table 88.) 

TABLE 88 

County White High School Teachers in Service in October, 1930, Reported by 
County Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1930 



County- 



Teachers Employed 

Oct., 1929, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1930 



Number Per Cent 



Summer Schools Attended 



Number 
of White 
High 
School 
Teachers 



Total 

Calvert 

Allegany 

Montgomery. . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Baltimore 

Charles 

Cecil 

Frederick 

Harford 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Prince George's 

Garrett 

Anne Arundel . . 

Carroll 

Dorchester . . . . 
Washington. . . 

Howard 

Wicomico 

Queen Anne's . . 

Kent 

Talbot 



"410 

5 
61 
54 
5 
15 
*54 
7 
15 
25 
16 
12 
12 
26 
11 
16 
21 
10 
20 
6 
9 
3 
3 
4 



34.3 

62.5 
57.0 
54.0 
50.0 
48.4 
46.6 
35 

31.3 
30.9 
30.8 
30.0 
30.0 
28.9 
28.2 
28.1 
26.3 
24.4 
24.4 
23.1 
19.1 
13.6 
12.5 
11.8 



Total 

University of Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University .... 

Columbia University 

University of Virginia 

University of Chicago 

Pennsylvania State College . . . 
George Washington University 

Cornell University 

University of West Virginia . . . 
University of Pennsylvania . . . 

University of Vermont 

Duke University 

University of California 

Catholic University 

Bowling Green 

All Others 



"410 

114H 
91 
69 
26^ 
*12 

9 

8 

7 

5 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 
50 



* Excludes one supervisor. 

The University of Maryland gave courses to 115 of the teach- 
ers and Johns Hopkins to 91. The majority of those who went 
outside of the State took courses at Columbia University. The 
University of Virginia and the University of Chicago had 27 and 



140 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

12 attendants, respectively. Other colleges which had 3 or more 
attendants are listed in Table 88. 

RESIGNATIONS FROM COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS TOTAL 187 
There were 187 teachers who resigned their positions in the 
white county high schools between October, 1928, and October, 
1929. This number does not include 18 teachers on leave of ab- 
sence, 52 who transferred from one county to another and 1 
who went into elementary school teaching. With the exception 
of the year 1925-26, this was a larger number of resignations 
than was found in any other year. There were 27 more resig- 
nations than in the year preceding, 10 more on leave of absence, 
and 14 more transfers from one county to another. (See 
Table 89.) 

TABLE 89 

Estimated Causes of Resignation of White High School Teachers from Maryland 
County Schools at End of or During 1925-26, 1926-27, 1927-28, 1928-29 



1928-29 



Causes of Resignation 


1925-26 


1926-27 


1927-28 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


Teaching in Baltimore City, Another 












State, or Private School 


/ 66 




43 


63 


33.7 


Other School Positions in State 


^6 


1 52 


5 


11 


5.9 






42 


42 


47 


25.2 


Work Other Than Teaching 


18 


23 


21 


21 


11.2 


Dropped for Inefficiency 


20 


20 


21 


21 


11.2 




6 


5 


5 


3 


1.6 




10 


6 


3 


3 


1.6 






3 


2 


5 


2.7 




3 


1 


2 






Provisional Certificate or Failure to 














11 


5 


2 


7 


3.7 


Other and Unknown 


14 


14 


14 


6 


3.2 


Total 


194 


171 


160 


187 


100.0 




7 


13 


8 


18 


9.6 


Transfer to Another County 


47 


39 


38 


*52 


27.3 


To County Elementary School 








tl 





* Excludes a teacher who resigned from a graded school in Anne Arundel to teach in a high school 
in Montgomery. . , . , . . , . , , , 

t Excludes 3 teachers in Allegany, changmg from senior high to junior high school. 

The largest number, 63, or one-third of the total number of 
resignations, were due to taking positions in Baltimore City, in 
other states, or in private schools. In respect to changing posi« 
tions, the high school teaching staff is much less stable than the 
elementary school staff. Marriage claimed 48, or just over one- 
fourth of all the high school teachers who resigned. Work other 
than teaching, and inefficiency, each, occasioned the withdrawal 



Resignations by Cause from County White High Schools 141 



TABLE 90 

Causes of Resignation from Maryland County White High Schools During and at 
End of School Year 1928-29 



COUNTY 



c o 



I >>Ph 

o 



Oh « 



Total 1929 . 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel. 
Baltimore .... 

Calvert 

Caroline 



Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles . .. . 
Dorchester . 
Frederick. . 



Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . 



Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's. . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 



Washington 
Wicomico. . 
Worcester. . 



187 

tl6 
4 
15 



21 



* Total excludes teachers on leave of absence and transfers to another county, 
t Excludes three teachers changing from senior high to junior high school. 

t Excludes 1 teacher who left a graded school in A.A. Co. to teach in a high school in Montgomery 



TABLE 91 

Years of Service for Teachers Who Resigned from Maryland County White High 
Schools from October 1928 to October, 1929 



Years 


Number of 


Years 


Number of 


of 


Teacher 


of 


Teacher 


Service 


Resignations 


Service 


Resignations 






6 


12 


Total 


187 


7 


6 


1 


36 


8 

9-12 


8 
13 


2 


36 


13-16 


8 


3 


31 


17-20 


4 


4 


20 


21-24 


2 


5 


8 


25 + 


3 



142 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



of 21, or 11 per cent of those who resigned from county high 
schools. Eleven, or 6 per cent of the high school teachers who 
resigned took other school positions of an administrative or 
supervisory nature in the State. Resignations by cause for each 
county are given in Table 90. 

Nearly 60 per cent of the resignations occurring from the 
county high schools took place after one, two and three years of 
experience. (See Table 91.) 

TURNOVER OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 
The increase in the number of high school teaching positions, 
54, was slightly lower than in the three years preceding. Of the 
255 teachers new to the county high schools, over 200 of the 
teachers took positions vacated by teachers who resigned or who 
took leave of absence, while the remainder were needed for ad- 
ditional positions required for the growth in high school enroll- 
ment. The turnover of 23.3 per cent was higher by 1 per cent 
than for the year preceding. (See Table 92.) 

TABLE 92 

Turnover in White High Schools 

Number New to Counties 
Who Were 
Experienced 

New to Maryland Increase in But Not 



Counties No. of in Md. County 

Per Teaching Inexpe- High Schools 

October No. Cent Positions rienced Preceding Year 

1926 260 28.4 116 166 94 

1927 240 24.6 64 153 87 

1928 231 22.3 61 147 84 

1929 255 23.3 54 157 98 



Including 53 teachers who went from one county to another, 
there were 308 teachers new to the individual counties in which 
they taught, during the school year 1929-30. The counties varied 
in the per cent of high school teachers new to the county staffs 
from 15.6 per cent in Wicomico to 63.6 per cent in St. Mary's. 
Several of the counties with a high turnover had a large increase 
in high school enrollment necessitating a number of additions to 
the staffs. This was particularly true of Montgomery and Prince 
George's Counties. Calvert, Cecil, Somerset, Garrett and Caro- 
line also had a large percentage of change in staff. (See Table 
93.) 

Carroll, Montgomery, and Cecil employed 17, 16, and 12 in- 
experienced high school teachers, respectively. Allegany, Mont- 
gomery, Prince George's, Frederick, Worcester, Garrett, and 
Washington employed the largest number of experienced teach- 
ers new to the State, the numbers varying from 9 to 5. Prince 



Turnover of County ^^'HITE High School Teachers 143 



TABLE 93 

Number and Per Cent of White High School Teachers New to Maryland Counties 
in October, 1929, Showing Those Inexperienced, Experienced and 
from Other Counties 



County- 



New to 
County 



No. 



Per 
Cent 



Change in 

No. of 
Teaching 
Positions 
Oct., 1928- 
Oct., 1929 



Number 

In- 
experi- 
enced 



New to County Oct., 1929 
who were Experienced 



But 
New 

to 
State 



In 

Counties 
but not in 

Service 
1928-1929 



Total and 
Average 

Wicomico .... 
Washington. . 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel. 
Charles 

Baltimore .... 
Queen Anne's. 

Howard 

Dorchester . . . 
Harford 

Frederick. . , . 

Carroll 

Worcester. . . . 

Talbot 

Kent 

Caroline 

Prince George'; 

Garrett 

Somerset 

Montgomery. 

Cecil 

Calvert 

St. Mary's . . . 



308 
7 

16 
22 
11 

4 

21 
5 
6 
10 
14 

21 
22 
12 
10 

8 

11 
27 
13 
11 
31 

16 
3 
7 



28.2 

15.6 
20.0 
21.0 
22.0 
22.2 

22.6 
22.7 
23.1 
25.6 
27.5 

27.6 
29.3 
30.8 
31.3 
33.3 

35.5 
36.0 
36.1 
36.7 
36.9 

37.2 
42.9 
63.6 



+48 



+ 


4 




1 


+ 


2 



+ 1 

+ 1 

+ 3 

+ 3 

+ 2 

+ 3 



+ 3 

+ 4 
+ 6 
+ 1 
+ 1 
+ 10 

+ 3 

+ '2' 



157 

5 
8 
9 
8 
o 



7 
17 

6 
5 
3 

5 
8 
4 
5 
16 

12 

2 
4 



67 

1 

5 
9 
2 



22 



George's, Baltimore, Montgomery, and Frederick gave positions' 
to the largest number of teachers who the year before were em- 
ployed in other counties. (See Table 93.) 

Location of Colleges Attended by High School Teachers Newly Appiointed 
The distribution by location of the colleges attended by the 
157 inexperienced college graduates who were employed in Oc- 
tober, 1929, shows that 111 received their training in Maryland. 
Western Maryland College, located at Westminster in Carroll 
County, trained 49 of these teachers, of whom 15 took positions 



144 



1930 Report of State Dep.\rtment of Education 



TABLE 94 



State of College Attended, and for Maryland, College Attended, by Inexperienced 
White High School Teachers, Also State of College Attended for Teachers With 
Teaching Experience in Other States Who Were Employed in Maryland Counties 

in October, 1929 



state of 

COLLEGE 
ATTENDED 


Total 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel j 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles | 


u 

c 

c 


5 
% 


3 


Harford | 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 1 


Prince George's 1 


Queen Anne's 


St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


1 Worcester 1 


Inexperienced Teachers Employed in October, 1929 




Total 


157 


9 


8 


8 


2 


5 


17 


12 


2 


7 


7 


4 


8 


4 


3 


16 


8 


4 


*4 


5 


5 


8 


5 


t6 


Maryland ... 
West. Md... 
Un. of Md. . 
Goiicher. . . . 
Washington 
Hood 


111 

49 
16 
15 
12 
8 
7 
2 
1 
1 
9 
7 
7 
4 
4 
4 
2 
2 

3 

4- 


1 
1 


7 
1 

5 


6 

"2 
2 


2 
1 


3 
1 


17 
15 
1 


4 
3 
1 


1 
1 


5 
1 
1 
1 
1 


5 

i 


4 
4 


7 
6 


3 
1 
2 


3 

"2 
1 


10 

3 
3 
3 


7 
5 
1 


4 


2 


3 
1 
1 


4 
1 


6 
1 
1 


4 
3 
1 


3 
2 

1 










3 




1 






4 


1 


1 


2 


1 

3 








1 


1 


1 
1 








Notre Dame 

J. Hopkins. . 

St. Johns . . . 

St. Josephs. 
Pennsylvania. . 
Delaware 








1 










1 


1 




1 




1 




1 


1 


1 






































































1 
1 




























2 








1 




1 
4 


1 


















1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 
1 










1 












Virginia 


1 

2 

1 
1 








1 






1 










1 


1 






Massachusetts 
New York .... 
Wash., D. C. . 
Connecticut. . . 
Indiana 














1 






1 














1 
















2 
3 












1 






































































1 




















2 
1 
































Ken., N. J., 
W. Va. . . 


1 


1 


1 






































tl 


Mis. & Unk. . . 










1 


















*1 
















































Teachers with Experience in Other States Employed in October, 1929 


Total 

Maryland. . . . 
Pa. 


67 

19 
8 
7 
6 
6 
3 
3 
2 
2 
7 
4 


9 

2 
2 


2 


1 




3 

1 
1 


2 

1 
1 


2 




1 


6 
3 


5 

1 
1 


2 
2 


1 


1 


8 


7 
3 




2 


t2 


2 
1 


5 

2 
1 


1 


5 
3 


1 














1 










Wash., D. C. . 

New York 

Virginia 










2 
1 


4 




1 






2 


1 










1 






1 
1 










1 




i 


1 


1 






1 


















N. Carolina. . . 
W. Virginia. . . 
Kentucky. . . . 
Nebraska 
























2 






1 






1 




















2 


































1 




1 






















1 




1 
















1 

2 


















Others 












1 




1 
















1 


1 




1 


Mis. & Unk. . . 












1 
















tl 



































* Includes a part-time music teacher, trained at St. Mary's Academy, 
t Includes a music teacher, trained at Peabody Institute. 



Training of White High School Teachers New to Counties 145 



in Carroll County. The University of Maryland, Goucher, and 
Washington College trained 16, 15, and 12, respectively, who 
entered teaching service in the counties for the school year 
1929-30. Hood sent 8, Notre Dame 7, and Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity 2, who joined the county staffs in October, 1929. (See 
Table 94.) 

In this connection, a comparison of the Maryland county 
students at Maryland colleges who completed in June, 1929, the 
education courses necessary for certification with the number of 
graduates who in the fall of 1929 accepted county high school 
positions, which latter number is not necessarily limited to county 
students, shows that only for Goucher College was the number 
accepting positions larger than the number of county graduates 
who completed the education courses necessary for certification. 
This means that Goucher graduates from Baltimore City or else- 
where took positions in the counties. For Western Maryland 
College, the number accepting positions, 49, was close to the 
number of county graduates who completed the education courses 
necessary for certification. (See Table 95.) 

TABLE 95 

Maryland County Students Who Completed in June, 1929, at Colleges Indi- 
cated, the Education Courses Necessary for Certification Compared with 
the Number of Graduates who Took Positions in the County High 
Schools in the Fall of 1929 

Number of Graduates 
From Counties Who Accepted 

College Who Met Require- County High School 

ments for Certification Positions. 

Hood College 12 8 

University of Maryland - 44 16 

Washington College 26 12 

Western Maryland College 52 49 

Goucher College _ 11 15 

Saint Joseph's College _ 8 1 

Notre Dame College 11 7 

Total „ _ „ 164 108 

Schools in the neighboring states of Pennsylvania, Delaware, 

and Virginia together trained 23 of those who had their first 

year of teaching in Maryland counties in 1929-30. 

Of the 67 teachers with experience in other states who began 

teaching in Maryland in October, 1929, 19 had had their training 

in Maryland colleges. (See Table 94.) 

TURNOVER DURING THE YEAR 

To keep the 1,076 high school positions in the white schools 
filled during the entire school year it was necessary to employ 
30 teachers after the beginning of the school year in September, 
1929. This number represented 2.8 per cent of the entire staff. 



146 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

Nine counties required no change at all, while the other counties 
replaced from 1 to 5 members of the staff who resigned during 
the year for various reasons. Since 43 replacements were re- 
quired the preceding year, this was a further indication of sta- 
bility in the high school teaching staff. (See Table 96.) 



TABLE 96 

Number and Per Cent of White High School Teachers Employed in Excess of 
the Number of Teaching Positions in Order that Positions Be 
Kept Filled During the School Year Ending July 31, 1930 



REPLACEMENTS 



REPLACEMENTS 



County 

Total and Average . 

Anne Arundel 

Calvert 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Garrett 

Queen Anne's 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Worcester . 

Washington 

Carroll 



Number Per Cent 
30 2.8 



County Number Per Cent 

Allegany 2 1.9 

Harford 1 2.0 

Cecil 1 2.3 

Frederick 2 2.6 

Talbot 1 3.1 

Howard 1 3.8 

Prince George's 4 5.3 

Baltimore 5 5.4 

Caroline 2 6.5 

Montgomery 5 7.1 

Kent 2 8.3 

St. Mary's 2 18.2 



EXPERIENCE OF WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

For 1,194 white high school teachers reported by county 
superintendents as in service in October, 1930, the median ex- 
perience was 4.5 years, the same as for the year preceding. The 
counties varied in median experience of teachers from less than 
3 years in St. Mary's and Garrett to 7 years or more in Kent 
and Queen Anne's Counties. Fewer inexperienced teachers than 
ii\ October, 1929, were added to the staff in Calvert, Dorchester, 
Larford, Montgomery, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, and Somerset, 
n aking the median experience for teachers in all of these coun- 
ties, except Montgomery and Queen Anne's, higher than it was 
in the preceding year. (See Table 97.) 

The inexperienced group for the counties as a whole included 
the maximum number of teachers — 191. This is to be expected 
with a staff growing by approximately 60 teachers a year. There 
were 138 with one year of experience, 126 with two years, 98 
with three years, 87 with four years, and 66 with five years of 
experience. The groups with six and seven years of experience, 
70 and 73, respectively, it will be noted, were larger than the 
group with but 5 years of experience. (See Table 97.) 



Turnover During Year; Experience White High School Teachers 



be 
S 





(N ^ 








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148 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



MORE MEN TEACHING IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The number of men teaching in the high schools has grown 
each year, the total for the school year ending in June, 1930, 
being 365 and including 34 per cent of the high school teaching 
staff. (See Table 98.) 



TABLE 98 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers in County White High Schools 



Year Number Per Cent 

1923 253 36.9 

1924 271 36.2 

1925 283 35 . 1 

1926 303 35.0 



Year Number Per Cent 

1927 307 33.7 

1928 333 34.3 

1929 348 34.4 

1930 365 34.0 



There was considerable variation among the counties in the 
proportion of men teachers employed in the high schools. Anne 
Arundel had 7 who constituted only 15 per cent of the staff, 
while in Calvert, Garrett, Washington, and St. Mary's over 43 
per cent of the staff were men. In the counties having small 
high schools with but two teachers, employing men as principals, 
the men are half of the staff. 

The only counties with a decrease in men teachers from 1929 
to 1930 were Anne Arundel, Talbot, Dorchester, Harford, Wico- 
mico, Carroll, and Calvert. In the other counties the number 
remained stationary or increased. (See Table 99.) 



TABLE 99 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County White High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1930 



COUNTY 



Men Teaching 


COUNTY 






Number 


Per Cent 




365.3 


34.0 


Worcester 


7.1 


14.7 


Frederick 


24.9 


25.2 


Carroll 


19 


27.4 




9' 


28.1 


Charles 


21.5 


29.5 


Caroline 


13 


30.4 




12 


30.6 


Calvert 


16 


31.9 




8 


33.3 


Washington 

St. Mary's 


7.5 


34.9 


9 


35.4 





Men Teaching 



Number 


Per Cent 


16 


35.9 


14 


36.3 


27.8 


36.5 


27 


37.7 


42.8 


38.5 


7 


38.9 


13 


40.0 


12 


40.1 


3 


42.9 


16 


45.3 


35 


45.8 


4.7 


47.5 



Total and Average 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Montgomery 

Talbot 

Prince George's 

Cecil* 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Kent 

Queen Anne's 

Howard 



Men Teachers ; Number of High Schools 



149 



NUMBER OF HIGH SCHOOLS 
The number of white public approved high schools increased 
by 1 in 1930 over 1929, the gain being in first group schools. 
There v^ere 152 schools of which 142 were of the first group. 
Actually there was a considerable number of changes, especially 
for the second group schools. (See Table 100.) 



TABLE 100 

Number of Approved High Schools in Maryland Counties, 1920-1930 



Year 



White High Schools 



Total 



Group 

n 



Group 
t2 



Colored High Schools 



Total 




1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

Increase over 1920 



82 
115 
127 
139 
142 
148 
150 
152 
153 

noi 

152 
70 



*69 
*92 
103 
=117 
=120 
=130 
=136 
137 
141 
141 
142 

73 



tl3 
t23 
t24 
t22 
t22 
tl8 
tl4 
tl5 

12 
§10 

10 



t First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and two teachers. 
They give a four-year course. 

Second group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 15, an attendance of 12, and one teacher. 
They give a two-year course. Schools in Baltimore County giving a one-year course are classified as 
second group schools, as is also the Greene Street Junior High School, which has grades 7 to 9, inclusive* 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2 prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

§ Excludes one school approved for its work but not given State aid because of low enrollment. 
For group of individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 366-71. 



Although offering only three years of work, Old Post Road 
High School in Harford was ranked as a first group school, since 
it was in the process of becoming a four-year school. Formerly 
it had been ranked as a second group school. Nanjemoy school 
in Charles and Eldorado in Dorchester were run as second group 
schools in 1930, and Montgomery had two junior high schools at 
Germantown and Glen Echo-Cabin John. Baltimore City also 
started its Southern Junior-Senior School which will have a four- 
year course in 1932. The Adamstown School in Frederick and 
the Essex and Parkville schools in Baltimore County, which were 
open in 1929, were discontinued in 1930. (See Table 101.) 

Carroll, Montgomery, and Allegany each had 11 approved high 
schools for white pupils, Harford and Prince George's each had 



150 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 101 

Number of Approved High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1930 



County 



Total Counties . 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester .... 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City . 

State 



Number of Approved High Schools 



White 



Total 



152 

11 

4 
8 
3 
6 

11 
8 
5 
7 
8 
6 
9 
6 
4 

11 
9 
5 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
5 



158 



Group 



142 

10 

4 
6 
3 
6 
11 
8 
4 
6 
8 
5 
8 
5 
4 
9 
9 
5 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
5 



147 



10 

n 

2 



11 



Colored 



Total 



25 

1 
1 



26 



Group 



17 

1 
1 



18 



Junior High School. 



9, while Frederick, Cecil, and Baltimore Counties each had 8 
high school centers. St. Mary's and Calvert each had 3 high 
schools, while Somerset, Kent, and Anne Arundel had 4 each. 
(See Table 101 and Chart 16.) 



152 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



RELATION OF ENROLLMENT AND TEACHING STAFF IN WHITE 
COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

The median high school in the Maryland counties enrolled 82 
pupils and had a staff of 5.5 teachers. The schools varied in 
size from 2 having 15 or fewer pupils with two teachers to 9 
with over 500 pupils and 22 teachers. When the size of the 9 
largest schools is analyzed it is evident that the largest school 
had 45 teachers for over 1,250 pupils belonging on the average. 
(See Table 102.) 

TABLE 102 

Relation of Teaching Staff and Size of Enrollment (Average Number Belonging) 
in Maryland County High Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1930 



Average 



Number of Teachers Employed in White Approved 
High Schools 



Belonging 


*1 


*2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 f 




2 
5 












































16- 25 












































26- 40 


5 
7 


5 
-4 








































41- 50 










































51- 75 

76-100 




1 


11 

2 


17 
6 


6 
7 


3 


2 
































101-125 

126-150 








4 


7 


"6 
3 


2 
4 


1 

3 
2 






























151-175 












1 


1 
2 
1 


1 
1 
2 
1 
1 


























176-200 














1 






















201-225 




































226-250 


















1 
2 






1 


















251-275 




































276-300 




















1 
1 


1 
1 
2 




















301-325 


























1 
1 


1 


























































































376-400 












































401-425 


























1 




























































451-475 














































476-500 














































Over 500 












































t9 


Total 












































7 


13 


22 


27 


20 


13 


8 


6 


4 


6 


3 


3 


5 


2 


2 


1 




1 








9 











Total 
No. 
Schools 



* Represents mid-point of interval. 

t Includes grades 7, 8 and 9 of Greene St. Junior High School. Details as follows for the nine 
schools: 



No. Belonging 


Total 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 30 31 32 


33 34 


45 


576- 600 


1 








1 








601- 625 


2 


1 






1 








701- 725 


1 






1 










726- 750 


1 










I 






776- 800 


1 




i 












901- 925 


1 












" ' i 




1026-1050 


1 










1 






1251-1275 


1 














1 


Total 




1 


1 


1 


2 


1 . . 1 


1 . 


1 



The 20 schools with an average enrollment of between 76 and 
100 pupils had from 3 to 7 teachers. Undoubtedly the curriculum 
offered in the school with 7 teachers provided more work in voca- 
tional and special subjects than was possible with the limited 



Relation of Enrollment to Teaching Staff; Small High Schools 153 

offering which could be given by the school employing 3 teachers. 
There were 2 schools with 14 teachers. One had an average 
enrollment between 226 and 250 and the other an enrollment 
between 401 and 425. The size of sections and the opportunities 
for special work obviously must have differed widely in the two 
schools. (See Table 102.) 

In line with the tendency toward the elimination of small high 
schools by transportation of pupils to larger schools offering 
a more enriched program and opportunities for improved in- 
struction in the regular subjects, the following State policies 
concerning small high schools were set up by the State Superin- 
tendent of Schools in a letter to the county superintendents and 
county boards of education as of October 7, 1930 : 

During the past ten years we have experimented with all types of small 
high schools on the Eastern Shore as well as in other sections of the State, 
and we have become more and more convinced that it is absoluteh/ impossi- 
ble to give the children a real high school education in a small high school. 
Therefore, the policy was announced in letters to the high school super- 
visors, and in meetings with the county superintendents, that no new high 
school would receive State approval unless application for it were made 
in writing to the State Superintendent of Schools before any steps ivere 
taken to establish such a school; and, furthennore, the policy was definitely 
stated that no such request would be approved unless the high school were 
in an unusually isolated community that had not been given high school 
facilities through transportation or that could not be furnished high school 
facilities through transportation. 

We have proved beyond a doubt that the small two-year or four-year 
high schools are even more inefficient than the one-teacher elementary 
schools that have been rapidly disappearing in most of the counties through 
consolidation. During the past year in only ten of the counties the parents 
of the children have been paying all or part of the cost of transportation to 
high school. There is a growing belief among the school people of the 
State that high schools should be as free to the people of Maryland as 
are the elementary schools, and that therefore transportation of pupils to 
both high schools and elementary schools, when necessary, should be at 
public expense. The State Department of Education has recognized this 
principle by including 100 9r of the expenditures made by the county for 
transportation of pupils to both elementary and high scJiools in calculating 
the cost of the minimum program, because in the long run consolidation 
reduces the cost and increases the efficiency of a county school system. 

We see no reason, however, why the State should continue indefinitely 
to spend large sums of money for transportation of pupils and for teachers' 
salaries in order to maintain an expensive and inefficient kind of high school 
and to take up two or more years of the life of the children in attending a 
school that is merely pretending to be giving a high school education, when, 
by spending somewhat more for transportation and somewhat less for 
teachers' salaries, practically all the children of the State might be placed 
in high schools where, in addition to the academic subjects, children will 
have access to courses in commercial subjects, manual training or indus- 
trial arts, vocational agriculture, home economics, physical education and 
either music or the fine arts or both. 

I am suggesting, therefore, that each county superintendent work out 
a tentative plan for eventually grouping the high school work of the county 
into as small a number of large high schools as possible, so that future 
building programs and consolidation programs for both elementary and 
high schools may grow hand in hand in such a way as to eventually con- 



154 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



siderably reduce the number of high schools (as well as the per capita 
cost) , while at the same time they enormously increase their efficiency. 

I shall be very glad to go over such tentative plans with you from time 
to time while visiting schools with you or while visiting in your offices. 

BASIS OF ALLOWANCE OF STATE HIGH SCHOOL AID 
TABLE 103 

State Aid to High Schools — Section 197 of School Law 



Number of 
Pupils 
Enrolled 



Average 
Daily 
Attendance 



Number of 
Academic 
Teachers 
Including 
Principal 



Number 

of 
Special 
Teachers 



Maximum Amount 
of State Aid For 



Academic 
Teachers 



Special 
Teachers 



First Group Schools 



30— 


54 


25— 47 


2 


.4 


$1,500 




$180 


55— 


89 


48— 79 


3 


1 


2,100 




450 


90 


124 


80 109 


4 


2 


2 550 




900 






L Ivy IrrO 


o 




.u, « \J\J 




Q7t 


160 


J.l7Tt 


144 174 


Q 


3 






J. f\JO\J 


195— 


229 


175—206 


7 


3^ 


3,000 




1,125 


230— 


264 


207—237 


8 


4 


3,150 




1,200 


265— 


299 


238—269 


9 


4K 


3,300 




1.237.50 


300— 


334 


270—300 


10 


4^ 


3,450 




1,275 


335— 


369 


301—332 


11 


4% 


3,600 




1,312.50 


370— 


404 


333—363 


12 


5 




$5,000 




405— 


439 


364—395 


13 


5^ 




5,000 




440— 


474 


396—426 


14 


53^ 




5,000 




475— 


509 


427^58 


15 


5^4 




5,000 




510— 


544 


459—489 


16 


6 




5,000 




545— 


579 


490—521 


17 






5,000 




580— 


614 


522—553 


18 


6K 




5,000 




615— 


649 


554—584 


19 






5,000 




650— 


684 


585—616 


20 






5,000 




685— 


719 


617—647 


21 






5,000 




720— 


754 


648—679 


22 






5,000 




755— 


789 


680—710 


23 






5,000 




790— 


824 


711—742 


24 


8 




5,000 




825— 


859 


743—773 


25 


8^ 




5,000 




860— 


894 


774—805 


26 






5,000 




895— 


929 


806—836 


27 






5,000 




930— 


964 


837—868 


28 


9 




5,000 




965— 


999 


869—899 


29 


9H 




5.000 




1,000—1,035 


900—932 


30 


9^ 




5,000 










6,000 





15 



Second Group Schools 
12 1 



650 



State High School Aid; Ratio of Pupils to Teachers 155 

The size of the enrollment and attendance and the number of 
academic and special teachers employed determine the allotment 
of State aid to high schools. The maximum allowance possible, 
provided the salaries paid are at least double the amount avail- 
able for State aid, viz., $900 for the principal, $600 for each of 
the first two academic teachers, $450 for each of the first two 
special teachers and for the third academic teacher and $150 
for each additional teacher, up to a maximum of $5,000, are 
shown in Table 103. 

RATIO OF WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS TO TEACHERS 
SLIGHTLY HIGHER 



CHART 17 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 




For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XIV, page 344. 



156 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



The average number of white high school pupils belonging per 
teacher, 21.6, was .1 higher in 1930 than in 1929. The counties 
ranged from 16.2 pupils per teacher in Carroll to 27.9 pupils per 
teacher in Baltimore County. All of the counties, except Kent, 
Caroline, Montgomery, St. Mary's, Dorchester, Charles, Harford, 
Somerset, Carroll, and Wicomico, had more pupils per teacher 
in 1930 than in 1929. (See Chart 17.) 

Carroll provides teachers of all of the special subjects, viz. : 
music, physical education, industrial arts, and home economics 
for all pupils, and commercial work was offered in 5 of the 11 
high schools. A consolidation program possible with an adequate 
building program will increase the ratio of pupils to teachers in 
Carroll high schools considerably. In Howard County there are 
a number of small high schools and opportunity for work in 
music and for vocational work in agriculture and home eco- 
nomics is given in a number of the small schools. Worcester also 
offered vocational agriculture and work in home economics, in- 
dustrial arts and music in most of its schools. Its new buildings 
put into use this September, 1930, should make it possible to have 
larger classes which will increase the ratio of pupils to teachers. 

Baltimore County has larger classes than any other county in 
the State which explains its position at the top of the list. Work 
in the special subjects, except for vocational courses, w^as avail- 
able in all except the one-year high schools. In Washington 
County the classes are large and, outside of Hagerstown, the 
time for work in home economics and music is so limited and the 
number of pupils taking these subjects is so large that it has not 
been possible to do satisfactory work. Calvert offers no work 
in the special subjects which explains the high ratio of pupils 
to teachers. (See Chart 17.) 

AVERAGE SALARY PER HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER LESS 



TABLE 104 

Average Salary Per County White High School Teacher, 1917-1930 





Average 




Average 




Salary 




Salary 


Year Ending June 30 


White 


Year Ending June 30 


Wliite 


High School 


High School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1917 


$ 798 
841 
908 
1,017 
1 , 289 
1,345 
1,436 


1924 


$1 ,477 
1 , 485 
1,517 
1 , 534 
1,544 
1.557 
1,550 


1918 


1925 


1919 


1926 


1920 


1927 


1921 


1928 


1922 


1929 


1923 


1930 







Average Number of Pupils and Average Salary per Teacher 157 

CHART 18 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TE^.CHER IN V.HITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Co. Average 


SIS 54 


$1544 $1557 


Beltimore 


1842 


1867 


1887 


Allegany 


1656 


1629 


1655 


Anne Arundel 


1496 


1598 


1640 


TTashington 


1545 


1602 


1552 


Frederick 


1593 


1579 


1592 


Queen Anne' s 


1557 


1530 


1598 


^'■iOntgome^y 


1555 


1567 


1619 


Charles 


1508 


1546 


1544 


Harford 


1495 


1524 


1517 


Garrett 


1525 


1467 


1486 


Talbot 


1460 


1476 


1484 


Caroline 


1447 


1478 


1475 


Carroll 


1477 


1507 


1498 


Cecil 


1416 


1584 


1446 


Calvert 


1469 


1481 


1467 


Hora rd 


1395 


1408 


1478 


Pr. George's 


1458 


1449 


1453 


Sorcerset 


1398 


1419 


1424 


Dorchester 


1454 


1454 


1446 


T.orcester 


1452 


1422 


1432 


St. Kary's 


1407 


1427 


1464 


Kent 


1544 


1592 


1456 


VTiconico 


1538 


1378 


1378 


Ealto. City 


2572 


2580 


2579 


State 


1809 


1816 


1827 




For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XV, page 345. 

The average salary per v^hite high school principal and teacher 
show^ed no increase from 1929 to 1930, v^hich is the first time 
this has been the case since starting the record in 1917. The 
average salary in 1930 v^as $1,550, a decrease of $7 under 1929. 
(See Table 104.) 

In the individual counties the average salaries ranged from 
$1,381 in Wicomico to $1,765 in Baltimore County. Eleven 
counties, Baltimore, Montgomery, St. Mary's, Kent, Anne Arun- 



158 1930 Report of State Depaktment of Education 

del, Dorchester, Howard, Queen Anne's, Charles, Worcester, and 
Carroll, showed decreases in average salary varying from $122 
to $6. In most of the counties the high school teaching staff is 
growing rapidly by enlarging the staffs of the existing consoli- 
dated schools. As a result, the proportion of teachers to prin- 
cipals is increased and the proportion of inexperienced teachers 
is greater, tending to decrease the average salary. The regular 
salary schedule was, of course, in effect in every county. (See' 
Chart 18.) 

The salaries of 1,044 teachers in service in county white high 
schools in October, 1930, indicated that the median salary was 
$1,350, the same as for October, 1929. The maximum salary 
paid was $3,000. The salaries of teachers of vocational agricul- 
ture include an allowance for the expense of travelling between 
schools. Most of the high salaries are for those teachers of voca- 
tional agriculture who travel between schools. The largest 
groups of teachers were found receiving salaries from $1,200 to 
$1,300. The maximum salary, according to the State schedule, 
is $1,350. (See Table 105.) 

TABLE 105 



Distribution of Salaries of White High School Teachers in Service 
October, 1930 



ASSISTANT TEACHERS 




PRINCIPALS 






Xo. of 




No. of 




No. of 




No. of 


Salary 


Teachers 


Salary 


Teachers 


Salary 


Principals 


Salary 


Principals 


$950 




$1,900 


16 


$1,500 


t3 


$2,450 


1 


or less 


*13 


1,950 


3 


1,550 


2 


2,500 


15 


1.000 


5 


2,000 


46 


1,600 


1 


2.550 




1,050 


3 


2,050 


4 


1.650 


1 


2.600 


3 


1,100 


1 


2,100 


4 


1.700 


2 


2,650 


1 


1.150 


34 


2,150 




1.750 


6 


2,700 


8 


1,200 


168 


2,200 


6 


1.800 


2 


2,750 


1 


1,250 


127 


2.250 




1.850 


3 


2,800 


4 


1,300 


111 


2.300 


3 


1.900 


8 


2,850 




1.350 


91 


2,350 


1 


1 . 950 


13 


2,900 


2 


- 1.400 


- 92 


2.400 


4 


2,000 


15 


2,950 




1,450 


32 


2.450 




2,050 


3 


3,000 


8 


1 . 500 


89 


2,500 


3 


2,100 


4 


3,050 


2 


1.550 


24 


2,550 


1 


2,150 


2 






1.600 


36 


2,600 


1 


2 . 200 


9 


3,200 


2 


1 . 650 


2 


2.650 


1 


2.250 


4 


3,350 


1 


1,700 


48 


2,700 




2,300 


4 


3,500 


4 


1 . 750 


17 


2.800 


2 


2,350 


2 


3,600 


2 


1.800 


47 


2.900 


1 


2,400 


12 


3,700 


1 


1,850 


7 


3,000 


1 








Total 






1,044 


Total 




151 


Media 


in 




$1,350 


Medi 


an 




$2,250 













* All part-time teachers receiving salaries under $950. 
t Includes one principal at $1,350. 



Salaries October, 1930; Cost per White High School Pupil 159 



For 151 principals, the median salary was $2,250, an increase 
of $50 over October, 1929. Salaries, which vary according to 
size of school, ranged from $1,350 to $3,700. Large numbers 
of principals (from 12 to 15) were found concentrated around 
salaries of $1,950, $2,000, $2,400 and $2,500. The maximum 
according to the State schedule is $2,350. 

There are 491 assistant teachers, 47 per cent of all high school 
teachers employed and 67 principals, 44 per cent of the principals 
in service who received salaries in excess of $1,350 and $2,350, 
respectively. (See Table 105.) 

GROWTH IN HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, TEACHING STAFF 

AND SALARIES 

A comparison for 1920, 1925, 1929, and 1930 of white high 
school enrollment, teaching staff and salaries shows the enonnous 
development which has taken place in every county in the State. 
The county enrollment of 9,333 in 1920 grew to 24,760 in 1930. 
The 482 teachers of 1920 augmented their numbers to 1,075 by 
1930. Teachers' salaries increased from $490,000 in 1920 to 
$1,674,000 in 1930. (See Table 106.) 

From 1929 to 1930 the increase in white high school enrollment 
was 1,389, in teachers 64, and in salaries $96,300. 

COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL 
The education of the average county white high school pupil, 
excluding costs of State supervision, general control, fixed 
charges, debt service and capital outlay, was $98 in 1930, an 
increase of $2 over 1929. Costs ranged from less than $90 in 
Washington, Frederick, Wicomico and Prince George's, to $110 
or more in Garrett, Charles, Carroll, Montgomery, and Anne 
Arundel. Garrett with the highest cost per pupil had the largest 
vocational education program among the counties and was re- 
imbursed from federal funds for one-half of the salaries paid 
vocational teachers. Had these federal funds been eliminated, 
Garrett's rank in cost per pupil would have been third. (See 
Chart 19, Table 107, page 162, and Table 108, page 164.) 

All except 8 counties. Queen Anne's, Calvert, Somerset, Alle- 
gany, Frederick, Prince George's, Cecil and Washington, showed 
higher costs in 1930 than in 1929. The largest increases were 
found in Charles which spent $26 more for each white high 
school pupil in 1930 than in 1929, St. Mary's which spent $21 
more, and Caroline which spent $16 more. The payment by 
these counties of the entire cost of high school transportation 
is the chief explanation of their increased costs, the total cost 
per pupil in St. Mary's and Caroline being close to the county 
average, despite these increases. The larger expenditures by the 
federal government at Indian Head also explain the increase in 
Charles. (See Chart 19.) 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 

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I In Mf 

\i ma lit 



Enrollment, Teachers, Salary Costs, Cost per High School Pupil 161 

CHART 19 



COST PER VrrilTE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 
FOR CURRDIT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENER/^ CONTROL 



Coiinty 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Co. Average 


e 98 


$ 96 


$ 96 


Garrett 


115 


105 


116 


Charles 


78 


79 


91 


Carroll 


128 


125 


110 


Montgomery- 


94 


97 


111 


Anne Arundel 


75 


88 


100 


Worcester 


106 


107 


112 


Howard 


101 


116 


107 


Dorchester 


99 


98 


99 


St. Mary's 


83 


88 


83 


Queen Anne' s 


112 


112 


110 


Kent 


96 


95 


94 


VCLJL V W 


104 


88 


108 


Allegany 


128 


108 


104 


Talbot 


107 


102 


99 


Caroline 


99 


97 


84 


Cecil 


97 


97 


99 


Harford 


86 


82 


86 


Baltimore 


96 


94 


93 


Somerset 


90 


87 


97 


Pr. George's 


103 


95 


91 


Wicomico 


89 


91 


83 


Frederick 


87 


85 


84 


Washington 


76 


77 


81 


Balto. City 


137 


137 


127 


State 


110 


108 


105 




An analysis of the elements which make up the current ex- 
pense of educating a county- white high school pupil indicates 
that $72.19 out of the total of $97.60 provides for the salary per 
pupil of teachers and county high school supervisors."^ Salaries, 
therefore, represent 74 per cent of the cost of high school current 
expense. This amount was a decrease of 27 cents under the 1929 



* Two counties, Allegany and Baltimore, had a full-time county hig-h school super- 
visor, and a third county, Anne Arundel, had a part-time county high school supervisor. 



Cost per White High School Pupil 



163 



cost. Instruction other than salaries, including books, materials, 
summer school allowances, etc., cost $6.42 per pupil, an increase 
of 7 cents over 1929. The operation cost per pupil, $6.80, was 32 
cents lower than in 1929, while the 1930 maintenance cost, partly 
due to replacements resulting from the fire in Annapolis, were 
$4.19 per pupil, an increase of $1.05 over the 1929 cost per white 
high school pupil. The expenditure for auxiliary agencies per 
pupil amounting to $8.00 was an increase of $1.07 over the cor- 
responding figure in 1929. The increase in the number of coun- 
ties supporting at county expense the entire cost of high school 
transportation is the chief cause of this latter increase. (See 
Table 107.) 

Salary Cost Per Pupil 

The salary cost per pupil depends on three factors, size of 
class, salaries of teachers, and number of electives and special 
subjects offered in the curriculum. Salaries are dependent on 
experience, the schedule set up, and, for principals, also on size 
of school. Salary costs per pupil varied from $92 in Carroll, 
$85 in Howard, and $81 in Worcester and Montgomery, all of 
which counties offered many special subjects and had small 
classes, and Montgomery having salaries above the minimum 
State schedule, to the opposite extreme of $60 in Wicomico, $61 
in Calvert, $63 in Washington, $64 in Baltimore, and $65 in 
Somerset. The last named counties were among the six having 
the largest number belonging per teacher. (See Chart 17, page 
155.) Wicomico and Calvert also fall in this group becausf! 
they offered few special subjects, while the provision of special 
teachers of home economics outside of Hagerstown in Washing- 
ton County was unsatisfactory. 

In Caroline, Harford, Dorchester, and Charles Counties, salary 
costs increased by from $3 to $7 per pupil as a result of a re- 
duction in the number of pupils per teacher after the appoint- 
ment of additional teachers of the special subjects. On the other 
hand, the cost per pupil for salaries decreased by from $3 to $5 
in Anne Arundel, Garrett, Calvert, Baltimore and Queen Anne's 
Counties, as a result of increasing the average number of pupils 
per teacher. (See Table 107.) 

EFFECT OF VOCATIONAL WORK ON PER PUPIL COST 

In fifteen counties, reimbursement for one-half of the salaries 
spent for vocational work was made by the Federal Government. 
If these reimbursements for day school work in vocational edu- 
cation are shown separately, the salary aid per pupil from Fed- 
eral funds becomes available. In the fifteen counties offering 
vocational work, exclusive of Garrett and Howard, only a small 
portion of the county high school enrollment is in a position to 



164 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 108 

Comparison of 1930 Salary Cost per White High School Pupil, inclusive and exclusive 
of Federal Aid for Counties Providing Vocational Education 



1930 Salary Cost per White High School Pupil 



Rank among 23 counties Federal 



County 


Including 


Excluding 


Including 


Excluding 


Aid 




Federal 


Federal 


Federal 


Federal 


Per 




Aid 


Aid 


Aid 


Aid 


Pupil 


Average for 23 Counties 


S72 


.19 


$70, 


.31 






$1.88 


Carroll 


91 


.99 


91 


.13 


1 


1 


.86 


Worcester 


81 


.41 


79 


.26 


3 


2 


2.15 




80 


.62 


78 


.12 


4 


3 


2.50 


Allegany 


78 


.31 


76 


.77 


5 


4 


1.54 


Howard 


85 


.01 


76 


.36 


2 


5 


8.65 


Queen Anne's 


77, 


,10 


74. 


.27 


7 


9 


2.83 


Harford 


75 


.70 


72, 


.07 


8 


10 


3.63 


Charles 


73 


.45 


71, 


.52 


12 


11 


1.93 


Anne Arundel 


73 


.14 


71 


.39 


13 


12 


1.75 




71 


.43 


70 


.22 


14 


15 


1.21 


Garrett 


77, 


.58 


66 


.85 


6 


16 


10.73 


Prince George's 


68 


.26 


66 


.30 


17 


17 


1.96 


Frederick 


66 


.45 


64 


.30 


18 


18 


2.15 


Somerset 


64 


.81 


63 


,29 


19 


20 


1.52 


Washington 


62 


.88 


59 


.69 


21 


23 


3.19 



take advantage of the vocational work offered. The federal aid 
per pupil in most of these counties ranged between $1.52 and 
$3.63. In Howard and Garrett it amounted to $8.65 and $10.73, 
respectively. (See Table 108.) 

The five counties having the highest salary cost per pupil are 
highest whether federal aid is excluded or included. Without 
its vocational aid, Washington would rank lowest among the 23 
counties in salary cost per pupil. The greatest change in rank 
would appear in Garrett County, which would stand 16th in 
salary cost per pupil without federal aid, while it is 6th when 
the federal aid is included. Likewise Howard would rank 5th 
instead of 2nd in salary cost per pupil, if federal aid were ex- 
cluded. (See Table 108.) 

The expenditure for salaries of teachers of vocational agricul- 
ture, home economics and industrial work are made from three 
sources, county. State and federal funds. The federal and State 
vocational funds represent specific aid paid toward the salaries 
of vocational teachers. The amounts shown as county funds 
and other State aid make up the difference between these amounts 
and the total salaries. In each case a certain amount from high 
school aid is included and in the equalization fund counties, ad- 



Vocational Work in County High Schools 



165 



TABLE 109 

Salary Cost of Vocational Education in Maryland Counties 
for Year Ending July 31, 1930 





Expenditures for 


Salaries of County 










Vocational Teachers from 


















En- 


COUNTY 


County 










roll- 




Funds 
and Other 
State Aid 


otate 
Vocational 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Total 




ment 


Agriculture 














Garrett 


$ 3,206.60 


% 801.66 


$ 4,008.26 


$ 8,016 


.52 


147 


Frederick 


2,854.98 


713.75 


3,568.73 


7,137 


.46 


133 


Harford 


1,960.00 


490.00 


2,450.00 


4,900 


.00 


66 


Washington 


1,679.96 


420.00 


2,099.97 


4,199 


.93 


80 


Howard 


1,541.96 


OOO . 4:0 


1 Q97 4.4. 


'\ 8^4 


.88 


60 


Montgomery 


1,536.00 


384.00 


1,920.00 


3.840 


.00 


87 


Prince George's ° 


1 S^OQ QQ 

1 , o^o . yy 


ooi . UU 


1 , yuo . uu 


3,809 


.99 


96 


Allegany 


1,416.00 


354.00 


1,770.00 


3,540 


.00 


40 


Worcester 


1 1 fin nn 
1 . loU . UU 


290.00 


1,450.00 


2,900 


.00 


32 


Queen Anne's 


liOOO.OO 


250.00 


1,250.00 


2.500 


00 


28 




960.00 


240.00 


1.200.00 


2,400 


.00 


23 


Somerset 


816.00 


204.00 


1,020.00 


2,040 


00 


26 


Carroll* 


794.44 


198.60 


993.04 


1,986 


08 


31 


Dorchester 


760.00 


190.00 


950.00 


1,900 


00 


35 


Charles 


580.80 


145.20 


726.00 


1.452 


00 


13 


Total 


$21,790.73 


$ n 4-4.7 RQ 


«97 44 


$ 54,476.86 


897 


Home Economics 














Garrett 


$ 2,760.00 


$ 690.00 


$ 3,450.00 


$ 6.900 


00 


201 




1 A ic c\r\ 
1,47d.0U 


369.00 


1,845.00 


3,690 


00 


63 


Prince George's 


1,060.00 


265.00 


1,325.00 


2,650 


00 


78 


T T C 1 

Hart or d 


994.00 


248.50 


1,242.50 


2,485 


00 


60 


AJleganv 


974. 40| 


243.60 


1,218.00 


2,436 


00 


56 


Anne Arundel 


533.33, 


133.33 


666.67 


1,333 


33 


39 


Montgomery 

Frederick* 


474.80 


lift 7n 
llo . /u 


oyo . ou 


1,187 


00 


46 


50-. 00 


12.50 


62.50 


125 


00 


* 


Total 


$ 8,322.53 


$ 2,080.63 


$10,403.17 


$ 20,806 


33 


543 


Industries 














All Day Classes 














Washington 


% 3,341.28 


$ 835.31 


$ 4.176.60 


$ 8,353. 


19 


112 


Montgomerj' 


640.00! 


160.00 


800.00 


1,600. 


00 


49 


AUeganv 


586. 66^ 


1-dbO . D t 


7QQ QQ 
< OO .OO 


1,466. 


66 


16 


Frederick 


240.00 


60.00 


300.00 


600. 


00 


24 


Total Dav 


% 4.807.94! 


% 1,201.98' 


$ 6,009.93 


$ 12,019. 


85 


201 


Evening Classes 


! 


! 
i 


1 
i 








Allegany 


S 1.189.60, 


% 297. 40i 


$ l,487.00i 


$ §2,974. 


00 


243 


t Allegany and Garrett. 


**1,500.00 


fl. 920.00! 


3,420.00 


6,840. 


oo! 


|214 


Washington 


440.00 


110. oo' 


550.00 


1 , 100 . 


00; 


93 


aAnne Arundel (Col. ) . 
Prince George's 


296.20 


71.05 


370.25 


740. 


50! 


85 


136.801 


34.20 


171.00; 


342. 


00 


7 


Total Evening .... 


$ 3,562.60'$ 2,435.65 

1 


5 5,998.25 


S 11.996. 


50i 


642 


Grand Total ' 

1 


S38,483.S0'$11,165.95 

i i 


§49,649.79 


S 99,299. 


54 


2,283 



• following for Marlboro Colored High School: Countv, §155.99; State, S39.00; Federal, 

$19o.OO; Enrollment, 23. 

* Discontinued before the end of the school vear. 
»ii ^ Excludes SI, 500 from Federal and SI, 500 from Countv Funds which have been included opposite 
'Allegany and Garrett" 

X Mining classes conducted by an instructor from the Bureau of Mines, University of Maryla nd 
and paid for through University of Maryland and Allegany County. Of those enrolled, 87 are from 
Uarrett. 

** Paid by Allegany. t Paid by University of Marj-land, a Part-time continuation classes. 



166 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



ditional State funds must be considered as helping to pay the 
salaries of vocational teachers. The counties are ranked accord- 
ing to the total salary expenditure for each type of work. Gar- 
rett County has vocational agriculture in all first group schools 
and vocational home economics in all except one. Frederick had 
the next largest program in vocational agriculture. (See 
Table 109.) 

The greatest change in the vocational education program be- 
tween 1929 and 1930 came about from the introduction of day 
classes in industrial work into Montgomery, Allegany, and Fred- 
erick County high schools and the extension of the day work in 
industries in Hagerstown. There was also an extension of the 
agricultural program in Allegany and Washington and of the 
vocational home economics offering in Howard and Harford 
Counties. Carroll discontinued its work in vocational agricul- 
ture and Frederick cut down its offering of vocational home 
economics. 

Cost Per Pupil for Books and Materials Increases 

Although the average expenditure per county high school pupil 
for books, materials and instruction costs other than salaries 
($6.42) increased by only seven cents from 1929 to 1930, the 
increases and decreases in some of the counties were quite large. 
Necessity for changing an entire set of textbooks sometimes re- 
quires a larger expenditure in one year than in another. The 
variety of the program of special subjects offered also determines 
somewhat the necessity of expenditures for aids to instruction. 
For example, Calvert and St. Mary's, which offer very little in- 
struction in the special subjects, spent only three dollars per 
high school pupil for costs of instruction other than salaries, 
while Cecil, Carroll, Baltimore, Garrett, Montgomery, and Alle- 
gany, with plans for special work for every pupil, spent be- 
tween seven and nine dollars per high school pupil. St. Mary's, 
Allegany, Somerset, Garrett, Howard, and Worcester had de- 
creases of over one dollar per pupil from 1929 to 1930, while 
Anne Arundel, Caroline, Queen Anne's, Baltimore, Charles, Kent, 
and Washington had increases of over one dollar per high school 
pupil for the same period. (See Table 107.) 

Operation Costs Decrease 

The average cost per county high school pupil of heating and 
cleaning buildings decreased by 32 cents from 1929 to 1930. All 
of the counties had decreased costs, except Anne Arundel, Car- 
roll, Charles, Garrett, Harford, Howard, Kent, Montgomery, and 
Talbot. In Charles the increases were due to additional expendi- 
tures at Indian Head by the federal government. Anne Arundel, 
Carroll, and Talbot were spending less than the average county 
for operation costs. (See Table 107.) 



Cost per High School Pupil for Items other than Salaries 167 

Repair and Replacement Cost Per Pupil Increased 

The maintenance cost per high school pupil ($4.19) was $1.05 
more in 1930 than in 1929. Repair of the damage to the An- 
napolis High School from the fire probably explains a large part 
of this increase. Maintenance costs per high school pupil were 
under two dollars in Howard, Queen Anne's, Caroline, Baltimore, 
Frederick, Calvert, and Somerset, but were over seven dollars 
per pupil in Prince George's, Carroll, Charles, Garrett, and Anne 
Arundel. Federal funds spent at Indian Head explain most of 
the increase for Charles County. Counties like Carroll and Gar- 
rett, which cannot secure funds for construction from bond issues 
and which are required to continue in use old, inadequate, in- 
sanitary buildings, probably must spend more money on main- 
tenance than is required in counties with more adequate modern 
buildings. If these counties would provide adequate modern 
housing facilities, they could probably decrease their budget for 
maintenance considerably. (See Table 107.) 

Cost Per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies Increased 

For the average county high school pupil eight dollars was 
required for transportation, health, libraries, and other auxiliary 
activities. This was an increase of $1.07 per pupil over 1929. 
Every county except six, Allegany, Calvert, Montgomery, Prince 
George's, Queen Anne's, and Washington, spent more in 1930 
than in 1929 for auxiliary agencies. Cost per pupil ranged from 
62 and 63 cents in Harford and Carroll, respectively, which pro- 
vided no transportation at county expense for high school pupils, 
to over twenty dollars per pupil in Calvert, St. Mary's, Charles, 
and Garrett, all of which latter counties paid the entire cost of 
high school transportation for the first time in 1930. The largest 
increases from 1929 to 1930 occurred in St. Mary's, Garrett, 
Charles, and Caroline, which changed from a policy of having 
high school pupils pay part or all of the cost of high school trans- 
portation to a policy of having the county assume the entire cost. 
(See Table 107.) 

Transportation Provided for 5,660 High School Pupils 

In 1930 there were 5,660 white high school pupils transported 
at a cost to the counties of $159,440. These figures mean that 
1,025 more white high school pupils were transported at county 
expense in 1930 than in 1929, the increased expense being $31,- 
105, and the cost per pupil transported being $28, the same 
amount as the preceding year. All of the counties, except Car- 
roll, Harford, Montgomery, and Worcester, transported more 
high school pupils at county expense in 1930 than in 1929. The 
largest increases of from 40 to 158 pupils were found in St. 
Mary's, Garrett, Caroline, Baltimore, Charles, Cecil, and Anne 



168 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

Arundel. All of these counties, except Cecil, increased their costs 
in amounts varying between $3,700 and $5,900. (See Table 110.) 

The number of pupils transported varied from less than 200 
in Cecil, Howard, Calvert, St. Mary's, Frederick, and Allegany 
to over 300 in Somerset, Montgomery, Worcester, Wicomico, 
Garrett, Dorchester, Anne Arundel, and over 800 in Baltimore 
County. Costs varied from less than $5,000 in Howard, Cecil, 
Prince George's, St. Mary's, and Calvert to over $10,000 in Dor- 
chester, Somerset, Anne Arundel, Garrett, and Baltimore. 

Cost per high school pupil transported showed considerably 
less variation than was evident in 1929. Montgomery and Prince 
George's with costs per pupil of $16 and $17, respectively, were 
lowest, while Charles, Allegany, and Garrett were highest with 
costs of $37 and $36, respectively. (See Table 110.) 



TABLE 110 

Expenditures for Auxiliary Agencies in White High Schools for School Year 

Ending July 31, 1930 



County 



Total and Average . 



Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Charles 

Garrett 

Somerset 

Kent 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Anne Arundel . . 
Oueen Anne's. . . 

Talbot 

Baltimore 

Caroline 

Wicomico 

Howard 

Montgomery. . . 

Cecil 

Frederick 

Allegany 

Washington . . . . 
Prince George's. 

Carroll 

Harford 



Transportation 



5,660 

tl38 
158 
213 
349 
325 
206 
356 
337 
364 
232 
228 
821 
288 
345 
111 
334 
111 
160 
165 
213 
206 



$159,440 

4,564 
4,309 
7,783 

12,729 

10,513 
6,584 

10,282 
9.004 

12,129 
5,437 
7,047 

22,067 
6,877 
8,560 
2,924 
5,406 
3,272 
5,086 
5,884 
5,566 
3,417 



$28 

33 
27 
37 
36 
32 
32 
29 
27 
33 
23 
31 
27 
24 
25 
26 
16 
29 
32 
36 
26 
17 



Libraries 



$8,181 



95 
137 
428 
320 

29 
433 

62 
947 
236 
244 
880 
1 

703 
35 
,073 
44 
580 
437 
358 
228 
117 
629 



Amount per 



$54 



32 
27 
71 
80 
7 
62 
12 

237 
47 
41 

110 
28 

100 
6 
98 
5 
73 
40 
60 
25 
11 
70 



$7.61 



9.59 
7.63 

12.14 

10.70 
1.20 

11.04 
1.61 

19.61 

10.97 
7.61 
8.92 
5.12 

15.75 
1.38 

15.49 
1.03 
7.62 
3.93 
4.67 
3.12 
1.64 

12.53 



Health 



$11,138 



111 



,070 
121 



743 



304 
60 
100 
606 



t Includes 10 children transported to high school in Anne Arundel County. 



High School Transportation and Libraries 



169 



County Expenditures for High School Libraries Increase 

The expenditure from county funds for high school libraries, 
$8,181 in 1930, was an increase of $2,823 over 1929. For each 
high school, the average county expenditure was $54, and for 
each teacher $7.61. Calvert was the only county in the State 
which for the third consecutive year since these tables have been 
made up made no investment in high school library books. In 
other counties expenditures ranged from less than $100 in Kent, 
Howard, Cecil, Worcester, and St. Mary's to over $600 in Har- 
ford, Wicomico, Baltimore, Anne Arundel, and Montgomery. 
(See Table 110.) 

The counties which spent less than $3 per teacher for library 
books were Cecil, Kent, Howard, Worcester, and Carroll. At the 
opposite extreme were counties like Somerset, Queen Anne's, 
Dorchester, Garrett, Harford, Montgomery, Wicomico, and Anne 
Arundel, which spent from $10 to $20 per teacher for library 
books. Modern methods of teaching, according to the Morrison 
plan, cannot be put into actual practice until there is a satis- 
factory^ working library in the school, especially for work in 
English, the social studies, science, home economics and agri- 
culture. 

cooperation from the MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY 
ADVISORY COMMISSION 

In addition to advice to those responsible for high school 
libraries and a survey of facilities available, the service of the 
Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to the white high 
schools included sending out 2,661 volumes in 68 travelling 
libraries and 105 package libraries. Only 37 teachers in 30 high 
schools requested one or more travelling libraries, and 47 teach- 
ers in 37 high schools received one or more package libraries. 
(See Table 111.) 

Travelling school libraries are collections of books loaned for 
a period of four months, at the end of which time they may be 
returned and exchanged for another collection, or renewed for 
four more months. Thirty books are included in cases sent by 
parcel post; thirty-five in those sent by express. A dollar must 
be sent to cover part of the cost of transportation, and guaran- 
tee of reimbursement for lost or damaged books is required. 

The package libraries of from one to ten books are made up 
to meet special requirements for school essays, debates, indi- 
\adual needs or professional reading of teachers. These are 
loaned to anyone living in Maryland who is without access to 
a public library. 



170 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 111 



Service of Maryland Library Commission to White High Schools, 
School Year, 1929-1930 



v^ounty 


Total 
No. of 

Volumes 
Supplied 


Traveling Libraries 
(30 to 35 Books in Each) 


Package Libraries 


Number of 


Number of 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Traveling 
Libraries 
Supplied 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Package 
Libraries 
Supplied 


Total 


abcef 2, 661 


abcefSO 


abcdefSl 


a6ce/68 


abcef 37 \ abcef^l 


a6ce/105 




al8 


a 


a 


a 


aA 


a5 


a6 


Anne Arundel. . . 


bc43 


be 


be 


be 


bc3 


bc5 


bc9 


Baltimore 


957 


6 


d8 


27 


5 


6 


6 


Calvert 
















Caroline 


24 








1 


2 


9 


Carroll 


196 


4 


5 


6 


1 


1 


1 




441 


4 


5 


9 


7 


10 


39 


Charles 


c94 


cl 


cl 


c3 


cl 


cl 


cl 


Dorchester 


c30 


cl 


cl 


cl 


c 


c 


c 


Frederick 


bfl08 


bc2 


6c3 


bc3 


feci 


feci 


bel 


Garrett 


65 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


5 


Harford 


c261 


c3 


c4 


c8 


c3 


c3 


c5 


Howard 


48 


1 


1 


1 


3 




1 


Kent 


51 


1 


1 


1 


1 


? 




















Prince George's.. 


180 


3 


4 


5 


2 


2 


2 


Queen Anne's . . . 


8 








1 


1 


1 


St. Mary's 


30 


1 


1 


1 




1 






1 


1 


1 


Talbot 


e 


e 


e 


6 


e 


e 


« 


Washington 


f 


f 


f 


/ 


f 


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be 


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106 


1 


1 


1 


2 


4 


13 



a The Cumberland Library supplies books to the high schools in Cumberland, 
b Limited library service given to schools by county library. 

c Library priAileges extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the days when 
the library is open. 

d Includes two librarians who distributed books to other teachers in the school. 

e Talbot County Library in order to supplement its collection borrows books from the Commission 
and recirculates to all schools in the county requesting service. 

f Washington's county-wide library ser\-ice takes care of the book needs of the county without 
outside help. 

High School Expenditures for Health and Physical Education Over $11,000 
A total of $11,138, or 48 cents per pupil, was spent in ten 
counties in 1930 for health or physical education activities. This 
was an increase of $454 over 1929. Over 80 per cent of this 
amount, $9,070, was used to pay for the leadership furnished by 
the workers of the Playground Athletic League, who took care 
of the physical education program in all of the Baltimore County 
high schools. This amounted to $3.29 per pupil belonging in 
Baltimore County. Montgomery spent $743 or 56 cents per 
pupil, Carroll $606 or 52 cents per pupil, and Queen Anne's $111 
or 25 cents per pupil. Caroline, Allegany, and Prince George's 
were the only other counties which spent over 5 cents per pupil. 
Washington, Garrett, and Kent also spent very small amounts. 
The remaining counties reported no expenditures at all for this 
purpose. (See Table 110.) 



Libraries, Phys. Ed., Capital Outlay ix White High Schools 171 



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172 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 1920 TO 
1930 AGGREGATES $6,500,000 

With the exception of each of the years 1925 and 1926, when 
capital outlay for county white high schools amounted to close 
to a million and a quarter dollars, the capital outlay in 1930, 
totalling $944,000 was larger than for any year preceding. A 
survey for the eleven year period from 1920 to 1930 shows the 
total capital outlay for county white high schools to be close to 
$6,500,000. Only through such an outlay has it been possible 
to provide for the tremendous growth in high school enrollment 
shown in Table 106, page 160. 

Baltimore and Allegany Counties in the eleven-year period 
have each invested over $1,100,000 in high school grounds, build- 
ings, and equipment; Montgomery's and Washington's total is 
close to $600,000 ; Frederick's total is $474,000 ; Prince George's 
$383,000 ; Dorchester's and Howard's totals each aggregate close 
to $270,000 ; and Worcester, Harford, and Talbot have each spent 
more than $200,000 during the eleven-year period. (See 
Table 112.) 

The 1930 county total capital outlay of $944,000 is $46,000 
more than the year before. Baltimore, Worcester, Washington, 
and Prince George's Counties spent the largest amounts, ranging 
downward from $226,000 to $93,000. Only in St. Mary's, Cal- 
vert, Queen Anne's, Caroline, Somerset, Kent, Harford, and Anne 
Arundel was the capital outlay for white high schools under 
$5,000 in 1930. (See Table 112.) 

The 1930 capital outlay per county high school pupil ($40.71) 
was 42 cents lower than in 1929. The largest capital outlay per 
white high school pupil was found in Worcester, where it was 
$300. Charles with $131, Baltimore with $82, Dorchester with 
$78, Talbot with $76, and Prince George's with $60 follow with 
decreasing amounts spent for capital outlay per white high school 
pupil. All of the counties, except Allegany, Anne Arundel, Caro- 
line, Cecil, Dorchester, Frederick, Harford, Montgomery, Somer- 
set, and Talbot, made a greater capital outlay in 1930 than in 
1929. (See Table 107, page 162.) 

SUPERVISION OF HIGH SCHOOLS 
For the purposes of high school supervision the State is divided 
into three sections — Western, Central, and Eastern — each under 
the supervision of a specialist in high school administration and 
instruction on the staff of the State Department of Education. 
The high school supervisors work directly with the 787 academic 
high school teachers and to a limited extent with the 290 teach- 
ers of the special subjects. There are, in addition. State super- 
visors of music, agriculture, home economics, and industrial arts. 



Capital Outlay, Supervision of White High Schools 



173 



TABLE 113 
Supervision of High Schools 



Number of 
Public High 
Schools 



Number of Teachers 



Section 



Number of 
Counties 



Academic 



Special 



Western 
Central . 
Eastern. 



8 
10 



o 



42 
54 
56 



257.4 
261.6 
267.8 



110.9 
93.1 
85.5 



who work intensively with the respective teachers of these sub- 
jects. (See Table 113.) 

The State high school supervisors spend the major portion of 
their time in the field visiting individual teachers or holding 
group meetings on professional subjects. At the most, the super- 
visor is able to visit each teacher only three or four times a year. 
This is not often enough to provide the guidance and assistance 
needed by weak or inexperienced teachers. 

To meet these needs and augment the work of the State high 
school supervisors, four of the largest counties, Baltimore, Alle- 
gany, Montgomery, and Anne Arundel, have appointed a full or 
part-time county high school supervisor. Baltimore and Alle- 
gany have had full-time county high school supervisors for sev- 
eral years, but this is the case in Montgomery for the first time 
in the fall of 1930. In Anne Arundel the county high school 
supervision is on a part-time basis. Where county supei'vision 
is not provided, the high school principals, who are prepared, 
must supply whatever guidance and leadership their teachers 
need through constructive classroom visitation and conference 
and well organized faculty meetings. 

In order to bring the high school principals of the State to a 
realization of their key position in professional leadership and 
to familiarize them with the best that modern education offers, 
annual regional conferences are planned by the State high school 
supervisors. The program of the 1930 spring conference was 
based on certain issues, formulated by Dr. Thomas H. Briggs, of 
Columbia University, and set forth in Chapter X of the Seventh 
Yearbook of the Department of Sv/perintendence of the National 
Education Association. These issues are among the most weighty 
of the contemporary problems in Secondary Education, and the 
six selected for discussion at the principals' conferences were 
deemed especially adaptable to certain aspects of our Maryland 
situation. 

Discussion on each topic was led by a selected principal. The 
program was as follows : 



174 



1930 Report of State Dep.\rtment of Education 



1. Shall Secondary Education be provided at public expense for all normal 
adolescents or only for a limited number? 

2. Shall Secondary Education be concerned only with the welfare and 
progress of the individual or only with these as they promise a profit- 
able contribution to the supporting social and political organization — 
in school, district, coimty, or state? 

3. Shall Secondary Education provide a common curriculum for all or 
differentiated offerings ? 

4. Shall Secondary Education primarily have in mind preparation for 
advanced studies or be primarily concerned with the value of its own 
courses regardless of a student's future academic career? 

5. Shall Secondary Education consist of unit courses, usually of one 
year or of one semester in length, or of interwoven courses covering 
cumulative interrelated knowledge? 

6. Shall Secondary Education present merely organized knowledge or 
also assume definite responsibility for attitudes and ideals? 

CERTIFICATION OF TEACHERS 
New Requirements for High School Teachers' Certificates 

By-law 30, which deals with the Education courses necessary 
for Maryland high school teachers' certificates, was revised in 
the spring and summer of 1930 by a committee of Maryland col- 
lege and State Department representatives and was passed in 
its revised form by the State Board. It is expected that the 
new regulations will become practically effective in the colleges 
for the 1932 graduates and that many of the necessary adjust- 
ments will be made in time to enable the 1931 graduates virtually 
to meet the new requirements. The by-law reads as follows : 



BY-LAW 30 

1. Colleges the graduates of which shall be considered to meet the 
school-credit part of the requirement for Maryland high school 
teachers' certificates without examination shall make provision for 
the following required courses and for at least six semester hours 
from among the elective courses. 

Required Courses _ 10 semester hours 

Educational Psychology 3 semester hours 

Principles of High School Teaching 3 semester hours 

Special Methods, Observation, and Practice 

Teaching 4 semester hours 

Elective Courses 6 semester hours required 

1. The High School 5. Educational Sociology 

2. Educational Measurements 6. Advanced Educational Psychology 

3. History of Education 7. Rural Life and Education 

4. Principles of Education 8. Other Recognized Education Courses 

It is recommended that every student present credit for at least 18 
semester hours in Education, although only 16 are required. 

2. Definition of \Courses. 

Educational Psychology — This course shall include at least the following 
topics : definition, scope, and presuppositions of educational psy- 
chology ; learning — types of learning, the ways in which learning 
takes place, the laws of learning, specific conditions affecting the 
rate of progress in learning, the curve of learning, the curve of for- 



New Requirements for High School Teachers' Certificates 175 



getting, transfer of training, mental efficiency in learning ; indi- 
vidual differences — nature and significance, mental tests and mean- 
ing of intelligence, character and temperament, distribution, causes ; 
mental and physical g^o^vth of the child. 

Principles of High School Teaching — This course shall include at least 
the following topics : outcomes of teaching ; questioning ; assign- 
ments ; planning the instruction ; appreciation teaching ; problem 
and project teaching ; organization and procedure ; drill lessons ; 
visual aids ; socialized class procedure ; directed study ; measuring 
the results of teaching, including objectives ; marks and marking ; 
classroom routine. It is desirable to have observations of high 
school classes in connection with this course. 

Special Methods, Observation, and Practice Teaching — This course 
shall include at least the following topics : present status and 
trends ; contribution of the subject to the cardinal objectives of 
secondary education ; fundamental principles, and the psychology 
of the learning process applicable to the special subject ; reorganiza- 
tion of subject-matter ; methods applicable to the subject ; equip- 
ment, magazines, charts, etc. : examination and evaluation of 
texts and reference books : bibliography ; administrative problems ; 
lesson plans worked out in detail for typical units ; professional 
growth. Part of the observation and practice teaching should be 
done and supervised in connection with the course in special 
methods. Further regulations about this will be found in Sections 
12-17 of the by-law. 

3. The instruction shall be given in at least full semester courses, each 
of not less than two recitation hours per week. 

4. The number of recitation hours in each course shall be officially 
certified by the college to the State Superintendent of Schools. 

5. The courses in Education shall be taken as a reg-ular part of the 
undergraduate work; or, if done subsequently thereto, they shall be 
pursued under similar reg-ular academic conditions. 

6. Students who have decided to prepare for high school teaching, shall 
be under the guidance of the head of the Department of Education 
in the selection of their college courses. 

7. Two years of college work shall be required for entrance to profes- 
sional courses in Education. 

8. Only those students who rank academically in the upper four-fifths 
of the class shall be admitted to the courses in Education in the 
junior year. 

9. Only such graduates as rank academically in the upper four-fifths 
of the class and who make a grade of '*C" or better in jDractice teach- 
ing shall be issued Maryland State Teachers' certificates. 

iO. The head of the Department of Education shall devote his full time 
as a member of the faculty to the work of his department and shall 
not engage in the work of any other department. He shall possess 
a Ph. D. degree from an institution of recognized standing or pos- 
sess equivalent training in the field of Education. 

There must be at least one full-time assistayit in the Department 
of Education. If a large number of students is registered for the 
Education courses, the teaching staff will necessarily be larger. The 
minimum scholastic training for these instructors shall be graduation 
from a college of recognized standing and at least one year of ad- 
vanced work in the field of Education in a graduate school of good 
standing. 

No teacher shall conduct special methods courses in more than 
two subjects. Teachers in the other departments who may conduct 
special methods classes in their subject matter fields must have had 
the year of graduate work in Education which is required for teach- 
ers of Education. 



176 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



Successful high school teachers who meet the requirements which 
will be described, may be employed as critic teachers to help with the 
student teaching. These teachers will be required to file data as to 
their preparation with the State Department of Education and be 
approved as critic teachers. For the present, a half year of graduate 
work in Education and in the special subject to be taught may be 
considered sufficient preparation for the w^ork of a critic teacher. 
At least three years' successful experience also will be required. A 
critic teacher may act in this capacity only in the field in which she 
is certificated by the State to teach or in which she has specialized in 
college. She may, of course, have charge of observation groups only 
if another teacher is conducting the lesson. 

11. It is recommended that every student meet the subject matter re- 
quirements in at least two subjects or, in some cases, in three sub- 
jects, if this can be conveniently done. The subject matter require- 
ments are as follows: 

English 24 semester hours 

Social Studies 24 semester hours 

Distributed as follows : 

History, including American History 18 semester hours 

Economics or Sociology 6 semester hours 

Mathematics 18 semester hours 

Including, preferably, college algebra, trigonometry, solid 
geometry, analytics. 

If any one or more of the first three subjects mentioned have 
been completed in high school, the college credit required may 
be correspondingly reduced, provided, however, that the mathe- 
matics courses pursued in college total at least 12 semester 
hours. 

Latin 18 semester hours 

Based preferably on four years of high school Latin. 

French _ 18 semester hours 

Based preferably on four years of high school French. 

Chemistry* „ 18 semester hours 

Biology* 18 semester hours 

Physics* 18 semester hours 

High School Science 24 semester hours 

Six semester hours of each of chemistry, 
physics, and biology, and at least twelve semester 
hours in one of these three sciences. 
Special Subjects (general home economics, physical 
training, music, fine and applied arts, manual 
or industrial training, or commercial sub- 
jects) 30 semester hours 

(approximately) 



* If this subject has been studied in high school, twelve hours' college credit in the 
subject, plus six semester hours in any other natural science, will be considered to meet 
the requirement, although eighteen hours are urged. 



12. Twenty observation periods will be required. Not fewer than ten 
shall be devoted to group observation with a member of the college 
Department of Education present. The student will, of course, have 
had some instruction as to the features of the lesson which he shall 
observe with special attention. The teacher will conduct group dis- 
cussions of what has been observed. 

13. Students who are most successful in their practice teaching must 
teach at least ten class periods. Students who are less successful 
must teach from fifteen to twenty class periods, in accordance with 
their comparative needs, unless their practice teaching grade will 
evidently be below "C", which is the standard for certification. 



New Requirements for High School Teachers' Certificates 177 



14. All the practice teaching must be done under the supervision of one 
or more members of the college Department of Education or under 
the co-operative supervision of a high school critic teacher and the 
college director of practice teaching or other members of the Depart- 
ment of Education (not a high school critic teacher). If the plan 
of having critic teachers is chosen, the critic teacher may be given 
charge of four-fifths of the ten or more practice periods required. 
Each practice period must be preceded by careful lesson planning, 
the plan being approved by the critic teacher before the lesson is 
taught. Constructive critcism must follow the teaching of each les- 
son. No credits shall be allowed for practice teaching unless there 
has been adequate preparation both as to mode of procedure and 
knowledge of content. Each student teacher shall be held for the 
equivalent of one hour per week of individual conference with the 
critic teacher and one hour per week for group conference with 
other student teachers, the critic teacher, and a college teacher of 
Education. (The critic teacher will, of course, not participate in this 
conference, if all the practice teaching is supervised by college 
teachers.) The college teacher must observe each student during 
at least two full periods and must keep in close touch with the work 
of the critic teachers and student teachers. 

15. At least one complete lesson unit of the usual length and content 
shall be taught by each student teacher during this practice period. 

16. The practice teaching shall be done in the senior year and in the 
student's major or minor subject. The student should have had or 
should be having instruction in the teaching of the subject. No 
credit shall ordinarily be given for teaching experience and no 
student shall he entirely excused from the practice teaching or 
methods courses on account of experience, 

17. Critic teachers, under whom some of the practice teaching may be 
done, shall be under the direct supervision of the head of the Depart- 
ment of Education, director of teacher training, or some other indi- 
vidual designated for supervisory work. This supervisor shall direct 
the whole program of practice teaching. He shall visit all of the 
student teachers as often as possible and shall try to rate their 
probable teaching success. The critic teachers also shall be required 
to rate the probable success of student teachers. The conclusions 
of both supervisors and critic teachers regarding student teachers 
shall be made a matter of record to be filed with the other credentials 
of students at the institution. 

18. While courses in general psychology, logic, ethics, aesthetics, philoso- 
phy, history of philosophy, sociology, and the like, may properly 
make up a part of the student's college course, none of these courses 
or any other course not lying strictly within the field of Education 
shall be accepted as meeting any part of the requirement in Educa- 
tion. It is recommended that students preparing for high school 
teaching take, if possible, the college course in ethics and general 
psychology. 

19. For the use of students in Education, an adequate supply of good 
reference books, covering courses outlined in the foregoing, shall be 
provided in the college library, and shall be easily accessible to the 
students taking the courses. 



/ 



178 1930 Report of State Department of Education 



COLORED SCHOOLS 
ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

The Maryland county colored elementary and high schools en- 
rolled 28,712 children in the year ending July 31, 1930. The 
colored population in the counties of the State is decreasing 
slightly due to a general negro migration to the cities, and, as 
wiould be expected, the total county school enrollment was lower 
in 1930 than in 1929. The decrease was only 225 for the past 
year, but when the 1930 enrollment of 28,712 is compared with 
the 30,174 enrolled in 1920, the influence of this shift in popula- 
tion can be more fully realized. Despite the lower enrollment, 
the average number of colored children belonging to and attend- 
ing the schools of the State with totals of 26,004 and 22,128, 
respectively, showed increases over 1929 and preceding years. 
The fact that more colored children were actually in school when 
the total colored school population was less, reflects a significant 
increase in the efficiency of the schools, and a greater regularity 
in school attendance brought about by more effective enforcement 
of the compulsory attendance law. (See Table 114.) 

TABLE 114 

Enrollment, Average Number Belonging, and Average Number Attending in County 
Colored Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1930 



County 



Total Counties, 1930 
Total Counties, 1929 
Total Counties, 1920 

Prince George's 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Somerset 

Montgomery 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Dorchester 

Charles 

Talbot 



Total 
Enroll- 
ment 



^28,712 
^28,937 
30,174 

3,006 
2,935 
2,078 
1,993 
1,887 
1 ,709 
1,678 
1,651 
1,645 
1,264 



Average Number 


County 


Total 
Enroll- 
ment 


Average Number 


Belong- 
ing 


Attend- 
ing 


Belong- 
ing 


Attend- 
ing 


26,004 


22,128 


Calvert 


1,204 


1,048 


760 


25,915 


21,582 


St. Mary's 


1,149 


1,059 


862 


t 


17,795 




1,028 


950 


854 






Kent 


1,009 


894 


769 


2,733 


2,341 


Caroline 


988 


848 


727 


2,681 


2,301 


Queen Anne's 


839 


725 


605 


1,877 


1,612 




763 


685 


584 


1 , 765 


1 , 558 


Howard 


604 


528 


425 


1,697 


1,476 


Cecil 


495 


454 


384 


1,467 


1,269 




384 


349 


312 


1,519 


1,386 


Carroll 


361 


326 


250 


1,459 


1,214 




334 


315 


284 


1,471 


1,123 










1,154 


1,032 


Baltimore City. . . . 


*22,978 


21,076 


18,509 






State 


*5 1,690 


47,080 


40,637 



* Excludes duplicates. f Data not available until 1923. 

For data arranged alphabetically see Tables II, VI and VII, pages 331, 336 and 337. 

More colored children were enrolled in Baltimore City than 
formerly, and this increase more than offset the lowered county 
figures. In the entire State the total enrollment of colored chil- 
dren in public schools was 51,690, the average enrollment or 
number belonging was 47,080, and the average daily attendance 
39,129. 



Enrollment, Attendance, Length of Year in Colored Schools 179 

Just as the colored population is moving from counties to Bal- 
timore City, so, with a few exceptions, the changes within the 
counties themselves, indicated a movement toward the more 
densely populated centers. Baltimore, Montgomery, Calvert, 
Frederick, Can^oll, and Allegany Counties showed increases in 
enrollment, number belonging and attending, while in Anne Arun- 
del and Caroline the enrollment and attendance figures were 
higher than in 1929. 

In four counties, Cecil, Charles, Talbot, and Harford, the 
average number in attendance at school in 1930 failed to reach 
the corresponding figures for the preceding year. In Talbot 
County this lower attendance was accompanied by an increased 
enrollment. (See Table 114.) 

In addition to the public school enrollment, there were 754 
colored children enrolled in 11 private and parochial schools in 
eight of the counties, and 1,413 colored children were enrolled 
in 10 schools in Baltimore City. The total colored enrollment in 
Maryland was, therefore, 53,857, of whom 29,466 were in the 
counties and 24,391 in Baltimore City. (See Tables III to V, 
pages 333-5.) 

LENGTH OF SCHOOL YEAR IN 1929-30 

A teachers' meeting held immediately preceding the opening 
of the school year may become an effective factor in formulating 
the goals and objectives for the coming session and in establish- 
ing certain standards for records and reports. This initial teach- 
ers' meeting is of great value, especially to all inexperienced 
teachers and new members of the system. In all except two 
counties, Baltimore and Talbot, such meetings were held for the 
colored teaching staff. In Caroline, Carroll, and Washington two 
days were given to the meeting preliminary to the opening of 
school. (See Table 115.) 

The session of the colored elementary schools is being gradu- 
ally lengthened. In no county in the State in 1930 were the 
colored elementary schools as a whole open fewer than the legal 
requirement of 160 days. In four counties, Baltimore, Allegany, 
Washington, and Cecil, the colored schools were open more than 
180 days, the legal minimum for white schools. The average for 
the colored elementary schools of the counties as a whole was 
167.5 days, for Baltimore City, 185 days, and for the entire State, 
179.4 days. (See Table 115.) 

The decrease in the number of individual schools which did not 
meet the requirement of 160 days shows great improvement. Of 
the 535 county colored elementary schools, 494 were open at 
least 160 days. In 1930, only 41 colored schools were in session 
less than 160 days, and only 3 of these had sessions under 140 
days. The corresponding figures for 1929 were 53 and 4, re- 
spectively. The number of schools with short sessions was ma- 
terially reduced in Calvert, Howard, Dorchester, and Montgom- 



180 



1930 Report of State Depaktment of Education 



TABLE 115 

Length of Session in Colored Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1930 



County 



School Year, 1929-30 



Number 
of Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 



First 
Day of 
School 



Last 
Day of 
School 



Average Days in Session 



County 



Colored 

High 
Schools 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel. 
Baltimore .... 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . 
Frederick, . . . 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. 
Prince George' 
Queen Anne's. 
St. Mary's. . . 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington. . 
Wicomico .... 
Worcester .... 



Baltimore City. 



9/3 
9/9 
9/3 
9/9 
9/23 
9/2 
9/5 
9/23 
9/23 
9/3 
9/16 
9/30 
10/1 
9/10 
9/9 
9/24 
10/1 
9/16 
t9/30 
9/3 
9/11 
9/16 

9/10 



6/20 

5/6 
6/27 
5/14 
5/28 

6/6 
6/13 
5/30 
5/30 

5/9 
5/30 

6/3 
"5/30 
5/16 
5/30 
5/31 

6/6 
5/16 

6/6 

6/6 
5/15 
5/16 

6/25 



County Average. 



Baltimore . . , . , 

Allegany 

Washington . . . 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Prince George's 

Harford , 

Frederick 

Dorchester. . . , 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Howard , 

Montgomery. . 
Queen Anne's . 
Anne Arundel. 

Calvert 

Wicomico. ... 
Worcester .... 

Somerset 

St. Mary's 

Charles 

Kent 



Baltimore City. . 
State Average. 



172.8 



193.5 
185.2 
186.8 
178.1 
173.0 



185.0 
170.0 
166.1 
181.2 



164.0 
164.8 
182.3 
161.8 
162.1 
161.7 
162.0 



180.0 
176.3 



190.0 
177.6 



t High School 9/14. * High School 6/6. 

For data for counties in alphabetical order, see Table VII, page 337. 



TABLE 116 

Number of Maryland County Colored Schools in Session Less Than the Number of 
Days Required by Law, Year Ending July 31, 1930 



Colored Schools Open Colored Schools Open 

Less Than Less Than 

160 140 160 140 

County Days Days County Days Days 



1930 38 3 Somerset 2 

Total 1929 49 4 Wicomico 2 

1928 41 10 Dorchester 2 1 

Caroline 3 

Harford 1 Kent 4 

Howard 1 Anne Arundel 6 

Worcester 1 Montgomery 6 1 

Calvert 2 St. Mary's 6 1 

Charles 2 



ery, although these counties still had schools which failed to make 
the legal minimum. In Anne Arundel there were six, and in 
Montgomery and St. Mary's seven schools which were open less 
than 160 days. In St. Mary's this is 5 more than were below 
this level in 1929. (See Table 116.) 



Length of Session, Attendance in Colored Schools 181 



PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE IMPROVES 

The regularity with which children attend school is a signifi- 
cant measure of one phase of the efficiency of a school system. 
The fact that the average per cent of attendance in the county 
elementary schools increased from 82.7 in 1929 to 84.5 in 1930 
is most gratifying. In 14 of the 22 counties which have colored 
schools, the per cent of attendance was 85.0 or higher, and in 
only 3 counties, Calvert, Charles, and Carroll, was the per cent 
of attendance lower than 80.0. In 1929 seven counties were in 
this latter group. Calvert, although lowest in the State, in- 
creased its per cent of attendance by 5.4, and in Worcester, Cecil, 
and Dorchester the per cent of attendance was about 4.0 higher 
in 1930 than in 1929. The range in per cent of attendance was 
from 72 in Calvert to nearly 91 in Wicomico. (See Table 117.) 



TABLE 117 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored Elementary Schools, for School Years Ending in 
June 1923, 1928, 1929 and 1930 



County 1923 1928 1929 1930 

County Averge 76.2 82.6 82.7 84.5 

Wicomico 84.8 89.9 88.1 90.8 

Frederick 84.6 89.9 90.3 89.3 

Allegany 87.4 89.8 86.0 89.1 

Washington 81.7 92.0 89.6 89.0 

Talbot 84.3 91.2 90.5 88.8 

Somerset 80.5 85.0 84.7 87.9 

Montgomery 80.8 85.1 84.4 86.9 

Worcester 80.1 83.5 82.1 86.0 

Baltimore 75.4 84.8 84.8 85.9 

Harford 79.9 85.9 86.0 85.3 

Anne Arundel 71.2 81.8 84.8 85.3 

Caroline 76.4 85.4 84.4 85.2 



County 1923 1928 1929 1930 

Kent 73.4 85.2 82.3 85.1 

Prince George's 76 . 4 83 . 8 83 . 85 . 

Cecil 74.4 80.6 79.4 83.8 

Queen Anne's 73.1 81.7 80.1 83.3 

Dorchester 74.2 77.9 78.6 82.2 

St. Mary's 62.9 72.7 78.0 81.4 

Howard 71.0 78.3 79.3 80.5 

Carroll 72.0 76.5 76.6 76.2 

Charles 66.8 72.9 76.7 75.5 

Calvert 65.3 69.6 66.6 72.0 

Baltimore City 87.0 87.4 87.6 87.4 

State Average 79.9 84.6 84.8 85.8 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VI, page 336. 

The per cent of attendance in the colored elementary schools 
shows a wide monthly variation, the range being from 92.9 in 
September, when many colored children have not yet been en- 
rolled in school, to 76.6 in January, when the maximum enroll- 
ment is in school and the combined effect of bad weather, bad 
roads, colds, and other contagious diseases bring about the 
greatest absence from school. (See Table 118.) 

In the high schools similar variations can be seen. The maxi- 
mum enrollment is found in November and December. During 
December and January the low point in per cent of attendance 
is reached, while in September and June, when few are enrolled, 
attendance reaches as high as 94.7 and 95.5 per cent. During 
the intermediate months, an average of about 93.5 is consistently 
maintained. (See Table 118.) 



182 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE 118 



Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County Colored 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1930 



MONTH 


Average No. Belonging 


Per Cent of Attendance 


Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


September 


15,968 


1,346 


92.9 


94.7 


October/. 


22,900 


1,783 


87.4 


93.7 


November 


24,746 


1,856 


86.1 


93.3 


December 


24,935 


1,843 


80.5 


91.4 


January 


25,328 


1,787 


76.6 


90.4 


February 


25,314 


1,753 


83.9 


93.6 


March 


25,057 


1,725 


86.2 


93.9 


April 


24,555 


1,664 


84.9 


93.5 


May 


24,134 


1.632 


86.0 


93.7 


June 


*2,791 


*752 


89.6 


95.5 


Average for Year 


24,279 


1,725 


84.5 


93.3 



* Schools in most of the counties were not open in June. 



FEWER PUPILS ATTEND LESS THAN 100 AND 120 DAYS 

For the first time more than four-fifths of the children in 
colored elementary schools were present at least 100 days, and 
nearly 70 per cent attended school for 120 days or more. The 
number of children attending less than 100 and 120 days is grad- 
ually being reduced. In 1930, 4,937 colored children were in 
school fewer than 100 days. This is 1,050 fewer than the cor- 
responding figure for 1929, and the 7,842 who attended under 
120 days is a reduction of more than 1,200 since 1929. (See 
Table 119.) 

In Allegany, Washington, Baltimore, Frederick, Wicomico, and 
Cecil, fewer than 20 per cent of the colored elementary children 
failed to attend school for 120 days. At the opposite extreme, 
from 41 to 59 per cent of the colored elementary pupils were 
present less than six months of the eight-month school year in 
Calvert, Charles, St. Mary's, and Howard. Despite the fact that 
40 per cent of the Calvert County colored elementary pupils were 
present less than 5 months and nearly 60 per cent attended less 
than 6 months, this is a considerable improvement over conditions 
the year preceding. (See Table 119.) 

Attendance for less than 100 or 120 days may be explained 
by either irregular attendance reflected in the per cent of at- 
tendance, or late entrance, or withdrawal before the end of the 
year. The first of these has been considered and is shown in 
Table 117. 



Monthly Attendance and Attendance Under 100 and 120 Days 183 



TABLE 119 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary Pupils Present Under 100 and 
120 Days, Year Ending July 31, 1930 



Number Present Per Cent Present 





Under 


Under 


Under 


Under 


County 


100 Days 


120 Days 


100 Days 


120 Days 


Total and Average : 






1930 


4,937 


7,842 


19.3 


30.6 


1 Q9Q 


^ OS7 


y , \j-to 


99 Q 
. if 


Q4. ft 


1928 


6,610 


9,563 


24.8 


35.9 


1927 


7,643 


10,836 


29.0 


41.1 


. 1926 


8,078 


11,295 


29.5 


41.3 


1925 


9,463 


13,195 


33.2 


46.3 


A 1 lorro n ir 


14. 


94. 


O . o 


Q 1 




26 


38 


8.3 


12.1 


Baltimore 


203 


293 


10.6 


15.3 




86 


165 


9.8 


18.8 


Wicomico 


131 


266 


9.5 


19.4 






fid. 




1Q 7 

ly . 4 


Prince George's 


348 


635 


13.2 


24.1 


Talbot 


153 


256 


14.7 


24.6 


Somerset 


275 


453 


16.2 


26.8 


Harford 


106 


189 


15.0 


26.8 


Montgomery 


303 


451 


18.1 


26.9 


Anne Arundel 


513 


831 


19.3 


31.3 


Caroline . . 


173 


271 


20.8 


32.6 


Kent 


190 . 


^ 284 


21.8 


32.6 


Carroll 


83 


115 


25.6 


35.5 


Worcester 


348 


547 


23.4 


36.7 


Dorchester 


375 


544 


25.8 


37.4 


Queen Anne's 


171 


302 


22.0 


38.9 


Howard. 


145 


230 


25.8 


41.0 


St. Mary's . 


295 


467 


26.0 


41.1 


Charles . . . 


478 


723 


32.3 


48.9 


Calvert , 


462 


674 


40.6 


59.2 




LATE ENTRANCES DECREASE 




A consideration of the second 


factor 


shows that 


because of 



employment, indifference, or neglect, there were 3,148 late en- 
trants to the colored elementary schools in 1930 and these 
amounted to 11.4 per cent of the total enrollment. More than 
half of the cases of late entrance were attributed to negligence 
or indifference on the part of pupils and parents, and the pro- 
portion assigned to this cause was greater than in 1929. The 
late entrance due to employment of children both over and under 
13 years of age decreased during 1930. (See Table 120.) 

In Allegany, Washington, Baltimore, and Carroll, less than 5 
per cent of the children entered school late for these causes, but 



184 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 120 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary School Pupils Entering School 
after the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference or Neglect, for 
School Year Ending July 31, 1930 



County 



Number and Per Cent Entering School After 
First Month for Following Reasons: 



Total 
Number 



Total 
Per Cent 



13 Years 
or More, 
Employed 



Negli- 
gence or 
Indiffer- 
ence 



Under 
13 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 



Rank in Per Cent Entering 
After First Month for 
Following Reasons: 



13 Years 
or More, 
Employed 



Negli- 
gence or 
Indiffer- 
ence 



Under 
13 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 



County Average 

1930 

1929 

1928 

1927 

1926 

Allegany 

Washington. . . . 

Baltimore 

Carroll 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Prince George's. 

Caroline 

Kent 

Howard 

Frederick 

St. Mary's 

Talbot 

Montgomery 

Queen Anne's . . . 

Worcester 

Harford 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Cecil 

Charles 

Calvert 

Dorchester 



3,148 
3,280 
4,739 
5,204 
5,393 

1 
12 
77 

15 
96 

93 
202 
68 
77 
53 

83 
109 
122 
194 
110 

209 
108 
414 
71 
325 

298 
411 



11.4 
11.6 
16.5 
17.8 
18.1 

.4 
3.6 
3.6 
4.2 
5.2 

6.4 
7.0 
7.3 
8.4 
8.7 

8.7 
9.2 
10.5 
10.6 
13.0 

13.1 
13.9 
14.7 
15.6 
20.1 

24.3 
26.3 



4.5 
5.1 



7.9 
8 3 



2.0 
3.1 
3.0 

2.3 
2.0 



6.1 
7.9 
3.9 
2.0 
3.8 

5.3 
11.6 



5.8 
5.3 
7.8 
7.5 



.4 
2.7 
1.6 
1.1 
1.8 

4.1 
4.0 
2.1 
.8 
4.8 

3.6 
6.3 
2.1 
5.6 
1.8 

4.9 
5.1 
10.0 
13.4 
13.5 

16.7 
10.7 



1.1 
1.2 
2.2 
2.4 
2.9 



1.0 
.7 
.4 



.5 
.7 
2.3 

2.1 
.9 
.8 
.2 

2.8 

2.3 
4.0 



in Dorchester, Calvert, and Charles the late entrants included 
more than a fifth of the enrollment. Late entrance by children 
over 13 years old because of employment was exceptionally high 
in Dorchester, Queen Anne's, Talbot, Harford, and Kent. Late 
entrance to school by children under 13 years because of employ- 
ment is strictly illegal, but over 2 per cent of the children in 
Dorchester, Charles, Queen Anne's, Calvert, and Worcester en- 
tered late because they were illegally employed. Indifference and 
neglect explained the late entrance of over 10 per cent of the 
children in Calvert, Charles, Cecil, Dorchester, and Anne Arun- 
del. A marked reduction in late entrants for employment, in- 
difference and neglect appeared in Carroll, Howard, and Prince 
George's, but in Charles, Cecil, Washington, and Talbot the per- 
<jentage of late entrants was considerably higher than in 1929. 
(See Table 120.) 



Late Entrances and Withdrawals Decrease 



185 



WITHDRAWALS DECREASE 
TABLE 121 



Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools for Year 

Ending July 31, 1930 



County 


Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer or Death 


WITHDRAWALS FOR FOLLOWING CAUSES 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


PER CENT WITHDRAWING FOR 


Number 


Per Cent 


Employ- 
ment 


Mental 
and 

Phvsical 
Inca- 
pacity 


Over or 
Lnder 
Compul- 
sory At- 
tendance 
Age 


Poverty 


Other 
Causes 


Total and Av. 




















1930 


2,100 


7.6 


1 71 7 




2.9 


1.0 


.8 


1.2 


.3 


1929 


2,109 


7.5 


2,171 


7.6 


3 7 


1 . 1 


.9 


1.5 


.4 


1928 .... 


2,130 


7.4 


2,231 


7.8 


4.1 


1.0 


1.1 


1.2 


.4 


1927 


2,340 


8.0 


2,489 


8.5 


4.3 


1.2 


1.2 


1.5 


.4 


1926 


2 446 


8.2 


2,697 


9.9 


4 9 


1 


1 5 


1 9 


.6 


1925 


2,459 


8.6 


3,515 


12.3 


6.4 


1.1 


1.7 


2.6 


.5 


Allegany 


15 


5.4 


7 


2.5 


.4 


.4 
.9 


.3 


1.4 




Frederick . . 


71 


7.5 


25 


2.6 


1.0 


.4 


.2 


.1 


Carroll 


32 


9.0 


11 


3.1 


.6 


.8 


.3 


.8 


.6 


Prince George's 


242 


8.4 


90 


3.1 


1.4 


.7 


. 5 


.2 


.3 


Talbot 


116 


10.0 


47 


4.1 


2.9 


.2 


.3 


.1 


.6 


Anne Arundel . 


163 


5.8 


121 


4.3 


1.7 


.8 


1.0 


.4 


.4 


Baltimore 


202 


9.5 


96 


4.5 


1.3 


1.0 


.9 


1.0 


.3 


Wicomico 


87 


6.0 


68 


4.7 


1.3 


1.6 


.4 


1.2 


.2 


Montgomery. . 


144 


7.9 


94 


5.2 


2.4 


.8 


. 5 


1.3 


.2 


Charles 


139 


8.6 


90 


5.6 


2.6 


1.0 


.4 


1.5 


.1 


Somerset 


145 


7.9 


105 


5.7 


2.6 


. 7 


1.2 


1.1 


.1 


Washington. . . 


22 


6.5 


20 


6.0 


1.5 


1.8 


1.5 


.6 


.6 


Harford 


71 


9.1 


48 


6.2 


3.0 


.6 


. 5 


1.3 


.8 


Calvert 


87 


7.1 


79 


6.4 


3.7 


.7 


.7 


1.1 


.2 


St. Mary's. . . . 


51 


4.3 


77 


6.5 


2.3 


1.2 


1.3 


1.6 


.1 


Cecil 


31 


6.8 


32 


7.0 


1.8 


2.4 


.9 


1.3 


.6 


Caroline 


103 


11.0 


66 


7.1 


3.5 


.6 


1.8 


.4 


.8 


Worcester .... 


104 


6.5 


155 


9.7 


4.3 


1.1 


.9 


3.0 


.4 


Queen Anne's.. 


67 


7.9 


85 


10.1 


7.6 


.4 


.2 


1.7 


.2 


Kent 


54 


5.9 


94 


10.2 


7.4 


1.0 


.6 


1.1 


.1 




50 


8.2 


65 


10.6 


4.7 


3.6 


1.0 


1.0 


.3 


Dorchester. . . . 


104 


6.7 


242 


15.5 


7.7 


1.7 


1.6 


4.2 


.3 



Withdrawals from school divide themselves into two distinct 
groups. First there are those cases where withdrawal is entirely- 
legitimate from the point of view of the school organization. 
Such withdrawals are due to removal, transfer, or death. In the 
counties of the State this group comprised about 7.6 per cent of 
the total enrollment and exceeded the number and per cent with- 
drawn for all other causes. Withdrawals for removal, transfer, 
or death fonn a fairly constant portion of the enrollment, and 
although there has been in the main, a reduction in such with- 
drawals since 1925, the range in the past six years is only from 
8.6 per cent to 7.4. The individual counties likewise do not ex- 
hibit a very marked difference in the per cent withdrawing for 



186 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



these causes. St. Mary's and Allegany had the smallest, and 
Caroline and Talbot the largest groups leaving school because of 
removal, transfer, or death, with a range of 4.3 to 11.0 per cent. 
(See Table 121.) 

The withdrawals that are due in part to some lack of efficiency, 
quality, or holding power of either the school or local community 
are being materially reduced. For the first time, the number 
and per cent of withdrawals for these causes were less than the 
withdrawals for removal, transfer, and death, and since 1925, 
they have been reduced from 12.3 to 6.2 per cent of the total 
enrollment. This means that 1,798 fewer pupils withdrew for 
employment, mental or physical incapacity, or poverty in 1930 
than in 1925, and this reduction more than equals the number 
that ^\ithdrew in 1930. 

In eight counties, Allegany, Frederick, Carroll, Prince George's, 
Talbot, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, and Wicomico, less than 5 per 
cent of the pupils were withdrawn for causes other than removal, 
transfer, and death and in only four counties, Dorchester, How- 
ard, Kent, and Queen Anne's, did more than 10 per cent leave 
for these reasons. In the preceding year only five counties had 
fewer than 5 per cent withdrawn for "other causes," while seven 
counties had more than 10 per cent so withdrawn. (See 
Table 121.) 

Dorchester, Queen Anne's, and Kent had a high percentage of 
withdrawals for employment, i. e., over 7 per cent. In Howard 
and Cecil the percentage of withdrawals for mental or physical 
incapacity were considerably in excess of those in other counties, 
perhaps because advantage may have been taken of the oppor- 
tunity for the examination of retarded children. 

Dorchester and Worcester reported the highest percentage of 
colored elementary pupils withdrawn because of poverty. (See 
Table 121.) 

HOLDING POWER THROUGH THE GRADE? 

Of equal if not greater importance than the regularity and 
length of school attendance within any one year is the holding 
power of the schools over a period of years. One way of show- 
ing this is to assume that the average of the enrollment in grades 
2, 3, and 4 represents in a fair measure the number of children 
entering school, and to divide the actual enrollment in each grade 
by this estimate of the number of entrants. If each child that 
entered school received promotion at the end of each year and 
remained in school until completing high school, the ratio of 
enrollment in each grade to the number of entrants would then 
be 100. Since such conditions obviously do not exist, we find a 
very different distribution. With 146 per cent in the first grade, 
almost one-third of the first grade pupils are repeaters, while 
only 57 per cent of those entering school reached the seventh 
grade. Although this retardation in the early grades and loss 



Withdrawals and Enrollment by Grades 



187 



from the upper grades is rather great, improvement over preced- 
ing years is very marked. The first year high school enrollment 
in 1930 included 24 per cent of the estimated county entrants to 
the first grade in a given year, and represented double the cor- 
responding number for 1925. (See Table 122.) 

TABLE 122 



Enrollment by Grades in Maryland Countv Colored Schools, School Year Ending in 

June, 1930 





Xumbe 


r in Each Grade, 


Per Cent in Each Grade Based on 






1930 




Average in Grades 2, 3 and 4 




















Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1930 


1929 


1927 


1925 


1 


2,959 


2,759 


5.718 


146 


148 


166 


187 


2 


2.129 


1.902 


4,031 


103 


107 


104 


102 


3 


2.049 


1.886 


3.935 


101 


99 


100 


102 


4 


1.954 


1,812 


3.766 


96 


95 


95 


96 


5 


1.568 


1.631 


3.199 


82 


82 


78 


74 


6 


1.305 


1.390 


2,695 


69 


67 


60 


51 


7 


1,042 


1,199 


2,241 


57 


57 


45 


37 


8 


22 


35 


57 


2 


1 


5 


3 


I 


377 


551 


928 


24 


20 


13 


11 


II 


218 


306 


524 


13 


10 


7 


5 


III 


107 


176 


283 


7 


6 


4 


3 


IV 


68 


113 


181 


5 


3 


3 


1 


Grand Total . . . 


13,798 


13,760 


27,558 



















Actual numbers show that 5,718 pupils were enrolled in the 
first grade, 4,031 in the second grade, 3,935 in the third grade, 
and only 2,241 in the seventh. The high school enrollment de- 
creased from 928 in the first year to only 181 in the fourth. The 
total number of boys and girls enrolled in the colored schools is 
very similar, but in grades one to four the boys exceed the girls, 
while in all the higher grades the girls outnumber the boys. 
(See Table 122.) 

COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GRADUATES 
Graduates from the county colored elementary schools com- 
prised 6.7 per cent of the total enrollment. The 1,721 boys and 
girls who completed the elementary school course formed a 
slightly smaller proportion of the enrollment in 1930 than in 
1929, but the increase over 1928 was still gratifyingly large. 
The graduates included 728 boys and 993 girls. The former is 
a reduction of 5 under the 1929 graduates, whereas the latter is 
lower by 84 than in the preceding year. The 728 boys who grad- 
uated represented 5.6 per cent of all boys enrolled, ^1 more than 
in 1929. (See Table 123.) 



188 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE 123 
Colored County Elementary School Graduates* 



Number Per Cent 

Year Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 

1923 350 637 987 2.3 4.3 3.3 

1924 427 706 1,133 2.9 4.9 3.9 

1925 487 705 1,192 3.4 5.0 4.2 

1926 483 820 1,303 3.5 6.1 4.8 

1927....- 542 909 1,451 4.0 6.8 5.4 

1928 542 984 1,526 4.0 7.5 5.7 

1929 733 1,077 1,810 5.5 8.4 6.9 

1930 728 993 1,721 5.6 7.9 6.7 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 

Dorchester, Allegany, Cecil, Frederick, and Somerset had the 
highest proportion of graduates in their elementary school en- 
rollments, while in Calvert, St. Mary's, Anne Arundel, Montgom- 
ery, and Harford the smallest percentage of colored boys and 
girls completed the elementary school course. In 1930, Dor- 
chester, Allegany, Frederick, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, 
Charles, Baltimore, and Anne Arundel held more of their colored 
enrollment to graduation from the elementary school than in 
the preceding year, but the boy and girl graduates for St. Mary's, 
Harford, Wicomico, Caroline, Talbot, Worcester, Calvert, and 
Carroll were considerably under those of the earlier year. There 
was also a considerable decrease in girl graduates for Cecil, Kent, 
Howard, and Montgomery. In every county except Allegany and 
Howard there were more girls than boys graduated, while in 
Frederick the number of boys and girls graduated was the same. 
(See Chart 20.) 

FAILURES OF BOYS INCREASE 
TABLE 124 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County Colored Elementary Schools* 



Year Number Per Cent 
Ending in 

June Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 

1923 5,722 4,616 10,338 38.3 31.1 34.7 

1924 5,173 4,104 9,277 35.5 28.5 32.0 

1925 4,800 3,700 8,500 33.2 26.3 29.8 

1926 4,359 3,334 7,693 31.5 24.6 28.1 

1927 4,015 3,091 7,106 29.5 23.3 26.4 

1928 3,647 2,657 6,304 27.1 20.2 23.7 

1929 3.230 2,361 5,591 24.2 18.5 21.4 

1930 3,311 2,343 5,654 25.4 18.6 22.0 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 



Elementary Graduates and Non Promotions in Colored Schools 189 

CHART 20 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES 
IN TOTAL COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENI 
1950 



County 


Number 
Boys Girls 


LOXAX ana 


728 


995 


Co, Average 




Dorchester 


55 


87 


Allegany 


14 


11 


Cecil 


17 


21 


Frederick 


58 


58 


Somerset 


65 


81 


Wicomico 


50 


64 


Howard 


24 


22 


Washington 


10 


15 


Kent 


26 


58 


Pr. Geo. 


69 


120 


Caroline 


27 


52 


Worcester 


57 


67 


Talbot 


51 


41 


Carroll 


10 


12 


Q. Anne's 


24 


26 


Charles 


37 


56 


Baltimore 


48 


66 


Harford 


16 


25 


Montgomery 


42 


45 


A. Arundel 


59 


72 


St. Mary's 


14 


52 


Calvert 


18 


24 



Per Cent Boys 



t/yW» Per Gent Girls 




/////////////////. 



7.1 I 



8.0 



Tzzzzzzzzzzm 



vzzzzzzzzzzzx 




TZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ^ 



V77 7A 



V/////////////////////A 




5 V/////////////A 




A few more colored boys in 1930 than in 1929 failed to measure 
up to the standards required for promotion to a higher grade. 
The 5,654 non-promotions comprised 22.0 per cent of the total 
elementary school enrollment. There were 3,311 boys, or 25.4 



1930 Report of State Depaetment of Education 



per cent, and 2,343 girls, or 18.6 per cent, retarded in 1930. The 
reduction in failures since 1923 is impressive when considered 
with the higher standards required in the fundamental subiects. 
(See Table 124.) 



CHART 21 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY COLORED ELELIENTARY PUPILS NOT PROMOTED 

1930 



Per Cent Boys 7777i Per Cent Girls 



County- 


Number 




Boys 


Girl£ 


Total and 
Co. Average 


3311 


2543 


Caroline 


63 


35 




20 


20 


Allegany 


25 


16 


Cecil 


44 


31 


Harford 


69 


56 


Pr . George' s 


319 


178 


CViflT*! p<? 

X a- w k3 


167 


114 


Talbot 


113 


91 


ivent 


106 


68 


Howard 


76 


38 


Dorchester 


167 


129 


Queen Anne' s 


100 


59 


Carroll 


36 


32 


Frederick 


119 


74 


Somerset 


224 


163 


Anne Arundel 


315 


282 


Montgomery 


228 


158 


Baltimore 


266 


212 


Wicomico 


225 


136 


Worcester 


221 


179 


St. Mary's 


202 


133 


Calvert 


206 


149 




1 9.,9.y////A 
.'b,^y///////777zA 





p.4.6 Y////////////A 




mm 



Y////////////ZZZS 



t Q Y////// /////////// ////////A 

mm. 



Nox Promotions in Colored Elementary Schools 



191 



In Washington, Caroline, Harford, and Allegany, less than a 
fifth of the boys were retarded, but in Calvert, St. Mary's, Wico- 
mico, and Worcester, more than 30 per cent were not ready for 
promotion to the grade above. The very poor attendance un- 
doubtedly accounts for the lack of satisfactory accomplishment 
by so large a proportion of the pupils, especially in Calvert, which 
is at the bottom of the list. In every county except Washington, 
where the number of boys and girls who failed was the same, 
the per cent of boys not promoted exceeded the per cent of girls 
falling short of promotion. In Caroline, Allegany, Washington, 
Cecil, Prince George's, and Howard, teachers reported that upon 
their return the following year, less than 15 per cent of the girls 
would be required to repeat the work of the preceding year. At 
the other extreme were Calvert, St. Mary's, Worcester, Baltimore, 
Anne Arundel, and Wicomico where the girls retarded comprised 
more than a fifth of the enrollment. Increases in non-promotions 
of both boys and girls were found in St. 2^Iary's, Carroll, Wico- 
mico, Talbot, Somerset, and Worcester, and for girls in Prince 
George's. On the other hand, decreases in the number of non- 
promotions were reported in Washington, Caroline, Cecil, Kent, 
Harford, Dorchester, Frederick, Queen Anne's, and Calvert, and 
for girls in Howard County. (See Chart 21.) 

A consideration of non-promotions by grade shows that the 

CHART 22 



1930 NON-PROMOTIONS -BI GRADES 
COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



Niunber 

Grade Boys Girls Per Cent Boys 1777^ Per Cent Girls 



1 1055 

2 431 

3 393 

4 490 

5 530 

6 506 

7 304 

8 2 



277 114.^^^^^^^ 
255 PlV,4^^^^^^^3 

295 "le . 5!^^^^^^^ 

231 [14,^^^^^^^ 



178 1 \2.,^//////////////A 



192 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

largest number and per cent occur in the first grade where at- 
tendance is probably poorest because of sickness, bad weather, 
distance from school, etc. Non-promotions include over one-third 
of the boys and nearly a third of the girls enrolled in the first 
grade. (See Chart 22.) 

The per cent of failures is also high in grade 7, including 29 
per cent of the boys and 17 per cent of the girls enrolled, and 
in grade 4 in which 25 per cent of the boys were failures as 
against 16 per cent of the girls. In every grade from the first 
to the seventh, the non-promotions of boys greatly exceeded those 
for girls, although the enrollment of girls exceeds that of boys 
in grades 5 to 7. 

GROWTH IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 
The colored high schools of the State are showing splendid 
growth. In 1930 there were 25 colored high schools in the coun- 
ties, 17 of the first group and 8 of the second group. The change 
from 1929 shows an increase of 3 first group schools and a de- 
crease of 2 second group schools. Calvert County for the first 
time provided high school advantages for its colored elementary 
school graduates, and another year of high school work was 
added to two schools in Prince George's and to one in Worcester. 
Prince George's and Worcester each had three high schools and 
Somerset, Talbot, and Wicomico each had two high schools for 
colored pupils. T?here were no colored high schools in 1930 in 
Baltimore, Harford, Howard, or St. Mary's, but Baltimore Cbunty 
paid tuition to Baltimore City for 33 pupils in junior high schools 
and 55 pupils in senior high schools. Since a colored high school 
was established in Harford in the fall of 1930, St. Mary's and 
Howard are the only counties where no high school opportunities 
are provided for the colored children. (See Table 100, page 149.) 

TABLE 125 

Enrollment, Attendance, Average Number Belonging and Graduates in Approved 
Colored County High Schools of Maryland, School Years Ending in 
June 1921 to 1930 Inclusive 







Average 




Four- Year 


Year Ending 


Enrollment 


Number 


Average 


High School 


July 31 




Belonging 


Attendance 


Graduates 


1921 


251 


* 


189 




1922 


368 


* 


292 


' 5 


1923 


447 


400 


357 


30 


1924 


620 


541 


480 


30 


1925 


862 


741 


662 


32 


1926 


974 


850 


769 


58 


1927 


1 . 157 


1.000 


907 


97 


1928 


1,332 


1,137 


1,046 


117 


1929 


1.610 


1,451 


1,344 


121 


1930 


1.953 


1,725 


1,609 


169 



* Average number belonging not available before 1923. 
For individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 366-371. 



Growth in County Colored High Schools 



193 



cc-^ cx-^ — cit^iofN-n" xt>-a> 



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L-; CIO 



o ut ^; — o. M 
■<*■ rc — T«- L-: 



C ocro 

O O 
OXttX 



OC5 



O — ^5 
^ xc^ 



(MM C<1 iC C-1 

(Nr-I — M TJ. Tf. 



ro -^-^xot^ •-C'tCiCic; c^-^t^rrt^ c:(N05 



II 



1 2 II 2 



§81 



o o a 
C.2 i S3. Si c 



o V5 



194 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



The four-year high school course was completed by 169 gradu- 
ates. The number of graduates was comparatively small because 
a number of the colored schools offered less than a four-year 
program. (See Table 125.) 

A comparison of the high school enrollment, teaching staff, 
and salary expenditures for 1930 with the corresponding figures 
of a decade ago, reveals the great development in the opportuni- 
ties for secondary education now available for Maryland county 
colored children. In 1920 only 4 counties had high schools, the 
enrollment was about 187, only 13 teachers were employed, and 
salary expenditures amounted to less than $10,000. By 1925, 15 
counties had established high schools ; the enrollment w^as 862, 
44 teachers w^ere employed and $33,587 was needed for their 
salaries. By 1930, the 1925 enrollment had more than doubled, 
practically 70 teachers gave their time to high school teaching 
and the 1930 salary cost was $60,391. In the past ten years the 
enrollment has increased more than ten-fold, the teaching staff 
is more than five times as large, and the salary expenditures are 
six times as great. (For similar data for each county see Table 
126.) 

The ratio between the number belonging in high school and 
those enrolled in high and elementary schools combined is a 
valuable measure of the growing importance of the high school 
in the program of education. The ratio for the Maryland coun- 
ties is 6.6 per cent, 1 per cent more than for the preceding year 
and 4.6 per cent more than in 1924. These figures are incomplete 
for the counties in that they exclude the Baltimore County pupils 
attending Baltimore City high schools, while the Baltimore City 
figure is slightly higher than it would be were the Baltimore 
County pupils excluded. (See Table 127.) 

TABLE 127 

Ratio of Average Number Belonging in Colored High Schools to Number Belonging 
in Colored Elementary and High Schools Combined for School Years Ending in 
June 1924, 1927, 1929 and 1930 



County 1924 1927 1929 1930 



County Average 


2 


.0 


3 


.9 




J] 


6 


. li 


Allegany 


11 


.9 


15 


.6 


13 


.9 


17 


.8 


Wicomico 


6 


.0 




2 


11 


.9 


13 


.3 









6 


.2 


11 


1 


12 


.6 


Washineton 






7, 


2 


10 


.9 


12 


.0 


Frederick 


6, 




7 . 


S 


9 


,8 


10 


.4 


Somerset 


1 




6. 


3 


8. 


I 


9 


.9 









4. 


8 


8. 


5 


9 


.3 


Cecil 






8. 


6 


7. 


2 


8 


8 


Worcester 






o . 


2 


<; 


3 


S 









3 




li 











County 1924 1927 1929 1930 



Dorchester 4.7 4.6 5.9 7.7 

Prince George's .. . 1.5 2.9 5.9 6.9 

Anne Arundel 2.5 4.6 6.4 6.3 

Montgomery 4.0 5.4 

Charles 1.8 3.2 4.1 5.0 

Carroll 4.0 5.8 4.2 4.9 

Oueen Anne's 2.0 3.1 1.9 3.4 

Calvert 2.4 

Baltimore City 9 .2 10 *10.2 *10.0 

State Average 4.7 1 7.6 8.2 



* Includes Baltimore County pupils attending high school in Baltimore City, whose tuition is paid 
by the Baltimore County Board of Education. 



Growth in County Colored High Schools 



195 



In Allegany, Wicomico, Talbot, Washington, and Frederick, 
more than 10 per cent of the total colored enrollment was in 
high school in 1930, but in Harford, Howard, St. Mary's, Calvert, 
Queen Anne's, and Carroll this proportion was under 5 per cent. 
Every county having high schools, except Anne Arundel, had a 
higher percentage in high school in 1930 than in 1929, and even 
in Anne Arundel the decrease was insignificant. With 10.0 per 
cent of the Baltimore City colored enrollment in high school, the 
average for the State as a whole is 8.2 per cent, a gain of .6 over 
1929. (See Table 127.) 

The per cent of attendanf^e in the county colored high schools 
was exceptionally high during 1930 with the average for the 
counties as a whole at 93.3. Every county except Dorchester, 
Washington, Talbot, Somerset, Montgomery, and Queen Anne's 
had a higher percentage in 1930 than in 1929. The improvement 
in Kent, Anne Arundel, Prince George's, Cecil, and Caroline was 
most marked. In Allegany and Kent the per cent of attendance 
was higher than 95, and in only Carroll, Queen Anne's, and Mont- 
gomery did the average fall below 90 per cent. (See Table 128.) 

TABLE 128 

Per Cent of Attendance in County Colored High Schools, for School Years Ending in 
June 1923, 1928, 1929 and 1930 



County 1923 1928 1929 1930 

County Average 89 . 3 92 . 92 . 6 93 . 3 

Allegany 93.5 91.7 94.5 95.6 

Kent 86.3 90.0 91.2 95.5 

Anne Arundel 88 . 9 84 . 9 91.5 94 . 7 

Dorchester 87.4 92.4 94.8 94.6 

Prince George's 86 . 2 90 . 3 94 . 4 

Washington 97.2 97.4 94. > 

Wicomico 90.5 97.0 93.9 94.1 

Frederick 90.5 93 .1 93 .6 94 

Cecil 91.2 90.9 94.0 

Talbot 87.3 92.9 94.7 93.8 



County 1923 1928 1929 1930 

Worcester 95.1 91.4 93.3 

Caroline 85.6 90 87.3 92.2 

Charles 88.4 87.4 89.2 91.9 

Somerset 94.2 94.6 91.3 

Calvert 90.7 

Montgomerv 91.8 93.5 88.4 

Oueen Anne's 88 . 3 92 . 1 87 . 2 

Carroll 87.8 85.9 86.1 

Baltimore City 88.8 90.0 90.3 91.3 

State Average 88 . 9 90 . 8 91.3 92 . 



For counties arranged in alphabetical order, see Table VI, page 336. 

MORE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 
That 63 boys and 106 girls graduated from the county four- 
year high schools in 1930 meant a considerable increase over the 
corresponding figures for 1929, which were 50 boys and 71 girls. 
Anne Arundel and \^Mcomico had by far the largest number of 
graduates, 40 and 24, respectively, and these figures were in- 
creases of 29 and 8, respectively, over the number of graduates 
in 1929. Increases of as much as 9 and 11 occuiTed in Frederick 
and Kent. Charles had fewer graduates than in 1929 and in Car- 
roll no colored children in 1930 completed the four-year high 
school course. These figures, of course, do not include the Balti- 
more County high school pupils who graduated from Baltimore 
City high schools. (See Table 129.) 



196 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 129 

1930 Colored County Four- Year High School Graduates and Those Who Entered 
Bowie Normal School in September, 1930 



County 



1930 Four- Year 
Graduates 



Prince George's. 

Frederick 

Kent 

Cecil 

Anne Arundel . . 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Somerset 

Washington . . . . 

Caroline 

Talbot. 

Wicomico 

Allegany 



Total 

Per Cent 

Baltimore City 

Princess Anne Academy 

St. Frances De Sales 

Graduates of previous years: 

Counties 

Baltimore City 

Hampton Summer School 

Completing Jr. Work First Quarter. 



Junior Enrollment 
Bowie Normal School 
1930 



Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


7 




3 


S 


14 


1 


6 


8 


7 


1 


4 


5 


2 


1 


1 


10 


30 


2 


8 


5 


3 


1 


1 


3 


9 




3 


5 


3 


1 


1 


3 


2 




1 


4 


8 




2 


5 


7 


1 


1 


11 


13 






1 


1 






63 


106 


8 


31 



12 



29 
4 
1 
1 

2 
1 
1 

5 



Grand Total. 



46 



SUBJECTS OFFERED IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

The academic course, which is distinguished from the general 
course by the inclusion of a foreign language, Latin or French, 
was given in 17 of the 25 colored high schools. The 8 high 
schools which offered only the general course were those in Cal- 
vert, Kent, Queen Anne's, Talbot, and Worcester Counties. (See 
Tables XXXVI and XXXVII, pages 366-377 for data on indi- 
vidual high schools.) 

Every high school pupil was enrolled in an English course, 99 
per cent had classes in mathematics, and over 95 per cent did 
work in the social studies. Courses in English and the social 
studies are fundamental, but the need for four years of Work 
in mathematics in high school is questionable. With the excep- 
tion of the high schools in Allegany, Cecil, Montgomery, Somer- 
set, and one high school in Prince George's, one hundred per cent 
of the pupils were enrolled for these three subjects. All the 
high schools, except those in Worcester, had science courses in 
which 78 per cent of the boys and 74 per cent of the girls were 



Subjects Offered, Occupations of Colored High School Graduates 197 

enrolled. Latin was taken by about a fifth of the boys and a 
fourth of the girls. For French only 3 or 4 per cent of the 
colored high school pupils were enrolled. (See Tahle XXXVII, 
pages 372-377.) 

Opportunities for training and experience in the special sub- 
jects were provided for the colored children in 19 of the 25 high 
schools. Fifty per cent of the boys were enrolled in manual 
training or industrial arts courses, and 70 per cent of the girls 
had classes in home economics. In the Marlboro High School in 
Prince George's, 22 boys studied vocational agriculture. Instruc- 
tion in music was given to 167 boys and 186 girls (22 and 16 
per cent of the enrollment, respectively) and organized physical 
education was provided for 83 boys and 113 girls. (See Tahle 
XXXVII, pages 372-377.) 

OCCUPATIONS OF 1929 HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 

Fewer high school graduates continued studying in 1929-30 
than in the preceding year. Of the 50 boys who finished the 
four-year high school course in 1930, 13 went to a college or 
university, 9 entered normal schools, and 2 returned for post- 
graduate work. This means that 48 per cent of the boys con- 
tinued their education in the year following high school gradua- 
tion. In 1928-29 this was true of 62 per cent of the boy grad- 
uates. Seventy-one girls were graduated from the county high 
schools in 1929 and of these, 6 went to college, 19 attended 
normal school, and 1 entered a hospital to study nursing. This 
is only 37 per cent of girl graduates and is a marked reduction 
under the 60 per cent of the 1928 graduates who studied in the 
year following their graduation. The number entering domestic 
service or working at home was exceptionally large, 29 girls and 
6 boys. 

THE BALTIMORE CITY PROGRAM FOR COLORED PUPILS 

In the day schools of Baltimore City in 1930 there were 22,978 
colored pupils enrolled. Of these 2,149 were in the last four 
years of high school w^hich includes the last year of the junior 
high school and 283 were graduated from the senior high school. 
The senior high schools were open for 182 days but all other 
types of schools maintained a session of 190 days. The per cent 
of attendance in elementary schools was 87.4 and in high schools 
91.3. In addition to the work of the regular elementary, junior, 
and senior high schools, special industrial and technical educa- 
tion was given to 190 boys and 131 girls in the vocational schools 
and to 49 boys and 21 girls in the prevocational school. 

In addition, 246 colored children were enrolled in 13 special 
classes for atypical children. These classes are organized to 
meet the special needs of subnonnal and crippled children, and 
for those who present disciplinary problems. In addition, there 
was an open air class and one for sight conservation. (See Tahle 
36, page 53.) 



198 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

An opportunity of further education was offered through the 
evening schools to those who were busy in the day time. In 
1930 the colored evening schools had an enrollment of 2,928. Of 
these, 1,370 were in elementary classes, 425 were doing high 
school work, and 1,133 were taking vocational training in com- 
mercial, industrial, or home economics classes. (See Table 162, 
pages 245-6.) 

The summer schools in 1930 enrolled 3,183 colored children. 
Of these, 2,664 completed the summer course, 2,437 having done 
review work and 227 advance work. (See Table 161, pages 
243-4.) 

THE TRAINING OF THE COLORED TEACHERS 
The effectiveness of a school system depends in the final analy- 
sis on the fitness and preparation of the individual teachers who 
make up the teaching staff. It is very difficult, if not impossible, 
to determine whether or not certain prospective teachers will be 
successful, but it is possible to increase the probability of having 
successful teachers by employing only those who have been spe- 
cifically, and in a measure, adequately trained for the teaching 
profession. The minimum requirements for such training include 
graduation from a normal school or two years of equivalent work 
and practice teaching. A teacher who meets these requirements 
is granted a first grade teaching certificate. 

By filling vacancies with properly qualified applicants and by 
summer school attendance on the part of insufficiently trained 
teachers in service, the certification status of the Maryland 
county colored teachers has shown remarkable improvement. For 
the first time, in October, 1930, 667 teachers, or 91 per cent of 
the colored elementary school staff, held regular first grade cer- 
tificates. This was an increase of 36 teachers and 3.3 per cent 
over the 1929 figures and resulted in gratifying decreases in the 
number and per cent holding the lower grades of certificate. In 
October, 1930, there were 50 teachers with second grade, and 14 
with third grade certificates, reductions of 20 and 9, respectively^ 
under the corresponding figures for 1929. (See Table XIII, 
page 343.) 

In three counties, Allegany, Carroll, and Kent, every colored 
teacher employed held a regular first grade certificate, and in 
Prince George's and St. Mary's, counties with large colored pop- 
ulations, more than 97 per cent of the teachers held the highest 
grade of certificate. The per cent holding first grade certificates 
increased by as much as 5.0 in Dorchester, St. Mary's. Calvert, 
Carroll, Worcester, Talbot, Somerset, and Wicomico. (See Table 
XIII, page 343.) 

Of the 81 high school teachers employed in October, 1930, all 
but 6 held regular certificates. Those with provisional certificates 
were found in Prince George's, Wicomico, and Talbot. (See 
Table XIII, page 343.) 



Training, Summer School Attendance of County Colored Teachers 199 



SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 
If a teacher is to maintain a first grade regular certificate, she 
must attend summer school at least once in every four years. 
This means that on the average about 25 per cent of the 
teaching force should be in attendance at summer school each 
year. For the State as a whole in 1930 the percentage was 
slightly higher than this (28.2) and the percentages for the in- 
dividual counties varied from 60.0 in Allegany to less than 8 in 
Calvert and Carroll. In five counties, Allegany, Baltimore, Wash- 
ington, Cecil, and Kent, the number reported as attending sum- 
mer school comprised more than 40 per cent of the entire teach- 
ing staff. (See Table 130.) 

TABLE 130 

County Colored Teachers in Service in October, 1930, Reported by County 
Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1930 



County 



Teachers Employed 

Oct.. 1930, Who 
Attended Summer 
School. 1930 



Number 



Per Cent 



Summer Schools Attended 



Number 
of County 

Colored 
Teachers 



Total 

Allegany 

Baltimore 

Washington. . . 

Cecil 

Kent 

Anne Arundel. . 
Queen Anne's. . 
Prince George's 

St . Mary's 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Montgomery . . 

Somerset 

Charles 

Frederick 

Harford 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Dorchester . . . . 

Howard 

Calvert 

Carroll 



•■230 



13 
29 
8 
28 
cll 
13 
13 
12 
14 
a*ll 
7 
5 

a*b 
hi 
6 
2 
*2 
1 



*28.2 

60.0 
46.2 
46.2 
41 .2 
40.6 
38.2 
34.8 
34.1 
c32.4 
30.2 
27.1 
25.5 
25.0 
25.0 
21.2 
19.2 
a 18. 5 
bl7.9 
11.3 
10.6 
7.4 
7.1 



Total 

Hampton 

Morgan 

Columbia 

Howard University 

St. Paul Normal 

University of Pennsylvania .... 

Hunter College 

Ball Teachers' College 

Temple University 

West Chester 

Indiana State Teachers' College 
Colored Normal School. Pa. . . . 
All Others 



"230 

"135 
47 
10 
5 
a 5 
b4 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
cll 



*Excludes three supervisors. 

t Twelve took a twelve-weeks' course. 

a Two took a twelve- weeks' coui-se. 

h Excludes one supervisor. 

c Excludes one supervisor at Wilberforce. 

Eight counties had fewer than 25 per cent of their teaching 
staff in service in October, 1930, in attendance at summer school 
the preceding summer. These counties were Carroll, Calvert, 
Howard, Dorchester, Talbot, Caroline, Harford, and Frederick. 

As in previous years, the summer sessions at Hampton Insti- 
tute drew the largest number of Maryland county teachers, 135. 
The next largest group attended the summer session of Morgan 



200 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



College, and Columbia ranked third in the summer enrollment of 
Maryland colored teachers. In former years a number of colored 
teachers attended the summer session of the Bowie Normal 
School. The Bowie summer course was arranged to meet the 
need of teachers who held second or third grade certificates, but 
as the number of such teachers in Maryland has decreased, the 
need of the summer session at Bowie has passed, and it was, 
therefore, discontinued after the session of 1929. (See Table 
130.) 

RESIGNATIONS AND TURNOVER FOR COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS 

Betw^een October, 1928, and October, 1929, when the members 
of the teaching staffs in the county colored schools were reported 
to the State Department office, there were 154 resignations from 
the elementary schools and 13 from the high schools. These 
figures do not include resignations due to changes in staff which 
occurred between October, 1929, and June, 1930, which are shown 
in Table 136, page 204.) 

The chief cause reported by superintendents for the loss of 
teachers was inefficiency, 64 being dropped from elementary 
schools and 6 from high schools for this cause. Of the remain- 
ing colored teachers who resigned, 19 left to teach in other states, 
16 were dropped because of low certificates or failure to attend 
summer schools, and 12 gave up teaching because of illness. The 
distribution of resignations by county shows that the largest 
number of resignations were found in Talbot, Dorchester, Somer- 
set, Worcester, and Prince George's counties. Dorchester, Kent, 
and Anne Arundel lost the greatest number of colored teachers 
because of transfer to another county. (See Tables 131 and 
132.) 

TABLE 131 

Estimated Causes of Resignations from County Colored Schools Between 
October, 1928 and 1929 



Elementary High 



Cause Schools Schools 

Inefficiency 64 6 

Teaching in another state 19 2 

Dropped for low certificate or failure to attend summer school 16 1 

Illness 12 

Marriage 6 2 

Retirement 6 

Teaching in Baltimore City 6 

Death 2 1 

Work other than teaching 2 

Other and unknown 21 1 

Total 154 13 

Leave of absence 9 

Transfer to another county 28 12 



Resignations of County Colored Teachers 



201 



TABLE 132 

Causes of Resignations from Maryland County Colored Schools During and at End 

of School Year, 1928-29 



County 


Total* 


Marriage 


Work Other than 
Teaching 


Dropped for Low 
Certificate or 
Failure to Attend 
Summer School 


Dropped for 
Inefficiency 


Teaching in 
Baltimore City 


Teaching in 
Another State 


Illness 


Retirement 


Deaths 


Other and Unknown 


Leave of Absence 


To Another County 


Total . 

Allegany 


el67 

1 
11 
4 
6 
9 

2 
1 
08 
616 
11 

1 
2 
a6 
6 
cl3 

d5 
9 

al4 
617 
2 

610 
13 


8 


2 


17 


70 

1 
2 
1 
4 

3 

1 


6 


21 


12 


6 


3 


22 


9 


g40 


Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 


1 
1 




1 


1 
2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


/4 
1 

2 
1 

ol 
o2 

2 
66 

1 

1 
I 
a4 
al 
62 


Calvert 








1 






1 
2 


1 


Caroline 


1 




2 








1 


Carroll 








Cecil 












1 






1 






a6 
6 
1 




1 

65 
2 








2 


Dorchester 




3 
2 




2 
1 














2 
1 


2 




1 










Howard 






1 


1 
1 

3 
66 

2 
6 
a9 
8 














Kent 


al 
1 






2 


1 






1 
1 
al 

d2 
1 


. . . . 










1 






2 


a2 






2 






1 






St. Mary's 


1 








1 
1 






1 


al 
a3 










4 






Talbot 


al 




4 
1 




1 


al 


2 
1 

3 
5 
















64 

5 




2 
2 


1 






2 


3 
3 


Worcester 





























* Excludes teachers on leave of absence and transfers to another county. 
a Includes one high school teacher. 6 Includes two high school teachers, 
c Includes four high school teachers, d Excludes one teacher temporarily in Somerset, 
e Includes thirteen high school teachers. / Includes two high school teachers, one coming from an 
elementary school, g Includes twelve high school teachers. 



Nearly three-fourths of the colored teachers who resigned had 
had less than four years of experience, 62 having had but one 
year, 40 but two years and 21 only three years of experience. 
(See Table 133.) 

There were 166 colored elementary teachers new to the Mary- 
land counties in October, 1929. Together with the 28 who trans- 
ferred from one county to another, there were 194 colored ele- 
mentary teachers or over one-fourth of the staff new to the 
counties in which they were teaching. The per cent of turnover 
varied from less than 12 per cent in Harford, Baltimore, Howard, 
and Montgomery Counties to over 38 per cent in Talbot, Calvert, 
Frederick, Worcester, Dorchester, and St. Mary's. (See Table 
134.) 



202 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 133 

Years of Service for Teachers Who Resigned from Maryland County Colored Schools 
from October, 1928 to October, 1929 



Years 


Number of 


Years 


Number of 


of 


Teacher 


of 


Teacher 


Service 


Resignations 


Service 
6 


Resignations 
6 


Total 


167 


7 
8 


3 


1 


62 


9-12 


7 


2 


40 


13-16 


2 


3 


21 


17-20 


1 


4 


9 


21-24 


2 


5 


9 


25 + 


5 



TABLE 134 

Number and Per Cent of Colored Elementary Teachers New to Maryland Counties 
in October, 1929, Showing Those Inexperienced, Experienced, and from 

Other Counties 



County 



New to 
Countv 



Num- 
ber 



Per 
Cent 



Change 
in No, of 
Teaching 
Positions 
Oct., 1928 
to 

Oct., 1929 



New to County October, 1929 
who were 



Inex- 
perienced 



Experienced, | 
but not in ' 

Md. Counties 
1928-1929 ! 



From 
Other 
Counties 



Total and Average ; 194 



Harford 

Baltimore. . . 

Howard 

Montgomery 
Cecil 



Allegany 

Prince George's. 
Washington. . . . 

Kent 

Anne Arundel . . 



Carroll 

Charles 

Queen Anne's. 

Somerset 

Wicomico .... 



Caroline . . . 
St. Mary's. 
Dorchester . 
Worcester. . 
Frederick. . 



Calvert 
Talbot. 



2 
5 
2 

5 
2 

1 

12 
2 
6 

15 

3 

10 
7 

16 
13 

9 
13 
18 
15 
12 

11 
15 



26.6 

8.0 
9.8 
11.1 
11.9 
13.3 

16.7 
16.7 
18.2 
21.4 
22.4 

25.0 
25.0 
31.8 
32.7 
33.3 

36.0 
38.2 
39.1 
39.5 
40.0 

42.3 
46.9 



—6 



+ 1 



—2 
— 1 
+ 1 



— 1 



+2 



139 

2 
1 
1 
4 
2 



10 



o 
9 

2 
4 
5 
16 
13 

9 
7 
15 
8 
7 

7 

12 



27 



28 



TuRNO\Txi OF County Colored Teachers 



203 



TABLE 135 

Number and Per Cent of Colored High School Teachers New to Maryland Counties 
in October, 1929, Showing Those Inexperienced, Experienced and from 
Other Counties 



County 


New to 
County 


Unange 
in No. of 
Teaching 
Positions 
Uct., 19z8 
to 

Oct., 1929 


New to County, October, 1929 
who were 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


Inex- 
perienced 


Experienced 
but not m 
Maryland 
Counties 
1928-1929 


From 
Other 
Counties 


In 
Ele- 
mentary' 
School 


Total and 
Average 


36 


49.3 


10 


17 


6 


12 


1 


















Frederick 
















































Worcester 


1 
*2 
1 
4 
4 

2 
2 

8 
3 
4 

1 
1 

3 


25.0 
28.6 
50.0 
57.1 
57.1 

66.7 
66.7 
72.7 
75.0 
80.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


+ 1 


1 
♦2 








Anne Arundel. . 
Cecil 












1 
1 
1 




Talbot 


4-1 
+2 


1 

2 

2 
2 
3 


2 
1 




Wicomico 




Charles 




Kent 










Prince George's. 
Montgomery. . . 
Somerset 


+3 
+2 


2 
1 


3 
2 
2 






1 

1 
1 
1 


1 


Calvert 


+ 1 




Carroll 








Dorchester 






2 













* Includes one teacher, experience unknown. 



Of the new teachers employed, 139 were inexperienced and 27 
had had previous experience, but were not teaching in Maryland 
counties in 1928-29. Somerset, Dorchester, Wicomico, Talbot, 
and Prince George's employed the largest number of inexperi- 
enced colored elementary teachers. Worcester, Charles, Anne 
Arundel, and Calvert employed the largest number of experienced 
teachers. Teachers who transferred from one county to another 
went in largest numbers to Baltimore, St. Mary's, Anne Arundel, 
and Frederick Counties. (See Table 134.) 

In the colored high schools, including 12 transfers ,from one 
county to another and one teacher who went into high school 
w^ork after teaching previously in an elementary school, there 
were 36 changes or additions out of a staff of 73 teachers, or 49 
per cent new to their particular counties. Five counties, Alle- 



204 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



gany, Caroline, Frederick, Queen Anne's, and Washington, had 
the same staff in October, 1928, and 1929, but the remaining 
counties having colored high schools had from 1 to 8 members 
new to the county high school staffs, making a turnover varying 
from 50 to 100 per cent in Dorchester, Carroll, Calvert, Somerset, 
Montgomery, Prince George's, Kent, Charles, Wicomico, Talbot, 
and Cecil. ' A number of these counties had only 1 or 2 high 
school teachers, so that a change of 1 or both teachers meant 
that half or all of the staff was new. Some of these counties 
increased the number or size of the colored high schools which 
explains the apparently large turnover. (See Table 135.) 

TURNOVER DURING THE YEAR 
Changes in the teaching staff which occur during the school 
year have an even more disturbing effect than similar changes 
between successive terms. Of the October, 1929, teaching staff, 
36 colored teachers, or 4.5 per cent, left their positions and had 
to be replaced before the end of the school year in June, 1930. 
There w^ere no changes whatsoever in the colored staffs of Alle- 
gany, Caroline, Kent, Queen Anne's, and Washington, and in nine 
other counties only one teacher resigned during the year. Cal- 
vert and Caroline had the highest percentage of teacher with- 
drawals during the year, and these tw^o counties were the only 
ones in which the percentage of turnover during the year 
amounted to more than ten per cent of the staff. (See Table 
136.) 

TABLE 136 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Colored Teachers Who Began Teaching 
in the Fall of 1929 and Who Left Service Before the 
End of School Year in 1930 



County 


Number 


Per Cent 


County 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Average 


36 


4.5 


Frederick 


1 


2.9 






St. Mary's 


1 


2.9 


Alleganv 






Harford 


1 


4.0 


Caroline 






Charles 


2 


4.7 


Kent 






Prince George's . . 


4 


4.8 


Queen Anne's 






Howard 


1 


5.6 


Washington 






Cecil 


1 


5.9 


Baltimore 


1 


2.0 


Dorchester 


3 


6.1 


Wicomico 


1 


2.2 


Montgomer}' 


3 


6.5 


Worcester 


1 


2.4 


Somerset 


5 


9.3 


Talbot 


1 


2.6 


Carroll 


2 


15.4 


Anne Arundel .... 


2 


2.7 


Calvert 


6 


22.2 



EXPERIENCE OF COLORED TEACHERS 
The median experience of county colored teachers employed in 
the fall of 1930 was 3.5 years. This is slightly higher than in 
1929 and indicates a reduction in the turnover of the group. 
Practically the same number of inexperienced teachers were em- 
ployed in 1930 as in 1929 (159) and these comprised 19.5 per 
cent of the total staff. (See Table 137.) 



Turnover and Experience of County Colored Teachers 



205 



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1 CC if5 50 OtTOO-'.-iN 



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206 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



The individual counties vary considerably in the median ex- 
perience of their colored teachers. In Harford, Washington, and 
Baltimore, the median years of teaching experience were 10.7, 
9.0 and 8.5, respectively, but in Carroll, Caroline, Somerset, Cal- 
vert, Dorchester, and Talbot the average teacher had taught for 
less than two years. With a constantly changing teaching staff 
and with large numbers of inexperienced teachers, it is almost 
impossible to secure the best teaching results which come only 
with years of successful experience under good supervision. The 
effects of supervision are also lost if most of those supervised 
leave at the close of the year. As more counties provide a four- 
year high school course, thus enabling the local elementary school 
graduates who give promise of becoming successful teachers to 
prepare for normal school it will be possible for the counties to 
employ a larger percentage of teachers from their own communi- 
ties. The employment of local teachers has already had some in- 
fluence in stabilizing the colored teaching staff. (See Table 137.) 

MEN TEACHERS 
In the school year ending in 1930, there were 106 men em- 
ployed as teachers in the colored schools. These included 13.2 
per cent of the total teaching staff, which is a slightly higher 
proportion than in 1929. It is probably desirable to have some 
men teach the upper grades of the elementary school and high 
school. (See Table 138.) 

TABLE 138 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers in County Colored Schools 

Year 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 



Number 


Per Cent 


Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


135 


18.3 


1927 


107 


13.8 


129 


16.9 


1928 


93 


11.8 


126 


16.5 


1929 


104 


13.0 


108 


14.0 


1930 


106 


13.2 




TABLE 


139 







Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County Colored Schools for 

Year Ending July 31, 1930 



COUNTY 



Men Teaching 



Number Per cent 



COUNTY 



Men Teaching 



Number Per Cent 



Total and .A-veraKe. 



Howard 

Charifs 

Calvert 

Montgomery. . . 

St. Mary's 

Prince George's. 

Allegany 

Caroline 

Cecil 

Frederick 



IOC). 2 



13.2 



2 3 
3.7 
8.5 
9,1 
9.8 
10 
10. () 
11.8 
12.3 



Somerset .... 
Queen Anne's 
Anne Arundel 

Kent 

Washington. . 
Baltimore . . . 
Dorchester. . . 
Worcester. . . 

Talbot 

Wicomico. . . . 

Harford 

Carroll 



7 

3 

10.2 

4.4 

2 

8 

8 

8 

8 
10 

6.2 

4 



13.0 
13.5 
13.7 
14.0 
15.4 
15.7 
15.9 
19.0 
21.1 
21.8 
24.6 
29.9 



Men Teachers; Size of Class in Colored Elementary Schools 207 



In 1930 in Howard no men taught in the colored schools, and 
in Charles, Calvert, Montgomery, St. Mary's, and Prince George's 
they were less than ten per cent of the teaching staff. In Car- 
roll, Harford, Wicomico, and Talbot from 20 to 30 per cent of all 
colored teachers employed were men. (See Table 139.) 

AVERAGE COLORED CLASS SLIGHTLY SMALLER 
CHART 23 



AVERAGE NUKBER BELONGING PER TEACHER IN COLORED ELEMENIARI SCHOOLS 
1930 



1928 
53.7 

40.7 
40.8 
37.6 



Co\;inty 
Co. Average 

Calvert 
Allegany 
Montgomery 
Anne Arundel 37.3 
Baltimore 35.5 
Pr. George's 36.0 
Worcester 36.6 
Charles 35.7 
Wicomico 34.5 
Queen Anne's 36.2 
Somerset 33.8 
Caroline 

Talbot 
St. Mary's 
Howard 
Kent 

Dorchester 
Wkshington 
Frederick 
Cecil 
Harford 
Carroll 

Balto. City 36.0 
State 34.5 



30.4 
52.1 
32.7 
31.2 
28.2 

31.1 
27.5 

28.1 
30.3 
27.5 
25.8 




For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XIV, page 344. 



The average teacher in the county colored elementary schools 
had a class of 33 pupils in the school year 1929-30. In Calvert, 



208 1930 Report of State Department of Education 



Allegany, Montgomery, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Prince George's 
and Worcester the average elementary teacher instructed from 
35 to 39 pupils. In Carroll, Harford, Cecil, Frederick, Washing- 
ton, Dorchester, Kent, and Howard there was an average of 
more than 25 and less than 30 pupils per teacher. The most 
marked changes between 1929 and 1930 are found in the reduc- 
tions in Allegany, Somerset, Howard, and Talbot and in the in- 
creases in children per teacher in Baltimore, Caroline, and Calvert 
Counties. (See Chart 23.) 

A study of the figures for monthly attendance shows that 51 
colored schools were entitled to additional teachers. With the 
exception of Allegany, all of the counties that ranked highest in 
the number of pupils per teacher were found to have from 3 to 
8 schools in which an additional teacher could have been em- 
ployed. There were 8 schools where the attendance warranted 
another teacher in both Anne Arundel and Montgomery; five in 
Dorchester; four in Charles; three in Baltimore, Calvert, Prince 
George's, Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester; two in Howard 
and Talbot; and one in Caroline, Frederick, Kent, and Queen 
Anne's. In practically every case, however, it was because of 
lack of classrooms that these schools were understaffed. 
; The average number of pupils belonging per teacher in the 
county colored high schools was 25.0, an increase of 1.9 over the 
corresponding figure in 1929. In Somerset, Worcester, and Dor- 
chester there were from 33 to 35 pupils per teacher, while in 
Carroll, Allegany, Prince George's, and Caroline the pupils per 
teacher ranged from 11 to 19. In ten counties the average high 
school class was materially increased in size from 1929 to 1930. 
In Queen Anne's, Allegany, Dorchester, Cecil, and Somerset the 
increase amounted to as much as 6 to 9 pupils per teacher. The 
only counties where significant decreases occurred were Wico- 
mico, Montgomery, and Prince George's. (See Tables XIV and 
XXXV, pages 344 and 365.) 

SALARIES OF COLORED TEACHERS INCREASE 
TABLE 140 

Average Annual Salary Per County Colored Elementary Teacher, 1917-1930 



Year Ending Average Year Ending Average 

June 30 Salary June 30 Salary 

1917 $228 1924 $532 

1918 279 1925 546 

1919 283 1926 563 

1920 359 1927 586 

1921 442 1928 602 

1922 455 1929 621 

1923 513 1930 635 



Size of Class and Average Sal.\ry in Colored Schools 209 
CHART 24 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN COLORED ELSMENT/JIT SCHOOLS 



County 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Co. Average 


$ 568 


$ 602 $ 621 


Allegany 


1265 


1063 


1197 


Baltimore 


1196 


1184 


1175 


Washington 


806 


792 


787 


Pr* George's 


655 


680 


704 


Cecil 


712 


699 


716 


Harford 


599 


616 


620 


Anne Arundel 


575 


586 


615 


Montgomery 


545 


556 


573 


Carroll 


585 


557 


604 


Kent 


569 


576 


586 


Wicomico 


529 


557 


562 


Howard 


538 


559 


562 


Frederick 


555 


552 


554 


Calvert 


528 


544 


546 


Talbot 


489 


554 


536 


Charles 


475 


518 


528 


Caroline 


490 


484 


524 


Queen Anne' s 


513 


509 


532 


St. Mary's 


468 


474 


516 


Worcester 


462 


486 


516 


Dorchester 


451 


487 


499 


Somerset 


427 


472 


516 


Balto. City 


1470 


1510 


1698 


State 


947 


985 


1007 




For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XV, page 345. 

The salary of the average county colored elementary school 
teacher was $635 during the school year 1929-30. This is $14 
higher than in 1929 and is comparable with the increases shown 
in former years resulting from the employment of a larger pro- 
portion of trained teachers. (See Table 140.) 

The average salaries in the individual counties may be divided 
into two groups. Allegany, Baltimore, and Washington pay sal- 
aries greatly in excess of the State minimum salary schedule 
thus making their average salaries $1,220, $1,181, and $817, re- 



210 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



spectively. In Prince George's and Cecil the school year is longer 
than eight months and since salaries for colored teachers are paid 
on a monthly rather than on an annual basis, the result is a 
higher salary scale for these counties. The counties that follow 
the State salary schedule for an eight-month year do not show 
a greater variation than would be expected from differences in 
training and years of experience of the teachers employed. In 
Somerset, Dorchester, Worcester, and St. Mary's, the average 
salary is less than $535. In every county, except Carroll, Cecil, 
and Kent, the average salary in 1930 was higher than in 1929. 
The high average salary in Baltimore City, $1,707, brought the 
average salary for the State as a whole up to $1,113. (See 
Chart 24.) 

In 1929-30 the average salary for teachers in the county colored 
high schools was $874 with a range from $1,480 in Allegany, 
$1,151 in Washington, and $1,032 in Anne Arundel, to $721 in 
Somerset. There is considerable range in the length of the 
school year in colored high schools as well as higher salary sched- 
ules in a few of the counties. (See Tables XV and XXXV, pages 
345 and 365.) 

TABLE 141 

Distribution of Salaries of Colored Teachers in Service in Maryland, 
October, 1930 



ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



Salary 



No. 



Salary 



Under $520. .. . 46 $1,120 
$ 520 272 1,160 



560. 

600. 

640. 

680. 

720. 

760. 

800. 

840. 

880. 

920 

960. 
1,000. 
1,040 
1,080. 



68 
82 
24 
82 
46 
42 
5 
4 
1 
9 
1 
4 
6 



200 
240 
280 
320 
360 
400 



700 



Total 



Median 



No. 

2 

7 
10 

2 

2 

2 

2 
10 



3 
732 
$560 



HIGH SCHOOLS 



Salary 

Under $600. 



640. 

680. 

720. 

760. 

800. 

840. 

880. 

920. 

960. 
1,000. 
1,040. 
1,080. 
1,120. 
1,160. 
1,200. 



No. 



Salary 



"2 $1,240. 



9 
4 
12 
10 

8 
3 
4 
3 
8 
6 
4 



1,280. 
1,320. 
1,360. 
1,400. 
1,440. 
1,480. 
1,520. 
1,560. 



1,860. 
Total . . 



2 Median 



No. 

1 

2 



1 

82 
$800 



* Includes one part-time teacher. 

The distribution of salaries paid county colored teachers em- 
ployed in October, 1930, gives the median salary of elementary 
teachers as $560, the salary which according to the State schedule 
is paid to colored teachers holding a first grade certificate in the 
4th or 5th year of teaching experience. An inexperienced teacher 
holding a first grade certificate receives $520 for eight months 
of service. While in October, 1929, there were 64 teachers re- 



Salaries of Colored Teachers October, 1930; Cost per Colored Pupil 211 

ceiving under $520, by October, 1930, this number was decreased 
by 18 to 46. The number of colored elementary teachers holding 
less than the first grade certificate is, therefore, being rapidly 
reduced. There were 50 elementary teachers and principals who 
received salaries ranging from $1,000 to $1,700. 

In the high schools the median salary was $800, the range be- 
ing from $600 to $1,860 for teachers and principals. (See Table 
141.) 

CURRENT EXPENSE PER PUPIL 
The average current expense per county colored elementary 
pupil belonging in 1930 was $25. This was 71 cents more than 
the expense per pupil in 1929. Costs in the individual counties 
varied from $18.67 in Charles and just over $19 in Calvert and 
Somerset to $41 in Baltimore. Baltimore, Allegany, Washington, 
Cecil, Carroll, and Harford were the only counties in which the 
per pupil cost exceeded $30. In fifteen of the counties the cost 
per pupil was higher than in 1929 ; in Cecil the cost was increased 
by over $3, in Prince George's by $2.50, and in Worcester by 
$1.60. Baltimore, Carroll, Frederick, Kent, Wicomico, and Cal- 
vert were the only counties where the cost was lower than in 
1929. (See Chart 25 and Table 168, page 259.) 

The eight counties which ranked highest in the 1930 cost per 
pupil were all to be found, with the exception of PYederick, in 
the group of nine counties which had the highest average salary 
per teacher. Frederick ranked 13th in teachers' salaries, but 
the relatively small number of pupils per teacher brought the per 
pupil cost to seventh in the State. This shows, as in former 
years, that the cost per pupil is largely governed by salary of 
the teacher, length of school year, and size of the class. 

The average current expense cost per county colored high 
school pupil was just under $46, over $3 less than in 1929. The 
costs in the individn^^l counties ranged from over $108 in Alle- 
gany to just under $24 in Somerset. The cost per high school 
pupil was more than $60 in Allegany, Carroll, Cecil, Caroline, 
Washington, Prince George's, and Calvert. Reductions of $55, 
$36, and $26 per pupil were found during 1930 in Allegany, Queen 
Anne's, and Carroll Counties, respectively, but all of these coun- 
ties are spending considerably more than the average for the 
counties. In Somerset, however, which was already the lowest 
in the State, a decrease of $5 per pupil brought the expenditure 
per pupil down to less than $24. Lack of room made it impossible 
to nlace in service the number of teachers required by the size 
of the Somerset enrollment. (See Table 168. page 259.) 

Baltimore County had no colored high schools under its own 
administration, but the county paid $11,385 for the tuition costs 
of 88 colored children of Baltimore County who attended the high 
schools in Baltimore City, 33 being in junior high school classes 



212 1930 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 25 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN COLORED ELEMENIARY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GEt^ERAL CONTROL 



County 1928 
Co. Average $ 25 

Baltimore 42 

Allegany 54 

Washington 34 

Cecil 51 

Carroll 36 

Harford 28 

Frederick 26 
Prince George's 26 

Kent 25 

Talbot 22 

Howard 22 

Caroline 22 

Anne Arundel 21 

Wicomico 21 

St. Mary's 19 

Dorchester 19 

Montgomery 19 

Queen Anne's 18 

Worcester 17 

Somerset 17 

Calvert 17 

Charles 18 
Baltimore City 61 

State 39 



1929 1930 
$ 24 




For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table 168, page 259. 



and 55 in senior high school classes. This is more than was spent 
for colored high school current expense in any other county of 
the State. The charge was $150 per senior high school pupil 
and $95 for each pupil attending junior high school. 



Cost per Colored Pupil; Transportation; Libraries 213 



MORE COLORED PUPILS TRANSPORTED TO SCHOOL 
During the school year 1929-30, 310 elementary and 174 high 
school pupils were transported at public expense to the colored 
schools in 11 counties of the State. Expenditures for transport- 
ing elementary pupils totalled $6,407.70 and high school pupils 
$2,267.59. The amounts include $1,000 and $875 received by 
Calvert and Caroline Counties from the Rosenwald Fund for the 
stimulation of transportation of colored pupils but exclude the 
cost to the State of carrying 65 elementary pupils from Anne 
Arundel and Prince George's Counties to the Bowie Normal 
Demonstration School. The cost to the county of transporting 
each colored elementary pupil was $26, exactly the same as in 
1929; the cost per high school pupil was $13, a decrease of $1 
under the preceding year. The increase over 1929 in the num;ber 
of pupils transported was 214 and in expenditure $2,768. 

ROSENWALD AID HELPS PROVIDE LIBRARIES FOR 
COLORED SCHOOLS 

TABLE 142 

Names of Schools Receiving Libraries through Aid from the Rosenwald Fund 



Name of School and Year of Receipt of Library 



County 


1927-28 


1928-29 


Anne Arundel 




Brown's Woods 


Calvert 




Prince Frederick 


Caroline 


Federalsburg 




Carroll 




Westminster 


Cecil 




Elkton 


Charles 


Pomonkey 




Frederick 


Frederick 




Harford 


Bel Air 




Kent 


Coleman 




Montgomery 


Sandy Spring 


Rockville 


Prince George's 


Marlboro 


Brentwood 




Berwyn 






Highland Park 


St. Mary's 




Abell 


Somerset 




Princess Anne 


Talbot 


Easton 






St. Michael's 




Wicomico 


Sharptown 


Nanticoke 



1929-30 



Chestertown 
Takoma Park 



Hollywood 
Crisfield 



Salisbury 



In order to further the estabUshment of Hbraries in the colored 
schools, those in charge of the Julius Rosenwald Fund arranged 
during the school year, 1927-28, to provide well chosen libraries 
of 75, 105, or 155 volumes, the expense ($75-$120) to be shared 
equally by the Rosenwald Fund, the county, and the school. In 
1927-28 ten schools in nine counties took advantage of this offer. 
In the following year, twelve more schools received Rosenwald 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



Total 


M 


mmmmm.mmmm 


: 












1 




il ; : i 






i 


1 
i 


1 


i "ii i, 
i 








gi 


i 


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5,320 
44,887 
41,457 
29 


ii is 


^: 


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1 


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:6rr 


X 
05 

i 


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$85,532 

22 
7,138 
22,457 
7, 112 
'982 
125 
4,034 
1 ,8()1 
2 
51 
9,988 


4,489 
13.952 
2,093 
1,39(> 

4,018 




g 


i 


1 








i" 


i 
1 


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300 

3^487 
20 
383 
379 
210 
0,251 
2,738 
4,818 


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2 2?3 




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^ : :s 


P. 


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COUNTY 


Total Counties 
AlI(>L'!inv 


Anne Arundel. . 




li: 


=ii{J= 


Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 


11 


Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 

Total State 



Capital Outlay; Rosen wald Aid; Value of School Property 215 

libraries, and in 1930 the service was extended to four additional 
county schools. Altogether 25 schools have received libraries, 
and the number of volumes secured in this fashion total 4,476 
for the three years. (See Table 142.) 

CAPITAL OUTLAY AND ROSENWALD AID FOR BUILDINGS IN 1930 
Capital outlay in the county colored schools in 1929-30 totalled 
$72,240, $13,957 more than in 1929, but less than in any other 
year since 1924. Expenditures of about $30,000 were made in 
Worcester and Baltimore Counties; $3,900 was spent in Wash- 
ington, and amounts of about $2,000 were spent in Queen Anne's, 
Charles, and Calveii: for buildings or land. Since 1920, the 
capital outlay for county colored schools has been $880,881. Bal- 
timore and Prince George's spent $197,228 and $140,108, re- 
spectively, and were the only counties with outlays exceeding 
$80,000 during this 11-year period. At the other extreme were 
Caroline, Carroll, Dorchester, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Cecil, 
etnd Kent with total expenditures ranging from $3,195 to $8,993. 
(See Table 143.) 

The third form of aid that the counties received from the 
Julius Rosenwald Fund was to defray in part the construction 
cost of buildings for colored school children. Eight counties 
shared in this fund in 1930 and their total receipts came to 
$7,500. Baltimore received the largest amount, $3,100, and 
Prince George's and Somerset came next with $1,200 each. These 
reimbursements aided in the construction of 29 classrooms. Since 
the fund has been available, the Maryland counties have received 
$92,200 for buildings. This amount has been instrumental in 
stimulating the construction of 315 classrooms or 39 per cent of 
those in use for the county colored schools. (See Table 144.) 

VALUE OF PROPERTY USED BY COLORED PUPILS INCREASES 
When the value of school property is divided by the average 
number of colored pupils belonging, the value per county pupil 
is $47, an increase of $1 over the preceding year. (See Chart 
26.) 

There is great variation among the counties, Allegany having 
a value per pupil of $165, Washington and Baltimore Counties 
of $117 and $114, respectively, and the lowest counties, St. 
Mary's and Somerset, having values per pupil of $19 and $18, 
respectively. In only seven counties was the value per pupil over 
$50, Montgomery, Wicomico, Prince George's, and Frederick be- 
ing added to the three counties mentioned before. 

In Somerset, St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, Kent, Caroline, and 
Worcester the value of school property per pupil belonging was 
less than $25. 

Nine counties had a higher valuation than in 1929, and in 
Worcester the increase was as much as $18 per pupil. In no 
other county did the increase exceed $4. Decreases of $1 to $7 
occurred in seven counties. 



216 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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RosENWALD Aid; Value of School Property per Colored Pupil 217 

CHART 26 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY PER COLORED PUPIL BELONGING 



Coiinty 1928 
Co. Average $ 42 



171 
112 
107 
66 
45 



Allegany 
Washington 
Baltimore 
Montgomery 
Wicomico 
Pr. George's 45 
Frederick 65 
Harford 
Carroll 
Talbot 
Cecil 



Anne Arundel 39 



Charles 

Howard 

Dorchester 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Calvert 

Kent 



32 
26 
16 
26 
24 
24 
24 



Queen Anne's 16 



St. Mary's 
Somerset 



Balto. City 189 
Total State 105 



1930 




The value of the school property in Baltimore City was $197 
per colored pupil belonging. This made the average for the en- 
tire State $114. (See Chart 26.) 

The average school building used by county colored school 
pupils was valued at $2,579 in 1930. This is $109 higher than in 
1929 and $752 more than five years earlier. The value of the 
building would, of course, vary with its size so that counties 
having many one-room schools would have a low value per build- 
ing and counties having large schools would have a higher value 
per building. (See Chart 27.) 



218 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 27 





AVERAGE VALUE PER SCHOOL BUILDING USED BT COLORED PUPILS 




IN 


THE MARYLAND 


COUNTIES, 1925, 1927, 1929, AND 1930 


County 


1925 


1927 


1929 


1930 


Av. $1,827 $2,099 $2,470 $2,579 H 


All. 24,000 


26,0-00 


26,000 




V.ash. 


6,867 


6,867 


8,140 


8,140 ^^^HB 


Bait. 


3,969 


4,813 


6,860 


7,133 ■■■■ 


Wico. 


3,063 


3,345 


3,479 


4,979 IBHI 


Uont. 


1,394 


2,031 


3,672 


3,588 


P. G. 


1,971 


2,395 


3,524 


3,524 


A. A. 


2,712 


2,979 


2,651 


2,721^1 


Fred. 


2,416 


2,512 


2,775 


2,708 m 


Talbot 


1,943 


2,280 


2,248 


2, 314 IB 


Harford 


1,640 


1,959 


1,959 


1,959^1 


Charles 


1,307 


1,686 


1,821 


1,908 ■ 


Wore. 


1,790 


1,790 


1,790 


1,790 B 


Carr. 


1,544 


1,764 


1,657 


1,657 ■ 


Howard 


900 


1,520 


1,590 


1,590 ■ 


Cecil 


2,200 


2,408 


1,500 


1,500 1 


Caro. 


1,042 


1,179 


1,205 


1,265| 


Calvert 


733 


987 


1,210 


1,210 B 


Somer. 


1,031 


1,044 


1,183 


l,196l 


Kent 


948 


974 


1,045 


1,045| 


Dor. 


609 


612 


1,000 


i,oooB 


Q. A. 


695 


721 


721 


912 1 


St. M. 


613 


762 


730 


721 1 



The per building valuation in the individual counties varied 
from $721 in St. Mary's and $912 in Queen Anne's where the 
colored population is scattered and there are many one-teacher 
schools to S26,000 in Allegany where only two schools are re- 
quired to meet the needs of the colored pupils Hving in Cumber- 
land and Frostburg. In five counties, Washington, Baltimore, 
Wicomico, iMontgomery, and Prince George's, the value of the 
average building ranged between S3,500 and $8,100. In 13 coun- 
ties, however, the average value was less than $2,000. (See 
Chart 27.) 



Value per Building and Size of Schools Used by Colored Pupils 219 



SIZE OF COLORED SCHOOLS 

Of the 510 colored elementary schools in the Maryland counties 
in 1930, 360 had one teacher, 112 had two teachers, and 22 had 
three teachers. The largest colored elementary school of 31 
teachers was in Annapolis. The only other colored school with 
a teacher to a grade was in Salisbury. 

The number of colored elementary schools in each county varied 
from 2 and 6 in Allegany and Washington, respectively, to 40 or 
more in Prince George's, Dorchester, and Anne Arundel. (See 
Table 145.) 

TABLE 145 

Number of Colored Elementary and High Schools Having Following 
Number of Teachers, School Year, 1929-1930 



COUNTY 



Total 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . 
Baltimore ... 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester . . . 
Frederick .... 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. 
Prince George's . . 
Queen Anne's . 
St. Mary's . . . 
Somerset .... 

Talbot 

Washington . . 
Wicomico. . . . 
Worcester . . . 



COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
HAVING FOLLOWING NUMBER 
OF TEACHERS 



360 
1 

23 
19 
17 
14 
10 
9 
27 
36 
15 
14 
11 
19 
26 
21 
15 
20 
16 
1 

5 
9 
17 



112 



22 



510 
2 

40 
30 
21 
18 
11 
12 
33 
41 
22 
18 
14 
23 
34 
44 
18 
28 
29 
22 
6 
19 
25 



COLORED HIGH 
SCHOOLS HAVING 
FOLLOWING NUMBER 
OF TEACHERS 



25 



One-Teacher Schools Decrease 

The counties employed 733 colored elementary teachers during" 
the school year 1929-30, and 363 of these taught in schools hav- 
ing only one teacher. The latter figure is a reduction of 9 under 
the corresponding figure for 1929, and for the first time, the 
teachers in one-teacher schools comprised less than half of the 
teaching staff. For 1930 the percentage was 49.5. From 1920 to 
1930 the reduction in one-teacher schools totalled 59. (See 
Table 146.) 



220 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 146 

Decrease in Colored One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1930 



School Year Ending June 30 


Colored Elementary Teachers 


Total 


In One-Teacher Schools 

1 

Number j Per Cent 


1920 


683 


422 


61.8 


1921 


694 


408 


58.8 


1922 


708 


406 


57.3 


1923 


712 


403 


56.6 


1924 


728 


395 


54.4 


1925 


721 


397 


55.1 


1926 


728 


394 


54.1 


1927 


72.5 


382 


52.7 


1928 


734 


378 


51.5 


1929 


734 


372 


50.7 


1930 


733 


363 


49.5 



In Allegany, Wicomico, Prince George's, and Somerset, less 
than a third of the colored elementary teachers were in one- 
teacher schools, but in Carroll, Dorchester, Queen Anne's, Kent, 
and Charles more than two-thirds of the colored elementary 
teachers were in one-teacher schools. Nine counties had fewer 
teachers in one-teacher schools than in 1929. In Prince George's, 
Somerset, Anne Arundel, and Caroline, the decrease of teachers 
in one-teacher schools amounted to two teachers, but in each of 
the other counties a reduction of only one teacher was made. 
Baltimore, Worcester, Montgomery, and Queen Anne's each had 
one more teacher in the one-teacher schools than in the preceding 
year. (See Table 147.) 

TABLE 147 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers in Colored One-Teacher Elementary Schools in 
Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31, 1930 

Teachers in One- Teachers in One- 

Teacher Schools Teacher Schools 

County Number Per Cent County Number Per Cent 

Total and Average 363 49 . 5 Harford 14 55 . 6 

Caroline 14 56.5 

Allegany 1 14.5 St. Mary's 20 56.8 

Wicomico 9 23.1 Cecil 9 60.0 

Prince George's 21 29 .4 Howard 11 61.1 

Somerset 16 32.7 Montgomery 28 65.1 

Anne Arundel 23 34.3 Calvert 17 65.4 

Baltimore 21 41.2 Charles 27 67.5 

Worcester 17 44.2 Kent 19 67.9 

Washington 5 45 .5 Queen Anne's 15 71.4 

Talbot 16 48.5 Dorchester 35 74.5 

Frederick 15 48.7 Carroll 10 83.3 



Decrease in One Teacher Schools; Size of Colored High Schools 221 



SIZE OF COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 
There were 25 colored high schools in the counties of the 
State. Seven of these had less than 2 teachers, offered less than 
four years of high school work, and were classified as second 
group schools. Four high schools had 2 teachers, nine had 
3 teachers, three had 4 teachers, one at Salisbury had 5 
teachers, and one at Annapolis had 7 teachers. The number of 
teachers employed in a high school depends in general on the 
number of pupils enrolled. Four schools had between 16 and 
25 pupils and employed one teacher. Two of the three schools 
having pupils falling in the classification from 26 to 40 pupils 
had one teacher and the third employed a second. The five 
schools with 76 to 100 pupils belonging had teaching staffs vary- 
ing from two to four. In two county high schools, Salisbury 
and Annapohs, as many as 150-175 pupils belonged on the average 
and 5 and 7 teachers, respectivelv, were employed. (See Table 
148.) 

TABLE 148 



Relation of Teaching StaflF in Colored High Schools and Size of 
Enrollment for Year Ending July 31, 1930 



Average Number 
Belonging 


Number of Teachers 


Total 
Number 

High 
Schools 


tl 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


1-15 


















1&-25 


*4 
*2 
*1 














4 
3 
3 
6 
5 
2 


26-40 


1 

2 












41-50 












51-75 : . . . 


5 
3 
1 


1 
1 
1 








76-100 




1 








101-125 










126-150 












151-175 










1 
1 




1 
1 


2 
25 


Total 


*7 


4 


9 


3 









t Mid-point of interval. * Second group schools. 

PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE COLORED SCHOOLS 
In 1930, under the auspices of the Playground Athletic League, 
4,641 colored boys and 5,573 colored girls from the Maryland 
counties took the preliminary badge tests. Of these 29 per cent 
of the boys and 33 per cent of the girls successfully met the re- 
quirements of the test and won the bronze, silver, gold, or super- 
gold badges for which they were competing. The number enter- 
ing the preliminary badge tests and the per cent winning the 
badges was higher than in the preceding year when 4,608 boys 
and 5,371 girls entered the tests and 20 per cent of the boys and 



222 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



34 per cent of the girls won their badges.. More boys entered 
and won the badge tests in 1930 than in 1929 in Caroline, Car- 
roll. Cecil, Dorchester, Frederick, Howard, Kent, Montgomery, 
Talbot, and Worcester Counties. Increased numbers of girls both 
entering and winning the badge tests were found in Anne Arun- 
del, Calvert, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Dorchester, Kent, Montgom- 
ery, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, and Wicomico. (See Table 
149 and Table XIX, page 349.) 

TABLE 149 



Number of Colored Boys and Girls Passing Preliminary 
and Final Badge Tests in 1929 and 1930 



COUNTY 


BOYS 


GIRLS 


1930 


1929 


1930 


1929 




Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 


Total 


4,641 


1,328 


4,608 


922 


5,573 


1,845 


5,371 


1,830 


Anne Arundel 


301 


118 


379 


72 


540 


233 


491 


217 


Baltimore 


271 


92 


288 


125 


321 


125 


339 


157 


Calvert 


131 


54 


173 


27 


201 


92 


200 


81 


Caroline 


233 


69 


209 


50 


233 


111 


217 


62 


Carroll 


111 


32 


104 


17 


98 


36 


98 


12 


Cecil 


77 


24 


60 


10 


92 


24 


83 


21 


Charles 


320 


57 


322 


65 


395 


45 


364 


132 


Dorchester 


251 


90 
88 


167 




319 


156 


236 




Frederick 


285 


277 


65 


302 


101 


323 


122 


Harford 


199 


44 


205 


28 


183 


22 


213 


61 




141 


43 


134 


29 


131 


40 


166 


50 


Kent 


162 


37 


127 


10 


185 


63 


182 


57 




460 


108 


454 


90 


489 


127 


418 


94 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


498 


76 


502 


49 


538 


174 


537 


144 


168 


47 


158 


50 


190 


65 


178 


49 


St Mary's 


199 


76 


206 


64 


282 


109 


256 


118 


Somerset 


165 


45 


190 


43 


193 


55 


232 


124 


Talbot 


198 


52 


145 


46 


227 


36 


184 


101 


Wicomico 


287 


109 


325 


31 


434 


153 


428 


116 


Worcester 


184 


67 


183 


51 


220 


78 


226 


112 













Athletic meets for the colored school pupils were held in 20 
counties in 1930. From 494 county schools there were 5,402 
entrants in track and field events. Every school in nine counties 
had representatives in these meets, and in only one county, Bal- 
timore, did less than three-fourths of the schools send teams. 
(See Table 150.) In 20 counties of the State, dodge ball teams 
wre organized and in 11 counties, 16 volley ball teams were 
fonned. Altogether there were 6,809 colored pupils playing^ 
dodge or volley ball. (See Table XX, page 350.) 

In addition to the track and field events for boys, there were 
run-and-catch and flag relays for girls. In the latter 3,388 girls 
from 20 counties participated. Allegany and Washington, where 
the colored population is very small, were the only counties which 
did not participate in the state-wide athletic program for colored 
pupils. 



The Physical Education Program and Colored P. T. A.'s 223 



TABLE 150 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Schools Which Had Entrants in County 
Meets During Year 1930 and 1929 



County 



Total and Average. 



SCHOOLS ENTERED 
Number Per Cent 
1930 1929 1930 1929 



494 438 



Harford 18 18 

Queen Anne's 19 19 

Caroline 19 20 

Howard 14 14 

Carroll 12 11 

Wicomico 21 18 

Kent 24 21 

Anne Arundel 41 36 

Cecil 13 10 



92.3 80. 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100 



100.0 
100.0 
95.2 
93.3 
91.7 
85.7 
84.0 
83.7 



SCHOOLS ENTERED 
Number Per Cent 



1930 1929 

Charles 33 30 

St. Marv's 27 15 

Talbot 23 16 

Calvert 21 18 

Prince George's. . 44 46 

Worcester 26 17 

Montgomerv 32 30 

Frederick 21 22 

Somerset 28 28 

Dorchester 36 26 

Baltimore 22 23 



1930 1929 



97.0 
96.4 
95.8 
95.4 
93.6 
92.8 
91.4 
91.2 
90.3 
85.7 
73.3 



85.7 
53.6 
66.7 
85.7 
97.9 
60.7 
85.7 
".>5.7 
87.5 
61.9 
76.7 



PARENT TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 
CHART 28 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COmUY COLORED SCHOOLS 



County 

Total and 
Co. Average 

Baltimore 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's 

Charles 

Pr, George's 

St. Mary's 

Anne Arundel 

Talbot 

Howard 

Kent 

Harford 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Montgomery 

Dorchester 

Wicomico 

Allegany 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Cecil 

Calvert 

Washington 



Number 
1929 1930 



Per Cent 
1929 1930 




224 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



During 1930 there were co-operative organizations of parents 
and teachers in 364 of the 513 county colored schools. This is 
71 per cent of all colored schools, and an increase of 4.5 over the 
per cent of schools having Parent-Teacher Associations in 1929. 
In three .counties, Baltimore, Caroline, and Queen Anne's, every 
colored school reported an active P. T. A. for 1930, and in Charles, 
Prince George's, and St. Mary's, more than 90 per cent of the 
schools had these organizations. At the other extreme were 
Washington, Calvert, Cecil, Frederick, and Carroll where P. T. 
A.'s were found in less than 50 per cent of the schools. With 
the exception of Harford, Montgomery, Wicomico, Frederick, 
Calvert, and Washington, the proportion of schools with P. T. A.'s 
was higher in 1930 than in 1929. In St. Mary's the increase' from 
25.0 to 92.9 was especially notable. The association in St. Mary's 
County purchased a bus for transportation of colored pupils from 
Leonardtown and Compton to Loveville. They also paid some- 
thing toward the operation of this bus. (See Chart 28.) 

SUPERVISION OF COLORED SCHOOLS 

The general responsibility for the county colored schools was 
carried by the State Supervisor of Colored Schools, who spent 
most of his time in field work with the county supervisors of 
colored schools and with the high school principals and teachers. 
His visits to interview prospective graduates of the nearby 
schools at Hampton, Cheyney, Washington, D. C, and his close 
contacts with Bowie and Morgan College made his assistance to 
the county superintendents invaluable in recommending desirable 
candidates to fill their vacant positions. Much of his time at the 
office was spent in interviewing candidates for positions. The 
major portion of the salary and travelling expense for the State 
Supervisor of Colored Schools was paid by the General Education 
Board. 

Each of sixteen counties, which employed a colored supervisor 
to supervise the colored elementary schools received $750 tow^ard 
the payment of the salary of the supervisor. Five of these super- 
visors are women and the remainder men. In one-half of these 
counties the colored supervisor spent some time in instruction 
in the high school. The supervision of colored schools was a part 
of the duties of the attendance officer in Cecil, Howard, and 
Somerset Counties. In Baltimore County the assistant superin- 
tendent had responsibility for the welfare of the colored schools, 
and in Allegany and Washington, which had the smallest number 
of colored schools, supervision was given by the county superin- 
tendent and the supervisors of the white elementary schools. 

In addition to visits and conferences with each supervisor in 
his own county, the State Supervisor each year holds one or 
more meetings for the supervisors for the purpose of setting up 
objectives and plans for carrying them out. At the programs 



p. T. A.'s; Supervision of Colored Schools 



225 



of meetings held during 1929-30, the following problems were 
dealt with : 

CONFERENCE OF MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERVISORS OF COLORED SCHOOLS 
BEFORE THE OPENING OF SCHOOLS, DOUGLASS HIGH SCHOOL. 
BALTIMORE, AUG. 29-30, 1929 

Theme: Some supervisory procedures as an aid toward the 
attainment of the following objectives for 1929-30 suggested by 
the supervisors : 

I. Further improvement in the teaching of reading, anthmetic, 

English, history, geography. 
II. Promotion of health education. 

III. A well defined attempt to improve the material phases of 
the schools. 

IV. An effort to effect further reduction of overageness. 

I. Further improvement in the teaching of reading, etc. 

1. What should be the supervisor's procedure to decide 
with his teachers what attainments he hopes to accom- 
plish in these subjects? — Miss Bernice Jones. 

2. How may the supervisor use the opportunities and ma- 
terials available to assist his teachers to set up definite 
values realizable from these subjects? — D. S. Jenkins. 

3. Can the supervisor have modern methodology employed 
in the teaching of these subjects? How? — Phineas E. 
Gordy. 

4. Give a supervisory procedure for helping te'^^hers to 
effect the unit organization in these several subjects. — 
Lionel Burgess. 

5. What use can the supervisor make of objective devices 
to stimulate rivalry among his schools in the teaching of 
these subjects? — Edward U. Taylor. 

6. Make statements relative to the following: 

(a; The supervisor's opportunities for discovering and standards for 
judgringr good or poor work in these subjects. 

(b) The supervisor's procedure for remedial teaching. 

(c) The supervisor's procedure for having changes in teaching con- 
form to the laws of habit formation. — Doswell Brooks. 

II. Promotion of health education. 

1. What are the opportunities to fix with the teachers and the 
communities (a) values to be gained (b) attainments to be 
accomplished in health education? Offer a supervisory plan of 
approach to teach the subject — Herbert S. Wilson 

2. Submit a supervisory procedure for utilizing the various ma- 
terials and organizations in the promotion of health education. 
— Miss Mae Prince. 

3. What scheme can a supervisor employ for the following: 

(a) Checking the work in health education. 

(b) Remedial teaching. 

(c) Have the teaching to conform to the laws of habit formation. — Mrs. 
Lulu D. Ward. 

III. Improvement of material phases of the school. 

1. How can the supervisor use the agencies, organizations, and 
materials at his disposal to improve his schools in a material 
way? 

Describe some objective device to stimulate rivalry among the 
schools for this type of improvement — John W. Biiiner. 

2. As supervisor, visit mentally all schools in your county. List 



226 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



improvements which may be made during one year. Present 
a supervisory procedure to effect these improvements. — Edward 
J. Henry. 

3. What may be the supervisor's procedure for: 

. (a) Checking- progress or lack of it in this activity? 

(b) Remedial teaching to effect improvements? — C. W. Corbin. 

IV. Reduction of over-ageness. 

1. What steps may the supervisor take to: 

fa) Stimulate the teacher's interest in this activity? 

(b) Beget a feeling of self-responsibility on part of the teachers for the 
over-age condition? — Dennis W. Noble. 

2. What organization in the classroom may the supervisor make 
and maintain as an aid in reduction of over-ageness? — 
Thomas S. Kemp. 

3. Outline the teaching which the supervisor must do in order to 
produce results in this objective. — Mrs, L, T. K. Daniels. 

4. Describe a supervisor's schemes for checking and for remedial 
teaching in this activity. — William Q. Bland. 

V. State Report— Read carefully pages 162-201. 

1. List items for your county which are encouraging and those 
which are discouraging from a supervisory {not an admin- 
istrative) point of view. 

2. Every supervisor will please offer suggestions for improvement 
of the conditions which he lists as discouraging. 

VI. Administrative items. 

1. Declamation contest. 

2. Athletics. 

3. Boarding places. 

4. Grade of teachers. 

5. Standard schools. 

6. Turning the P. T. A. to educative account. 

7. Definite study by teachers. 

8. Checking on music in the schools. 

References : Best we can use for this conference are both the subject 
matter and the supervisory bulletins of the State Department of Education. 

PROGRAM FOR MID-YEAR CONFERENCE FOR SUPERVISORS OF THE EASTERN 
SHORE AND SUPERVISORS OF THE WESTERN SHORE 

First Day — The supervisors, arranged in three groups, will visit schools of 
the county. 

Evening of First Dan — A session for the consideration of the following 
administrative matters : 

1. Declamation Contest. 

(a) Report of treasurers. 

(b) Preparation. 

2. Field Day — Preparation. 

3. What may be done to direct teachers in taking work suitable 
to their needs at summer school? 

4. Report any progress in improving the material surroundings 
of the schools. 

5. What has been done to provide better boarding conditions for 
teachers? Enumerate the unsatisfactory living places. 

6. Name the things done by the trustees to show that they are 
functioning as school officials. 

7. What is being done to reduce overageness? 

8. Are you checking on subject matter covered? How? 

9. Are we providing a definite guide for the placement of pupils 
in the several grades in the fall? What? 

10. What health habits are being formed in the schools? 



Conferences of Supervisors of Colored Schools 



227 



Second Day — Discussion of observations made while visiting 
schools. 

I. Give a general description of each classroom exercise 
observed. 

II. In evaluating- the lessons observed, use the following 
questions : 

1. Were aims definite, valid? (State them.) 

2. Were suitable materials used? (Enumerate them and state 
the part each bit played in the procedure.) 

3. Did the general methodology including (a) type of lesson (b) 
approach (c) character of questions (d) checking results, 
represent a procedure by which the materials could be used to 
good advantage and the aim as set up accomplished ? ( Give 
evidence.) 

4. Was the assignment definite? Well motivated? Explain it. 

5. Had worthwhile seat work been planned? Describe it. 

6. What laws of learning did you observe as being in operation? 

7. Did the children discover any relationship between the present 
activity and their past experiences? (Give evidence.) 

8. What good habits were being formed? Bad habits broken? 
(Give evidence.) 

9. Was there any provision made for individual differences among 
the pupils? (Give evidence.) 

10. Did the children really learn? (Support the answer with evi- 
dence.) 

III. If the evaluation of classroom work resulting from use of 
questions under II be low, or, in general, there be deficien- 
cies in techniques either in recitation procedures or in 
management, i. e., if the teachers according to your ob- 
servation need help, present in detail your plan for furnish- 
ing the needed help. 

Query: Is not providing help for the teacher the crux of the 
supervisor's obligation? 

The following program was used at the winter regional con- 
ferences of high school teachers and principals, held at Annapolis 
and Easton in December, 1929 : 

CONFERENCE OF TEACHERS IN THE MARYLAND COUNTY 
COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

/. Administrative Matters 

1. It has been stated that some pupils entering the high school are unpre- 
pared. What has been done to care for such pupils? 

2. Outline a plan for vocational guidance among high school students. 

3. How may the State-wide debate be made an educative event? 

4. Mortality of the first year class is high. What is being done to prevent 
fatalities of this group? 

5. Perhaps few secondary students know how to study. In what way 
are the schools overcoming this handicap? 

6. Justify every extra classroom activity in our schools. 



228 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

//. Classroom Activities 
English 

1. Present worthy objectives to be attained by (a) composition (b) liter- 
ature. 

2. Describe a recitation period in (a) composition (b) literature. 

3. What methodology is being employed to teach the mechanics of English? 

4. Many high school students do not spell well. How is this evident need 
being met? 

5. Present a test or examination in (a) The Merchant of Venice (b) Up 
from Slavery. Justify the type of test presented. 

Social Studies 

1. Offer procedures to attain some worthwhile aims for the teaching of 
community civics. 

2. How may the course in problems of democracy be effectively attacked? 

3. Select a period of American history. Show how it may be treated 
topically. 

4. Present from European history a group of materials organized in the 
form of a problem. 

5. What items should be included in a history test or examination? Justify 
the selection. 

General Science and Biology 

1. Justify a place in the program of studies for (a) general science 
(b) biology. 

2. Give your method for handling general science when considered (a) as 
an end in itself (b) as a "science'' course. Show that both aims may be 
valid, and that two types of method may stimulate students to learn. 

3. Upon what basis have you planned a year's course in biology? 

4. In general, what method should be followed with biology? 

5. State in detail just how you make laboratory work educative. 

6. What use may be made by the students of note books in (a) general 
science (b) biology? 

7. How should study be directed in (a) general science (b) biology? 

8. What would be your procedure to make a project educative in (a) 
general science (b) biology? 

9. Describe a test as a teaching exercise in (a) general science (b) biology. 

Algebra and Geometry 

1. Give good reasons for teaching all the sections and cases of algebra 
which you include in the course. 

2. Enumerate algebraic shortages you have noted in student responses. 
How did you correct the deficiencies? 

3. Present a plan for teaching (a) an inductive development lesson in 
algebra (b) a deductive development lesson in geometry. 

4. Show how you would direct study in (a) some phase of algebra (b) 
theorem proof of geometry. 

5. Give a scheme for a drill lesson in algebra. 

6. Present a test as a teaching exercise in (a) algebra (b) geometry. 

How may an extra classroom activity, such as a science club or a 
mathematics club, be made an educative factor? 

references 

Standards for Maryland County High Schools. 
Teaching English in High Schools — Sharp. 

The Teaching of History in Junior and Senior High Schools — Tryon. 
Maryland School Bulletin— The Teaching of the Social Studies. 
The Teaching of Science and the Science Teacher — Brownwell and Wade. 
How to Teach General Science — Frank. 

The Teaching of Junior High School Mathematics — Smith and Reeve. 
Ways to Better Teaching in the Secondary Schools — Fontaine. 



Conference of Colored High School Teachers; Bowie Normal 229 

BOWIE NORMAL SCHOOL 
Enrollment and Graduates 
During the school year 1929-30, there were 119 students en- 
rolled at the Bowie Normal School, 9 fewer than in 1929, but 
more than were classified as normal school students in any other 
preceding year. The enrollment in the fall of 1930 „was still 
lower, 101, but if the increase in the junior class is maintained 
next year, the total normal school enrollment should soon exhibit 
an increase. The decreases in the normal school enrollment have 
resulted in part from the closing in 1929 of the high school de- 
partment at the Bowie Normal School. In former years, a larger 
proportion of the normal school enrollment was recruited from 
the graduates of the high school department at Bowie. As high 
school facilities have been provided in most of the counties in 
fairly close proximity to the homes of students, it has become 
unnecessary to furnish high school education and living accom- 
modations at Bowie at State expense. After a few years the 
effect of this transition should be negligible. (See Table 151.) 

TABLE 151 
Enrollment at Bowie Normal School 



Summer 

Year Total Juniors Seniors Graduates School 

1924* 11 11 .. .. 67 

1925* 26 16 10 10 103 

1926* 36 24 12 12 80 

1927* 80 58 22 22 81 

1928* 109 55 54 50 53 

1929 128 76 52 46 36 

1930 119 46 73 56 

Fall of 1930 101 55 46 



* Excludes high school enrollment. 

The 1930 graduating class from the normal school department 
was the largest in the record of the school. By June, 1930, there 
were 56 students who had successfully completed the two-year 
course, and 9 others were eligible to graduate upon completing 
the work the following December. Of the 56 graduates of June, 
all, but the one who was ill, received appointments in Maryland 
county schools in the fall of 1930. Thirty-nine of the graduates 
returned to teaching positions in their home counties, while 16 
were employed in Maryland counties other than their home coun- 
ties. (See Table 152.) 

During 1929-30 there was no great emphasis or drive for the 
enrollment of high school seniors at the normal school. Contacts 
with the seniors in the county high schools were, however, main- 
tained through agencies such as the musical and athletic organi- 



230 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 152 

Home and Teaching County of Bowie Graduates of 1930 

Home Teaching Home Teaching 

County County County County County County 

No. No. 

Kent 3 3 

Total 56 56 Montgomery /I 

Prince George's .... ehil 4 

Anne Arundel 7 a8 Queen Anne's fg'd k\ 

Somerset jkll 4 



No. 


No. 


56 


56 


7 


a8 


6c3 


el 


al 




4 


4 




6rf5 






5 


5 


4 


4 




cl 



Calvert al jl St. Mary's 1 1 

Caroline 4 4 Talbot 1 ghmb 

Carroll 6rf5 Washington 1 1 

Cecil (i3 . . Wicomico w4 3 

Charles 5 5 Worcester 2 /3 

Dorchester 4 4 Not Teaching il 

Harford 

a One from Calvert teaching in Anne Arundel. h One from Prince George's teaching in Talbot. 

h Two from Baltimore teaching in Carroll. i One from Prince George's not teaching, 

c One from Baltimore teaching in Harford. j One from Somerset teaching in Calvert. 

d Three from Cecil teaching in Carroll. k One from Somerset teaching in Queen Anne's. 

e One from Prince George's teaching in Baltimore. / One from Somerset teaching in Worcester. 
/ One from Queen Anne's teaching in Montgomery, m One from Wicomico teaching in Talbot. 
g Two from Queen Anne's teaching in Talbot. 

zations at the Bowie Normal School. The time of the principal 
and faculty members, which had previously been given to cam- 
paigning for students, was used instead to conduct a survey of 
the performance of the Bowie graduates who were teaching in 
the counties. Reports of the findings were submitted to the 
normal school faculty, to the superintendents and supervisors, 
and to the individual teachers. 

The Faculty and Practice Centers 
The faculty of the normal school consisted of the principal, 9 
instructors, a nurse, a registrar-secretary, 3 clerks, and 2 teach- 
ers in the campus demonstration school. Including the two- 
teacher campus school, there were 8 practice-teaching centers, 
three one-teacher schools, and five two-teacher schools, which 
meant that there were 13 co-operative critic teachers. All of 
these, except three teachers in a two-teacher and in a one-teacher 
school in Anne Arundel County, were in Prince George's Cbunty. 
This excludes the 8 members of the nornial school faculty who 
participated in supervising the practice teaching of the Bowie 
students. Each student was required to do 160 hours of practice 
work. About two-thirds of this was in rural school teaching. 
The remainder was divided between graded school work and the 
teaching of beginners. 

Discontinuance of Summer Session at Bowie 
The summer session of the Bowie Normal School, which in 
former years had been conducted for the benefit of county teach- 
ers who held less than a first grade certificate, was discontinued 
in the summer 1930. The number of colored elementary teachers 
with certificates of low grade has been reduced so materially that 
the summer session was no longer justified. 



Bowie Normal School 



231 



Medical Examination and Treatment of Students 
The health program which had been started in preceding years 
was furthered through co-operation of the school physicians, 
nurses, and dentist. All students were given physical examina- 
tions. Dental treatment for extreme cases was provided at the 
school. The county health doctor assisted by the county nurse 
inoculated 73 students against diphtheria, and 58 students re- 
ceived the typhoid serum, with the result that every member of 
the campus faculty was properly immunized against these 
diseases. 

State's Annual Expenditure Per Student at Bowie Normal Nearly $400 
Current expenses in the Bowie Normal School in 1930 amounted 
to $57,004, of which $29,800 was used for costs of instruction, 
and $27,204 for doiTnitory expenses. The total instruction cost 
was $276 per student. Since the average payment toward in- 
struction costs by each student was only $3.00, the instruction 
cost to the State per student was $273. All but 3 of the average 
enrollment of 108 students lived in the dormitories, with a total 
expense per student for board, room and laundry of $259. The 
average fee of $138 per student reduced the cost to the State for 
dormitory expenses to $121 per student. The combined cost to 
the State for instruction and dormitory per student at Bowie 
was, therefore, $394. (See Table 153.) 

TABLE 153 

Cost Per Student at Bowie Normal School 1929-30 

Instruction Dormitory 

EXPENDITURES 

Administration 

Salaries $ 1.635.00 $ 1,885.00 

Other than Salaries 570 . 97 548 . 43 

Instruction 

Salaries 15,391.90 

Other than Salaries 6 , 483 . 25 

Operation and Maintenance 

Salaries and Wages 1 , 239 . 50 5 . 523 . 00 

Other than Salaries and Wages 4 , 479 .49 7 , 801 . 26 

Food 11,446.23 

Total $29,800.11 $27,203.92 

RECEIPTS 

From Students for 

Board $11,736.50 

Service Rendered 1 , 298 . 93 

Laundry 740.01 

Health, Dental and Medical Service 389.21 

Athletics $ 317.85 

Uniforms 311.50 

Miscellaneous 5 . 00 

Total from Students $ 322 . 85 $14 , 476 . 15 

From State $29 , 477 . 26 $12 , 727 . 77 

COST PER STUDENT 

Average Number of Students 108 105 

Average Total Expenditure per Student $275 . 93 $259 . 08 

Average Payment per Student 2 . 99 137 . 87 

Average Cost to State per Student 272 . 94 121 . 22 

$394.16 



252 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



Improvement of Normal School Plant; Inventory 
During 1929-30 the Administration Building, Bruce Hall, and 
the principal's home were painted, additional rooms were added 
to a dairy that is being used for sleeping quarters, and two rooms 
in Bruce Hall which are being used for the Demonstration School 
were renovated. At an expense of $1,400, half of which was paid 
by the county commissioners of Prince George's, the road leading 
from Bowie to the Bowie Normal School was improved. 

According to the 1930 inventory of the Bowie Normal School, 
the total value of the property was $182,261, an increase of $5,958 
over the preceding year. The total inventory was distributed as 
follows: Land, $9,029; improvement of land, $1,971; buildings, 
$137,929; equipment, $33,190; and Hve stock, $142. 

COPPIN TRAINING SCHOOL FOR COLORED TEACHERS 
During 1929-30 the average number belonging in the Coppin 
Training School for Baltimore City colored high school gradu- 
ates was 134, a gain of 38 over the average enrollment the year 
preceding. Of those enrolled, 79 were having their first year of 
wtork and 57 were seniors and graduated. The school had a 
session of 190 days. The staff included a principal, 4 instructors, 
and 1 clerk. The expenditures for the school were $16,501, mak- 
ing the average cost per student belonging $123. 

THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM 
The physical education program in the Maryland county 
schools is under the direction of the Playground Athletic League 
and its corps of trained leaders. The work of the P. A. L. as 
it relates to the general school organization may be considered 
from two points of view: First, how large a proportion of the 
school population is reached by the present P. A. L. program 
and the type of activity secured; second, the administrative aid 
and leadership provided by the Playground Athletic League for 
the county schools. 

The following discussion of participation and activities will 
include (1) data on the entrants and qualifications for the badge 
tests and awards, (2) the number and distribution of children 
taking part in the team games at the county round-ups, and 
(3) the entrants at the track and field running events. The 
administrative and supervisory work in the counties includes 
instruction, service of leaders and referees, medical service, and 
purchase of supplies, as well as general organization for the 
county and State athletic meets. 

Gross Participation in P. A. L. Activities 
The number of participants in the three types of events at 
the county meets is shown in Table 154. During 1930 the of- 
ficials of the Playground Athletic League supervised 58,975 



Bowie Normal School; The Physical Education Program 233 

individual competitors in various types of athletic events. In 
connection with the Baltimore County field day, there was a gross 
participation of 6,191 children, while at the field day in Calvert, 
where only 624 children were eligible for events, 973 participa- 
tions were recorded. The figures in Table 154 show gross par- 
ticipation, which means that any one individual may appear more 
than once, for naturally the same girl might try for a badge, 
play on a team, and run in a relay. More children took part in 
the badge tests than in any other type of event at the meet. 
The track and field activities were next in popularity, and games 
drew the smallest number, although the team members numbered 
6,352 boys and 7,297 girls. The experimental separation of 
elementary and high school competitors in several counties is in- 
creasing participation and interest. (See Table 154.) 

TABLE 154 



Participants in County Meets for White Boys and Girls, 1930 



COUNTY 


Badge 
Tests 


Games 


Track and 
Field 


Totals 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Allegany 


828 


1,207 


370 


414 


466 


632 


3,917 


Rural 


171 


230 


141 


149 


138 


102 


931 


Anne Arundel 


684 


1,118 


426 


322 


941 


605 


4,096 


Baltimore 


946 


2,158 


698 


680 


775 


934 


6,191 


Calvert 


113 


252 


114 


167 


142 


185 


973 


Caroline 


330 


636 


149 


258 


330 


341 


2,044 


Carroll 


636 


1,000 


423 


532 


506 


731 


3,828 


Cecil 


266 


494 


179 


279 


245 


299 


1,762 


Charles 


196 


323 


118 


198 


207 


331 


1,373 


Dorchester 


457 


688 


197 


211 


257 


318 


2,128 


Frederick 


954 


1,376 


402 


420 


433 


419 


4,004 


Garrett 


222 


298 


133 


193 


195 


229 


1,270 


Harford 


385 


649 


346 


411 


356 


333 


2,480 


Howard 


291 


392 


119 


190 


275 


229 


1,496 


Kent 


196 


381 


174 


184 


113 


255 


1,303 


Montgomery 


655 


859 


509 


569 


680 


665 


3,937 


Prince George's 


638 


885 


374 


392 


446 


462 


3,197 


Rural 


134 


268 


226 


189 


169 


152 


1 , 138 


Queen Anne's 


247 


423 


234 


249 


202 


269 


1,624 


St. Mary's 


169 


237 


138 


178 


190 


240 


1,152 


Somerset 


187 


356 


148 


178 


259 


258 


1,386 


Talbot 


355 


501 


184 


264 


302 


246 


1,852 


Washington 


854 


1,020 


262 


229 


510 


440 


3,315 


Wicomico 


437 


772 


176 


255 


239 


291 


2,170 


Worcester 


152 


370 


112 


186 


293 


295 


1,408 


Total, 1930 


10,503 


16,893 


6,352 


7,297 


8,669 


9,261 


58,975 



234 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



1930 


1929 


1930 


1929 


44 


44 


88.0 


77.2 


80 


85 


86.9 


89.5 


29 


30 


85.2 


90.9 


25 


25 


83.3 


71.4 


23 


24 


79.3 


82.8 


79 


73 


79.0 


70.9 


53 


55 


77.9 


75.3 


67 


63 


77.0 


67.7 


44 


48 


74.5 


73.8 


24 


23 


58.5 


56.1 


51 


40 


45.9 


35.7 


25 


26 


20.8 


19.0 



The number of schools having entrants in the county meets is 
shown in Table 155. Representatives in the 1930 spring athletic 
meets came from 1,036, or more than three-fourths of all schools. 
In Talbot and Frederick every school took part. In only two 
counties, Garrett and Washington, did less than half of the 
schools send delegates (See Table 155.) 

TABLE 155 

Number and Per Cent of County Schools for White Pupils which Had Entries in 
County Meets During the School Years 1929-30 and 1928-29 

SCHOOLS ENTERED SCHOOLS ENTERED 

County Number Per Cent County Number Per Cent 

1930 1929 1930 1929 

Total and Average 1036 1019 77.6 72.1 Dorchester 44 

Carroll 

Talbot 27 26 100.0 92.9 Somerset... 

Frederick 90 86 100,0 81.9 St. Mary's.. 

Anne Arundel 36 37 97.3 96.1 Charles 

Montgomery 66 65 97.0 94.2 Baltimore. . 

Queen Anne's 31 32 96.8 94.1 Harford 

Wicomico 56 47 96.5 78.3 Allegany. . . 

Calvert 24 24 96.0 96.0 Cecil 

Kent 32 30 94 . 1 88 . 2 Worcester . . 

Howard 36 37 92.3 92.5 Washington. 

Caroline 28 30 90.3 93.8 Garrett. . . . 

Prince George's 66 69 90.1 92.0 

Badge Tests 

The badge tests proved to be the stimulus for physical activity 
for more children than did any other phase of the P. A. L. pro- 
gram. It is not enough to know that 10,503 boys and 16,893 
girls attempted to win these badges at the county meet and that 
6,029 boys and 7,963 girls actually won their badges; it must 
also be realized that 15,812 boys and 22,735 girls successfully 
qualified in their own school yards for trial in the final tests at 
their county field days. (See Charts 29 and 30 and Table XVI, 
page 346.) 

The badge tests which are popular with the children consist 
of very simple events. Their successful performance, however, 
means attainment of certain skills and activities in several of the 
fundamental and corrective exercises of an organized gymnasium- 
Badges are given when the following tests have been success- 
fully passed: 

BOYS 

Bronze Badge Silver Badge 

Pull Up (Chinning) 4 times. Pull Up (Chinning) — 6 times. 

Standing Broad Jump — 5 ft. 9 in. Standing Broad Jump — 6 ft. 6 in. 

60 Yards Dash— 9 seconds. 100 Yards Dash— 13 2/5 seconds. 

Gold Badge Super Gold Badge 

Pull Up (Chinning) — 9 times. A series of all-round athletic 

Running High Jump — 4 ft. 4 in. achievements done over a period of 

220 Yards Dash — 28 seconds. 5 years after the winning of the 

gold badge entitles the winners to 
date bars. 



Badge Test Entries and Winners, White Schools 235 
CHART 29 



PER CENT OF GIRLS PASSING PRELIMINARY AND FINAL 
ArHLmC BADGE TESTS, 1930, BASED ON 1929-30 ENROLLMENT IN 
GRADE 4 TO YEAR IV, INCLUSIVE 



Per Cent 



Coimtj 



Ntiraber 
Enrolled 



Number 

Entered Won 



Won 



Entered 



Total and 
Average 


40,817 


22,735 


7,963 


Calvert 


332 


282 


110 


Q. Anne's 


694 


560 


196 


St. Mary's 


359 


281 


122 


Caroline 


1,006 


774 


179 


Charles 


568 


424 




Kent 


705 


521 


136 


Talbot 


898 


642 


238 


Howard 


677 


474 


168 


Dorchester 


1,212 


842 


279 


Wicomico 


1,640 


1,064 


242 


A. Arundel 


2,255 


1,414 


611 


Carroll 


2,002 


1,212 


395 


Pr. Geo. 


2,644 


1,568 


556 


Montgomery 


2,240 


1,325 


529 


Frederick 


2,993 


1,743 


715 


Baltimore 


5,504 


5,U2 


980 


Cecil 


1,304 


712 


303 


Somerset 


1,001 


525 


180 


Harford 


1,660 


837 


248 


Worcester 


993 


490 


220 


Allegany 


4,621 


2,050 


758 


Washington 


4,166 


1,476 


509 


Garrett 


1,343 


407 


147 



55.6 



84.9 



2B.Z 1 


80.6 1 


33.9 


1 78.2 1 


17.7 


76.9 1 






74.6 1 


19.2 ■■ 


73.8 1 


71.4 


^BIHI 70.0 




23.0 ■ 


69.4 1 



64.8 



62.7 



19,7 I 


60.5 1 


21.0 1 


59.3 1 




59.1 



58.2 



56.5 



54.6 



37.9 


52.4 1 


1^-4 1 


50.4 1 


22.1 


■49.3 1 


1S.4- 1 


44.3 1 


MBM 35.4 1 



147 ^n.^' 



Bronze Badge 
Balancing — once in 2 trials. 
Leg Raising — 10 times. 
Far-throw Dodgeball — 25 ft. 

Gold Badge 
Trunk Raising — 12 times. 
Volley Ball Service — 8 times in 10 
trials. 

Round-arm Dodgeball Throw — 57 ft. 



GIRLS 



Silver Badge 
Balancing — once in 2 trials. 
Leg Abduction — 2 times. 
Far-throw Dodgeball — 35 ft. 

Super Gold Badge 
A series of all-round athletic 
achievements done over a period of 
5 years after the winning of the 
gold badge entitles the winners to 
date bars. 



236 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 30 



PER CENT OF BOYS PASSING PRELIMINARY AND FINAL 
ATHLETIC BADGE TESTS, 1930, BASED ON 1929-30 ENROLLMENT IN 
GRADE 4 TO YEAR IV, INCLUSIVE 



Per Cent 



County Z . 
^ Enrolled 


Humoer 
Entered Won 


Total and 59 827 
Average -"^j"*^' 


15,812 


6,029 


Talbot 


814 


492 


239 


Q. Anne's 


640 


384 


185 


St. Mary's 


409 


239 


60 


Dorchester 


1,144 


628 


295 


Caroline 


934 


512 


182 


Calvert 


292 


153 


40 


Howard 


746 


384 


147 


f.iconico 


1,513 


739 


244 


Kent 


646 


314 


127 


Montgomery 


2,175 


1,050 


392 


Charles 


581 


264 


129 


Carroll 


1,950 


880 


303 


Pr, Geo. 


2,640 


1,156 


466 


Frederick 


2,968 


1,283 


593 


A. Arundel 


2,182 


944 


425 


Cecil 


1,291 


472 


87 


Somerset 


928 


338 


122 


Harford 


1,536 


556 


202 


Allegany 


4,430 


1,529 


540 


Washington 


3,973 


1,285 


632 


Baltimore 


5,658 


1,624 


357 


l^orcester 


1,007 


252 


120 



Won 



Entered 



A. Arundel 

Baltimore 

Howard 



59.7 





60.4 1 




28.9 


60.0 I 


■■■■ 


58.4 1 





19.4 


54.8 1 


.3. ■ 


52.4 1 


19.7 


1 51.4 1 


16.1 I 


48.8 1 


I9.fi 


! 48.6 1 


18.0 1 


48.2 1 


22.2 


■ 45.4 1 


15.5 ■ 


46.1 1 


i?:6.- 1 


43.7 1 


19-9 


1 43.2 1 


19.4 


43.2 1 





36.6 1 


J3.1 


i 36.4 1 


13.1 


1 36.1 1 


12.1 


1 34.6 1 


■ISIH 32.3 1 




28.8 1 





ADDITIONAL P. A. L. INDOOR MEET 

120 62 
564 231 
67 16 



The badge tests lay emphasis on an individuaFs attainment of 
a certain degree of physical prowess. This is, of course, an im- 
portant function of a physical education program, but of equal, 
if not greater importance, is the degree to which that program 



Badge Tests; Team Games; Track, Field and Relay Events 237 

succeeds in capitalizing its opportunity of guiding children into 
co-operative group activity. 

Team Games 

The team games sponsored by the P. A. L. in every county 
of the State set up natural situations in which success is possible 
only through the finest co-operation of all members of the group. 
This group activity, both with and against other children, brings 
out the true meaning of that most coveted of all attributes, good 
sportsmanship, and the failure to measure up to its standards 
brings its own inherent condemnation. 

Circle dodgeball was played by more than 11,000 boys and 
girls during 1930, and next in popularity was speed ball with 
3,606 boys entered. Other boys' games were baseball and soccer. 
Girls played hit ball, field ball, touch down pass and volley ball. 
There were both boys' and girls' teams in basketball and mixed 
teams for field dodgeball. Altogether 26,704 boys and girls took 
part in this State-wide program of games. (See Table XVII, 
page 347.) 

In 1930, the second State-wide field ball tournament was par- 
ticipated in by 1,820 girls from 104 high schools. Basketball 
tournaments were held for both boys and girls. This game is 
limited to comparatively few^ schools since an indoor gymnasium 
is necessary for practice during the winter months. Neverthe- 
less, twelve counties had 463 girls on 35 basketball teams, and 
in 18 counties 703 boys from 56 schools played the game. Soccer 
was played by boys in 128 different high schools. Each county 
winner played the neighboring winner until the Eastern Shore 
series was won by the Talbot County team from Easton, while 
the Western Shore winner, and finally the State winner, was 
the Frederick County team from Middletown. Baseball and 
speed ball had their participants. In co-operation with the 
Baltimore Sun a baseball tournament was held with 1,396 players 
on 98 teams from 20 counties. (See Table 156 and Table XVII, 
page 347.) 

Track, Field and Relay Events 

The third type of activity of the P. A. L. program includes run- 
ning and jumping events for track and field. In the relay races, 
broad jumps, dashes, etc., it is the skill of the individuals who 
make up a team which brings success to the school or county 
represented. In Maryland the number of events in which any 
one participant may enter is limited to one running event for 
girls and one running and one field event for boys. It is thus 
impossible for a few good athletes to win the track meet for 
their school. All children who have attained even average ability 
in the events are needed to bring final success to their own 
schools. (See Table 156 and Table XVIII, page 348.) 



238 1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 156 



Number of County High Schools from Which Girls Entered Games, Relays, 
Carnivals and Badge Tests, Year Ending June 30, 1930 





Ball Games 


Relays 




Badge 


Tests 












as 
m 

A* 




























Ph 




y 














"o 


COUNTY 








hdown 


>> 


and Ca 


"« 

S3 


ivals 




ki 




r Gold 


ber of 

gh Scho 










u 
3 


a> 


s 

3 




u 


a 


(U 

>. 


"o 


a 






S3 
ffl 


£ 


S 


o 


> 




o 


S3 

o 


PQ 







3 

02 




Total Counties 


35 


104 


108 


83 


126 


131 


85 


39 


143 


145 


143 


138 


*147 




4 


7 


8 


5 


7 


8 


6 




10 


10 


10 


10 


*10 






3 

O 


3 


2 






2 


2 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 




6 


o 


4 




t 




5 


Q 


g 


Q 


6 


*6 






3 


2 


1 


3 


3 


2 




3 


3 


3 


3 


3 






6 


5 


5 


6 


6 


5 




6 


6 


6 


6 


6 








Q 
O 


8 


11 


11 


o 
o 






1 1 

i.1 




11 


11 


Cecil 




8 


5 


3 


8 


7 


3 




8 


8 


8 


8 


8 






5 


3 


2 


5 


5 


4 


4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 




2 


4 


4 


2 


4 


6 


3 




7 


7 


7 


6 
8 


7 


Frederick 


5 


8 


6 


3 


6 


7 


4 




8 


8 


8 


8 




2 




5 


4 


4 


4 


2 




5 


5 


5 


3 


6 




1 


' 3 


6 


3 


8 


7 


3 




9 


9 


9 


8 


9 




2 


3 


4 


4 


5 


6 


4 


■ ■ 2 


5 


5 


5 


5 


6 


Kent 




3 


3 


2 


4 


4 


2 




3 


4 


4 


4 


4 




7 


2 


7 


6 


7 


9 


6 




9 


9 


9 


9 


*9 






8 


5 


5 


9 


5 


4 




9 


9 


8 


8 


9 






5 




4 


4 


5 


4 




4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


St. Mary's 




3 


i 


1 


3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




1 


4 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


' ' 3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


Talbot 


3 


6 


4 


5 


6 


5 


3 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 






6 


4 


3 


5 


5 


3 




6 


6 


6 


5 


6 




1 


7 


5 


5 


3 


6 


3 




7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


Worcester 


1 


4 


4 


3 


5 


5 


3 


4 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 



* Excludes Junior High and one year High School. 



The Spring Athletic Meets 
The final badge tests, the games, and the track and field events 
take place generally at the county spring athletic meets. The 
winners of the county meets come to Baltimore to compete for 
the State-wide championship. The girls are entertained at the 
State Nonnal School at Towson and a majority of the boys are 
cared for in the homes of members of the City Parent-Teachers' 
Associations. The Y. M. C. A. takes care of the boys not assigned 
to homes. The county winning the greatest number of points 
is awarded the Sun trophy. In 1930 this award went to Alle- 
gany County. The dodgeball championship was won by Prince 
George's County athletes from Mt. Rainier and the championship 
in volley ball was won by Allegany County's representatives from 
Lonaconing. 



Spring Athletic Meet; Girls' Activities; Administration of P. A. L. 239 



Girls' Winter Carnivals 

In addition to these tournaments and athletic meets a number 
of carnivals were held throughout the year. Cecil, Somerset, 
Talbot, Wicomico, and Worcester Counties held girls' carnivals 
at the State armories for 2,903 entrants. In addition, 4,457 girls 
representing Anne Arundel, Baltimore, and Howard Counties and 
Baltimore City took part in the Winter Carnival at the Fifth 
Regiment Armory at Baltimore. A high school carnival with 
161 entrants was held at Indian Head in Charles County. 

Administration of the P. A. L. 
Expenditures for the 23 Cbunties as a Group 

The administration and direction of school athletics in Mary- 
land during the fiscal year, October 1, 1929, to September 30, 
1930, required a total expenditure of approximately $25,000. In 
addition, certain services were rendered the counties for which 
the Playground Athletic League received reimbursements to the 
extent of $22,624. Furthermore, materials and supplies worth 
$7,587 were bought by the counties through the P. A. L. Thus, 
although the Playground Athletic League received only $15,000 
from the State through the Public School Budget and $10,000 
as a State-aided institution, the actual service rendered the coun- 
ties necessitated a budget of more than $55,000. The Playground 
Athletic League made no charge to the counties for the general 
administration and direction of the P. A. L. program. The pur- 
poses for which the $25,000 used for administration and direction 
was spent are shown in Table 157. Under the item, Sal^xries, is 
included the remuneration to Mr. Pitman and Miss Crossman 
for supervision and services given to 2,342 school units. A 
school unit is defined as any school to which assistance is given, 
and the same school may be included a number of times in this 
figure. Under Wages is included the cost of clerical and steno- 
graphic help incident to the recording of the 17,165 badges and 
7,375 medals won by different pupils. This definite system of 
registration prevented an excessive duplication of awards. 

Considering the number of children recognized through the 
award of a badge or a pendant or a date bar, the cost was ex- 
tremely low. Altogether 16,854 badges, 1,350 date bars, 4,883 
medallions, 8,323 pendants, and 1,300 official badges were pur- 
chased at a cost of $4,615. 

The amount of $4,774 spent on travel includes the transporta- 
tion costs for leaders and supplies for the great number of activi- 
ties carried on throughout the year. This also includes the 
traveling expenses of the physician who attended the meets and 
made physical examinations of high school boys in Baltimore, 
Cecil, Harford, Howard, and Kent Counties. 



240 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

The amount of $901 reported as Research Expenditures in- 
cludes all costs of the study which was conducted with respect 
to the correlation of underweightness in children with their ab- 
sence from school, their behavior, and other phases of their 
school life. The findings of this study will be published in the 
near future. (See Table 157.) 

TABLE 157 

Financial Statement of Playground Athletic League 
Expenditures for State Oct. 1, 1929, to Sept. 30, 1930 



Salaries „ „ - $ 7,641.22 

Wages - 2,660.75 

Printing „ 947.71 

Postage 515.16 

Telephone _ - - 283.31 

Auto - - 534.15 

Supplies „ 774.55 

Repairs _ _ 33.72 

Awards - 4,614.95 

Traveling Expenses _ 4,773.78 

Miscellaneous _ 985.02 

Equipment ^ 301.40 

Research „ : 901.20 



Total $24,966.92 



P. A. L. Service to Individual Counties 

The services for which the Playground Athletic League re- 
ceived reimbursement from the counties directly included medical 
service, service of leaders and referees, and regular instruction. 
During 1930 the medical service of the P. A. L. was limited to 
four counties. The amounts paid to the P. A. L. by the counties 
includes reimbursement for only the local expenses of the ex- 
amining physician. The other costs were paid from the ad- 
ministrative budget financed by the State. In 1931 the medical 
service is being greatly extended through the full-time service 
of two physicians. (See Table 158.) 

Many counties feel that they need the help of trained leaders 
to work with their own teachers or pupils for a short time during 
the year. The Playground Athletic League supplies these lead- 
ers who give service varying from training the teachers in the 
requirements for the badge tests and teaching the rules for 
simple games, to working with groups of boys who want to learn 
to play soccer, or basketball. Counties often prefer an outside 
and disinterested referee for match games and call upon the P. 
A. L. to supply their needs. In 1930, P. A. L. leaders refereed 
214 soccer games, 122 games of basketball, 63 field ball, 22 base- 



Finances and Service of P. A. L. to State and Counties 241 
TABLE 158 



Expenditures by Counties for Service Rendered by Playground Athletic League 



County or Xormal School 


Medical 
Services 


Service of 
Leaders and 
Referees 


Regular 
Instruction 






$967.88 
435.66 
120.88 








$1,677.82 

1R 4.71 7S 
lO , -i/ i . / O 










r 1 1 • „ 




86.20 
33.30 

Zoo . O / 




11 






M 


5> 4: . DO 




/~ti i„„ 


*196.40 
3.00 










T?_„ i^„; „i. 




235.28 
28.35 

d.1 91 

6.18 
162.84 
78.64 
2.50 




TT „ „r „ „ ,1 


O . oU 

4.00 






77fi ftft 
/ / D . Do 


Kent 












Queen Anne's 






St. Marv's 










9.75 
J454.36 
249.49 
J153.80 




Talbot 







Washington 


















Totals 

Maryland State Xormal School 

Total Amount for Services Rendered. . 






$15.60 
84.13 


$ 3.504.09 
62.10 


$18,926.28 
32.15 


$99.73 


$ 3,566.19 


$18,958.43 


$22,624.35 



* Includes SoO for Winter Carnival. 
% Includes $100 for Winter Carnival. 



ball, 2 volley ball games, and 18 horse-shoe tournaments. Every 
county in the State called on the P. A. L. for this service. (See 
Tables 158 and 159.) 

Three counties, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, and Howard, had 
P. A. L. leaders giving- regular instruction throughout the school 
year in physical education in the public schools. This instruc- 
tion aggregated service for approximately 73 days a week 
throughout the school year. (See Tables 158 and 159.) 

For the services just described — medical, teacher and referee, 
and regular instruction — the counties reimbursed the P. A. L. 
to the extent of $22,624. (See Tables 158 and 159.) 

When the Playground Athletic League installs a new game it 
assumes the responsibility of teaching it to the children of the 
State, and whenever a county begins a game already on the 
State-wide program, instruction for the teachers and children is 
furnished at no expense to the county. The figures in the last 



242 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



five columns of Table 159 show the time given to this work. The 
P. A. L. leaders also supervise the athletic meets with no expense 
to the local units. See the first part of Table 159 for leaders 
supplied at this time. 

TABLE 159 

Staff Furnished Counties by Playground Atlhetic League, 1930 



COUNTY 



Workers Sent 
to Field Meets 

and Winter 
Carnivals for 



White o?ed 



B G 



No. of 
Days 
Service 

per 
Week 
for 
Physical 
Educa- 
tion for 



Games Refereed 
and Umpired 



Days of Leader 
Service 



Total. 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel. . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's. . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



199 

al5 
10 
12 
4 
6 
14 
b8 
c8 
5 
8 
5 
9 
10 
7 
16 
al2 
4 



258 

al9 

16 

19 
4 
8 

18 
bl5 

c9 
7 

10 
5 
9 

10 
8 

13 
al5 
7 
5 

dlO 
15 
8 
el8 
dlO 



81 



89 



37.0 



/36.4 



o.o 
30.0 



1.5 



4.5 
30.0 

fd'.O 



1.5 



214 



55 67 
44 



22 63 



18 



23 



30 



9 11 



24 



1 1 



20 



17 



10 



n Includes five men and five women for Rural Meet, 
b Includes two men and eight women for Carnival, 
c Includes three men and three women for Carnival. 
d Includes two men and three women for Carnival. 
e Includes two men and seven women for Carnival. 
/ Includes one worker for three weeks. 



Purchase of Supplies and Materials 

The Playground Athletic League also secures for the counties 
of the State athletic supplies and materials at a greatly reduced 
rate. Large numbers of balls and bladders used in all types of 
games were purchased through the P. A. L. in 1930. The coun- 
ties paid $7,587 for these supplies. Had they bought them 
directly, the cost would have exceeded $11,000. These savings 
permit more schools to have the necessary equipment and thus 
more children are able to have the fun and benefit of taking part 
in well organized, and truly genuine games. (See Table 160.) 



Staff and Material Furnished by P. A. L. ; Summer Schools 243 



TABLE 160 

Materials Supplied by Playground Athletic League to County Schools, 1930 



COUNTIES 



NUMBER PURCHASED FOR COUNTIES 



=5^ 



Totals. 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



123 

6 
7 
42 
1 
3 



103 

11 

2 
23 
2 



110 



914 

30 
52 
216 
34 
46 
55 
15 
22 
28 
16 
7 
25 
16 
24 
40 
67 
45 
18 
21 
38 
30 
47 
22 



167 
1 



12 



403 

13 
66 
157 
2 
3 



33 



185 

6 
16 
94 
2 
1 
2 
2 
3 
3 
9 
6 
2 
2 
3 
11 
10 
2 
2 



37 



1609 



23 



108 
■ ■ '27' 

iiie 
' '35 



S7,586.66 

257.30 
378.80 

1,660.57 
153.56 
196.85 
251.65 
151.35 
192.25 
175.05 
147.40 
109.25 
231.59 
128.10 
146.19 
377.25 

1,505.75 
352.90 
117.85 
171.55 
212.10 
257.00 
282.60 
129.75 



BALTIMORE CITY SUMMER SCHOOLS 

In the summer of 1930, opportunities for review and advanced 
work were available for white children in 10 Baltimore City 
schools. There were 2 senior high, 2 junior high, and 6 ele- 
mentary schools in operation. This was one more elementary 
school than was in use in the summer of 1929. There were 4,480 
pupils enrolled during the session, but the net roll at the end 
of the summer was reduced to 3,840. Of this net enrollment, 
2,576 were in the junior and senior high schools. Both the total 
and net roll were slightly lower than in 1929, the decrease being 
found in those taking advance work. The enrollment of 3,155 
for review work was practically the same as in the year preced- 
ing. Ninety-one teachers were employed to staff these schools, 
a reduction of 4 under the 1929 summer school teaching staff. 
(See Table 161.) 

The enrollment in the senior- junior high school and the 4 
elementary schools that were open for colored pupils in the sum- 
mer of 1930 totalled 3,183. This was 806 more than were en- 
rolled during the preceding summer. This increase was found 
entirely in the number taking review work. Of the 2,664 on 



244 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



the roll at the end of the term, 2,437 had been repeating work 
already studied. Fifty-four teachers staffed the colored summer 
schools. (See Table 161.) 



TABLE 161 



Baltimore City Summer Schools in 1930 









Net Roll at End of Term 


Per Cent of Net 
Roll Promoted 


/3 

c 
-C 
















Taking 


Tea 




type of school 


ichools 


[irollincn 






\dvance 




Advance 
Work 


No. of 






No. of S 


Total El 


Total 


Taking : 
Work 


Taking . 
Work 


Review 
Work 


Men 


Women 



White 



Secondary 






















2 


1,706 


1,557 


1.396 


161 


88.8 


96.5 


20 


7 




2 


1,130 


1,019 


914 


105 


93.9 


98.7 


2 


20 




5 


1,282 


954 


845 


109 


95.2 


99.0 


2 


23 


Demonstration 


1 


362 


310 




310 




94.7 




17 


Total 








67 


10 


4,480 


3,840 


3,155 


685 


24 



Colored 































*1 


377 


320 


291 


29 


79 


5 


83.6 


6 


2 






*1 


254 


180 


147 


33 


90 


1 


100.0 


4 








3 


1,963 


1,703 


1,703 




88 


7 




3 


25 


Demonstration 






589 


461 


296 


165 


97 





94.5 


2 


11 


Total 




6 


3,183 


2,664 


2,437 


227 








15 


39 


Grand Total , , 


(1930 


16 


7,663 


6,504 


5,592 


912 








39 


106 


\ 1929 


15 


6,891 


5,850 


4,789 


1,061 








38 


104 



• Same building. 



The increase in colored summer school enrollment more than 
counterbalanced the decrease in white enrollment, so that the 
1930 summer schools in Baltimore City enrolled 7,663 children 
instead of 6,891 in 1929. 

The expenditures for summer schools shown in the 1930 finan- 
cial report amounted to $31,377. Although this amount applies 
to expenditures for the summer schools of 1929, the 1930 amount 
probably does not differ greatly. Assuming this to be the case, 
we find the cost for each pupil who remained until the end of the 
term to be $4.82. (See Table 161.) 



Summer Schools and Evening Schools 



245 



EVENING SCHOOLS 
Baltimore City Evening Schools 

The work of the Baltimore City evening schools reached 10,910 
white individuals during 1930. The largest single group, 3,273, 
took the academic work in the secondary schools. The vocational 
courses in commercial and industrial subjects drew 2,698 and 
2,102 students, respectively. The evening Americanization 
classes enrolled 1,678 pupils, 150 fewer than in 1930. In all 
evening classes for white students the average net roll was 7,161 
and the average attendance, 5,588, both between 300 and 400 
higher than in 1929. It is gratifying to see that in the past year 
the per cent of attendance increased from 75.7 to 83.6, and that 
for every type of class, the session was slightly longer. (See 
Table 162.) 

TABLE 162 

Baltimore City Evening Schools for the Year Ending July 31, 1930 



ENROLLMENT 

TYPE OF WORK White Colored 

Americanization 1 , 678 

Academic 

Elementary 324 1 , 370 

Secondary 3,273 425 

Vocational 

Commercial 2,698 294 

Industrial 2,102 342 

Home Economics 835 497 

Total 10,910 2,928 

White Colored 

1929 1930 1929 1930 

Average Net Roll 6 , 870 7,161 2 , 298 2 , 544 

Average Attendance 5 , 206 5 , 588 1,714 2,015 

Per Cent of Attendance 75.7 83 . 6 74 . 5 79 . 1 

Average Number of Teachers 273 302 .8 69 80 

Number of Nights 

Elementary and Americanization 68 70 68 70 

Secondary 99 100 79 90 

Junior High and Commercial 90 *80 

Vocational 46 50 68 50 



* Junior 70 and Commercial 90 nights. 

The colored evening schools enrolled 2,928 individuals. The 
elementary schools had the highest enrollment, 1,370, and voca- 
tional home economics came next with an enrollment of 497. 
The elementary and home economics classes had the two smallest 
enrollments in the white evening schools. The colored evening 
schools had 2,544 on the average net roll and 2,015 in average 
attendance. Eighty teachers were employed for these classes, 
11 more than in 1929. The per cent of attendance was higher 



246 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



than in former years, and, with the exception of the vocational 
courses, the classes met more nights than in 1929. (See Table 
, 162.) 

Evening Classes in the Counties 

The evening school work in the counties of the State was 
limited to 5 counties, Allegany, Garrett, Washington, Prince 
George's, and Anne Arundel. 

In Allegany there were seven classes for 127 miners taught by 
an instructor from the Bureau of Mines, which is associated with 
the University of Maryland. The evening classes in Cumberland 
enrolled 243 individuals who were taught by 13 instructors. 
Prominent industrial leaders from various firms in Cumberland 
gave instruction for 48 evenings. 

In Garrett there were five evening classes for 87 miners taught 
by an instructor from the Bureau of Mines. 

At Laurel in Prince George's County, seven apprentices em- 
ployed in the B. & 0. shops were given subject matter related 
to their daily w^ork. 

In Washington County there were five evening classes organ- 
ized at the Hagerstown High School with a total enrollment of 93. 

At Stanton High School in Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, 
there were four classes in part time general continuation work 
for employed negroes. Most of those enrolled were cooks, kitchen 
helpers and semi-skilled laborers employed at the United States 
Naval Academy. 

Altogether, the expenditures for instruction in evening schools 
in the counties amounted to $11,289 and of this total, $7,106 was 
spent in Allegany. These amounts just given exclude $3,840 
spent by the Bureau of Mines of the University of Maryland for 
the mining classes in Allegany and Garrett. (See Table 109 
page 165.) 

COST OF MARYLAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS 
In the 23 Maryland counties during the year ending July 31,- 
1930, pubHc school current expenses amounted to $8,456,414, an 
increase of $291,757 over the 1929 disbursements. State reim- 
bursements of $2,348,530 meant that the remaining $6,107,884 
w^as paid from local funds. A comparison of the 1930 figures 
with those of 1919 show^s that while the local expenditures have 
more than trebled, the State aid is not twice as much in 1930 
as it was in 1919. The 1930 capital outlay of $2,450,144 in the 
counties was higher than in any year except 1925 and 1926. (See 
Table 163.) 

In 1930, for the first time, the Baltimore City school current 
expenses passed the ten-million dollar mark with a total dis- 
bursement of $10,088,360. Of this $9,093,297 came from local 
funds and $995,063 from State aid. Capital outlay amounting 



Evening Schools ; Cost of Public Schools 



247 



TABLE 163 



Expenditure for Current Expense From State and Local Funds and for 
Capital Outlay in the Counties and Baltimore City, 1919-1930 





CURRENT EXPENSE DISBURSEMENTS 




Year 
Ending 


Total 


From State 
Funds 


From Local 
Funds 


Capital 
Outlay 



Total Counties 



1919. 
1920. 
1921. 
1922. 
1923. 
1924. 
1925. 
1926. 
1927, 
1928, 
1929 
1930 



$3,184,351.22 
3.703.153.29 
5,043,923.02 
5,291,124.43 
5,964.456.44 
6,475.802.93 
6.743,015.08 
7.143.149.65 
7.517,728.77 
7;787,298.09 
8,164.657.18 
8,456,414.05 



$1,230. 
1,186. 
1,554. 
1,545, 
2,026, 
2,068, 
2.161, 
2.248, 
2,329, 
12,246, 
t2,322, 
t2,348. 



181.60 
192,671 
693 , 60 
695.85 
315.58 
186. 05i 
571.04! 
399.75 
031.35 
541.47 
643.82 
530.19 



$1,954 
2,516 
3.489 
3,745 
3.938 
4.407 
4.581 
4,894 
5,188 
5.540 
5,842 
6,107 



.169.62 
.960.62 
,229.42 
,428.58 
,140.86 
,616.88 
,444.04 
,749.90 
,697.421 
756.62 
013 . 36 
883.86 



; 311. 

485, 
929, 
1.121, 
1,475. 

949, 
2,527, 
2,602, 
1,023, 
1,532 
1,773 
2,450 



137.08 
,601.23 
.024,08 
.553.98 
.268.52 
,719.78 
,823,35 
,745.09 
,362.25 
,717.90 
,070.68 
,143,80 



Baltimore City* 



1919 


$2,832,543.59 


$ 671,006 


78 


$2,161,536 


81 


$ 38,562.29 


1920 


3.706,641.51 


713,287 


02 


2.993,354 


49 


60,741.25 


1921 


5.394,655.76 


1,032,541 


55 


4,362,114 


21 


1,267,636.20 


1922 


6,631,682.32 


1,026,972 


79 


5,604,709 


53 


1,417,569.15 


1923 


6,949,793.45 


1,066,100 


96 


5,883,692 


49 


3,301,086.21 


1924 


6,963.332.47 


1,061,111 


63 


5,902,220 


84 


5,336,889.06 


1925 


7,419,638.99 


1,042.479 


92 


6,377,159 


07 


3,224,733.82 


1926 


7.660,787.84 


1.056,893 


87 


6,603,893 


97 


3,484,766.86 


1927 


8,482,458.93 


1,086.496 


95 


7,395,961 


98 


4,200,037.45 


1928 


9.156.164.29 


tl, 016, 993 


13 


8,139,171 


.16 


1,897,871.37 


1929 


9.629.352.11 


fl. 037. 490 


.92 


8.591.861 


.19 


633,631.71 


1930 


10,088,359.96 


995,063 


.18 


9,093,296 


.78 


1,508,678.41 



Entire State 



1919 


$6,016,894.81 


$1,901, 


188 


38 


$4,115,706.43 


$ 349,699.37 


1920 


7,409,794.80 


1,899, 


479 


69 


5,510,315.11 


546.342.48 


1921 


10,438,578.78 


2.587 


235 


15 


7,851,343.63 


2,196,660.28 


1922 


11.922,806.75 


2,572 


668 


64 


9,350,138.11 


2,539,123.13 


1923 


12,914.249.89 


3,092 


416 


54 


9,821,833.35 


4,776.354.73 


1924 


13.439,135.40 


3,129 


297 


68 


10,309,837.72 


6,286,608,84 


1925 


14.162.654.07 


3.204 


050 


96 


10,958,603.11 


5,752,557.17 


1926 


14,803.937.49 


3,305 


293 


62 


11,498,643.87 


6,087,511.95 


1927 


16,000.187.70 


3,415 


528 


30 


12,584,659.40 


5,223,399.70 


1928 


16,943.462.38 


t3,263 


534 


60 


13,679.927.78 


3,430,589.27 


1929 


17.794,009,29 


13.360 


134 


74 


14,433,874.55 


2,406.702.39 


1930 


18,544,774.01 


t3,343 


.593 


37 


15,201,180.64 


3,958,822.21 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training of teachers. 

t Excludes receipts from liquidation of Free .School Fund and for Charles County, $6,500 for 
McDonough School, to be used for school building purposes. 



248 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



to $1,508,678 was greater by $875,047 than in 1929 but less than 
in any other year since 1923. The Baltimore City figures include 
expenditures for the training school for colored teachers which 
are excluded from the later tables of this report. (See Table 163.) 

For the State as a whole the school current expenses were 
$18,544,774. State aid amounted to $3,343,593, and local taxes 
and resources provided the remaining $15,201,181. Although 
the 1930 current expenses were $750,765 more than in 1929, the 
State Aid was $16,541 less, because of the deficit of $102,694 in 
the 1930 Census and Attendance Fund. The increase in school 
costs was, therefore, carried by local funds or by borrowed money 
which in this table is included under ''Local Funds." The 1932 
budget presented to the Legislature contains a request for pay- 
ment of this deficit. (See Table 163.) 

In 1930 the counties received from State and Federal funds 
reimbursements amounting to 27.8 per cent of the total current 
expense budget. In 1929 the State and Federal aid carried 28.4 
per cent of the school costs. The reduction in 1930 is due to the 
deficit in the Census and Attendance Fund which resulted from 
the failure to collect a sufficient amount from the State public 
school tax. Some county school organizations, which had de- 
pended on the receipt of the full amount expected from the census 
and attendance fund to carry the minimum program, in order to 
meet their expenses, had to borrow money. These borrowings 
are shown as coming from "County and Other Sources" although 
the deficit may be made up by the State in the fall of 1931. The 
State receipts shown here have been corrected to include all 
money paid through October, 1930, that was appropriated to 
be applied to the year ending July 31, 1930, even though payment 
was made after that date. (See Table 164.) 

Of the Baltimore City current expense disbursements, exclud- 
ing those for the colored teacher training school, 9.9 per cent 
was carried by State and Federal aid. For Maryland, State and 
Federal appropriations provided for 18.0 per cent of the entire 
school current expenses. (See Table 164.) 

Somerset received from State and Federal funds 61.8 per cent 
of its current expenses in 1930, and in Calvert and Garrett, the 
corresponding percentages were 58.6 and 55.2, respectively. 

Charles, Caroline, St. Mary's, Dorchester, and Worcester re- 
ceived aid amounting to between 40 and 50 per cent of their 
school current expense budgets. At the other extreme are Bal- 
timore, Montgomery, and Allegany Counties, where State and 
Federal aid amounted to less than 20 per cent of the total school 
current expenses. (See Table 164.) 



Cost of Public Schools; State Aid; Equalization Fund 249 



TABLE 164 

Per Cent of Current Expense Disbursements Received From State 
and Vocational Funds for Year Ending July 31, 1930 



County 



Total Counties 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Garrett 

Charles 

Caroline 

St. Mary's. . . . 
Dorchester. . . . 
Worcester. . . . 

Wicomico 

Kent 

Queen Anne's . 

Howard 

Carroll 

Harford 

Talbot 

Cecil 

PrinceOeorge's 

Frederick 

Washington. . . 
Anne Arundel . 

Allegany 

Montgomery. . 
Baltimore 

Baltimore City 

State 



Total 
Disbursements 
for Current 
Expenses 



$ 8,456,414.05 

211,299.19 
93,846.21 
327,550.56 
161,202.32 
206,966.84 

105,315.46 
267,059.34 
225,879.10 
290,196.87 
166,184.74 

167,531.20 
162,645.29 
425,231.91 
310.368.81 
196.290.36 

266,340.62 
572,605.06 
535,313.90 
656,598.45 
512,552.43 

875,034.84 
577,047.29 
1,143,353.26 

10,072,071.45 

18,528,485.50 



Amount Received for Cur- 
rent Expenses from 



State and 
Vocational 
Aid 



$2,348,530.19 

130,532.13 
54,974.03 

180,829.89 
80,170.83 
94,961 .64 

47,940.86 
117,089.31 

90,669.77 
110,566.55 

52,373.14 

50,846.66 
46,689.36 
121,449.28 
77,656.04 
48.879.61 

64,009.82 
134,827.65 
119,636.91 
135,565.54 
105,134.32 

173.938.29 
109.383.14 
200,405.42 

995,063.18 

3,343,593.37 



County and 
Other 
Sources 



6,107,883.86 

80.767.06 
38,872.18 

146,720.67 
81,031.49 

112,005.20 

57,374.60 
149,970.03 
135,209.33 
179,630.32 
113,811.60 

116,684.54 
115,955.93 
303,782.63 
232,712.77 
147,410.75 

202,330.80 
437,777.41 
415,676.99 
521.032.91 
407,418.11 

701,096.55 
467,664.15 
942.947.84 

9,077,008.27 

15,184,892.13 



Per Cent of Current Expense Dis- 
bursements Received From 



27.8 

61,8 
58.6 
55.2 
49.7 
45.9 

45.5 
43.8 
40.1 
38.1 
31.5 

30.4 
28.7 
28.6 
25.0 
24.9 

24.0 
23.5 
22.3 
20.6 
20.5 

19.9 
19.0 
17.5 

9.9 

18.0 



CS OJ g 

o c cr c 

> 3H 3 

ca o 



21.9 

26.3 
28.2 
20.7 
26.4 
24.0 

33.4 
24.4 
26.4 
24.9 
23.0 

25.9 



24.0 
23.5 
22.3 
20.6 
19.4 

19.5 
19.0 
17.5 



15.3 



The Equalization Fund 

The variation in the proportion of the school current expenses 
carried by State Aid in the different counties is due for the most 
part to the Equalization Fund. If local funds replaced the amount 
of the Equalization Fund, the upper limit for the per cent of the 
disbursements from State and Federal Aid would be lowered from 
61.8 per cent to 33.4 per cent. The Equalization Fund alone rep- 
resents between 36 and 22 per cent of all current expenses for 
schools in Somerset, Garrett, Calvert, Charles, and Caroline. Nine 
other counties received from .4 to 19.4 per cent of their current 
expense budgets from this fund. (See next to last column in 
Table 164.) 



250 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



A county shares in the EquaHzation Fund if the assessable 
basis is not sufficient to carry the cost of the minimum school 
program less all other forms of State aid on a county tax rate 
of 67 cents or less. The minimum program is considered to be 
the total salaries according to the State schedule for as many 
teachers as the actual situation legally requires, divided by .76. 
This computation fulfills the requirement in the law that coun- 
ties sharing in the Equalization Fund shall expend no less than 
24 per cent of the total current expense budget for purposes other 
than teachers' salaries. To the amount thus determined is added 
the cost of transportation to the county schools. This last pro- 
vision is made so that counties which eliminate teachers' salaries 
through consolidation of rural schools will not be penalized. 

When the cost of the minimum program has been thus de- 
termined, the amount available from all other forms of State 
aid and from a local tax of 67 cents on the assessable basis tax- 
able at the full rate for county purposes is then calculated. If 
the cost of the minimum program is greater than the amount 
available from these sources, the difference becomes the Equali- 
zation Fund. In 1930 the total Equalization Fund for the State 
amounted to $496,077 and payments to the individual counties 
ranged from $113,143 for Garrett to $3,562 for Allegany. (See 
Table XXI, page 351.) 

The relation between the Equalization Fund, other forms of 
State aid, and county support of schools is shown graphically in 
Chart 31. The cross-hatched portion of the bar represents the 
per cent of the 1929-30 school current expenses carried by the 
county levy and other local sources. It ranged from 38.2 per 
cent in Somerset to 82.5 per cent in Baltimore County. (See 
Chart 31.) 

The actual tax rates represented by these local funds show 
just the opposite relationship. The county levy and miscellaneous 
receipts which carried only 38.2 per cent of the minimum pro- 
gram, which is all that is offered in Somerset, represented a 
county tax of 71 cents. On the other hand, in Baltimore County, 
where the program is greatly enriched and salaries are far above 
the State schedule, local funds paid for 82.5 per cent of the school 
costs, but they represented a local school tax rate of only 53 
cents. Comparisons of Chart 31 and Chart 37, page 286, will 
show this inverse relationship for most of the counties. 

The black portions of the bars in Chart 31 represent the per 
cent of public school costs carried by State aid other than the 
Equalization Fund, and the white portions in the center show 
the per cent contributed by the Equalization Fund. Allegany 
shared in this latter fund, but the percentage received from this 
source was too small to be visible on the chart. 



State Aid and the Equalization Fund 
CHART 31 

PER CENT OF CURRENT EXPENDITURES FOR YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1930 



251 



County 



6 V/////////////777777, 




State and Vocational Funds Excluding 
Equalization Func 

Equalization Fund 
V////A County Funds and Other Soiarces 
40 60 80 



100 



V/////////, 



V/////////y//////777Z 



V//'/////////////////////// 
V////>///////////'///////////) 



5 ^//////'//////////y////////y//zm'/. 



Baltimore City 
State 



wyyyy/yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyA 



yyyyyyyyy/. 



E 



The fact that Allegany and Anne Arundel, both Equalization 
Fund counties, appear in the lower section of the Chart among 
the non-Equalization Fund counties, needs explanation. In Alle- 
gany and Anne Arundel, the State's minimum program cannot 
be carried on a 67 cent tax rate. These counties, therefore, re- 
ceive the Equalization Fund. Despite their comparative lack of 



252 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



wealth, these counties are willing to levy county tax rates of 89 
and 91 cents, respectively, to provide an enriched school prog-ram 
for their children. The State aid received consequently forms a 
smaller portion of these enriched programs than would be the 
case were the offerings limited to the minimum only, which is 
that available in a number of the other counties which receive 
the Equalization Fund. (See Chart 31.) 

Likewise, Howard seems to receive a greater proportion of 
State aid than Carroll which shares in the Equalization Fund. 
This is explained by the fact that the Howard County public 
school budget provides for very little more than the minimum 
program required in the law. The State aid, therefore, carries 
a larger portion than in counties such as Carroll, which has a 
rich offering of music, manual training, home economics, com- 
mercial work, and physical education in practically all of its high 
schools. (See Chart 31.) 

HOW THE SCHOOL DOLLAR IS SPENT 
Of every dollar spent during 1929-30 for the current expenses 
of the Maryland county schools, 69 cents were used for teachers' 
salaries. This is one cent less than in 1929. Nearly five cents 
were used for books, supplies, and materials of instruction, and 
just over 2 cents were expended for the costs of instructional 
supervision. Thus just over 76 cents from every 1930 school 
dollar went towards the costs of actual pupil instruction. (See 
Chart 32 and Table 165.) 

Expenditures for general control or administration required 
3.4 cents. The operation costs of cleaning and heating the school 
buildings took 7.2 cents, repairs amounted to 3.6 cents from each 
dollar, and fixed charges and tuition to adjoining counties took 
15 cents. These figures are very similar to those for 1929. The 
significant increase comes in the 8.1 cents required for auxiliary 
agencies, of which transportation is by far the major portion. 
The 1930 cost of 8.1 cents is .9 of one cent greater than the 
corresponding cost in the preceding year, and both explains and 
makes possible the reduction in number of cents used for teach- 
ers' salaries. Through consolidation, rural schools are closed, 
the number of teachers is reduced, and the proportion of funds 
used for salary costs is lower. But consolidation of necessity 
creates an increased expenditure for transportation. (See Chart 
32 and Table 165.) 

It is the policy in Maryland counties for salary expenditures 
to be not more than 76 per cent of the current expense budget. 
In 1930, no county exceeded this proportion, although in 1929 
both Harford and Washington spent more than 76 per cent for 
salaries. Their proportions for salaries of teachers were still 
the highest in the State in 1930, with 75.9 per cent of the budget 
in Washington and 74.4 per cent in Harford having been used 



State Aid; Distribution of the School Dollar 253 
CHART 32 

HOW THE SCHOOL TAX DOLLAR WAS SPETII 
IN THE MARYLAiND COUNTIES, 1930 




* Fixed Charges and Tuition to Adjoining Counties. 



for teachers' salaries. The high proportion of funds used for 
salaries in these counties is partly explained by the small per- 
centage used for transportation. (See Table 165.) 

In Calvert, Anne Arundel, Charles, and Queen Anne's, in which 
teachers' salaries required the smallest proportion of the current 
expense budget, from 60.5 to 63.4 per cent, auxihary agencies 
required the highest proportion of the current expenses, from 
13.5 to 14.7 per cent. (See Table 165.) 



254 1930 Report of State Depart:ment of Education 



TABLE 165 

Per Cent Distribution of School Expenditures for Year Ending July 31, 1930 



COUNTY 



County Average 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel. . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . . 

Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's. . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 
Worcester 

Baltimore City. . 

State 



Per Cent of Total Current Expense Funds Used For 



3.4 



2.3 
2.9 



3.3 
3.4 
3.6 
3.5 
3.1 

4.4 
3.0 
4.5 
4.9 
3.5 

3.6 
5.3 
7.1 
4.2 
5.1 

2.4 
4.0 
4.1 

2.7 

3.0 



2.2 

2.1 
2.2 
2.2 
4.1 
.8 

2.5 
2.9 
2.4 
2.4 
2.6 

3.4 
2.2 
2.2 
2.5 
1.8 

1.4 
2.8 
3.0 
1.7 
2.2 

1.5 

2.5 
2.1 

1.9 

2.0 



70.5 
61.5 
70.3 
60.5 
67.4 

67.5 
70.8 
62.3 
66.2 
70.9 

67.0 
74.4 

68.5 
67.1 
67.1 

71.1 
63.4 
67.7 
71.3 
65.7 

75.9 
70.0 

69.8 



67.7 



III 



4.8 

6.7 
4.6 
4.8 
4.3 
3.7 

5.2 
5.2 
3.9 
4.3 
3.3 



5.0 
4.7 
4.1 
5.1 
5.0 



5.3 
4.7 
4.2 

3.8 

4.3 



7.2 

7.5 
7.0 
8.4 
4.7 
7.0 

5.1 
7.7 
5.0 
6.4 
6.7 

5.2 
7.0 
6.7 
8.5 
1 



10 



4.5 
5.8 
8.5 

6.0 
7.2 



3.6 



3.5 
6.5 
2.3 
2.2 



4.0 
4.2 
6.7 
4.0 
2.2 



6.9 
1.7 
1.9 
1.2 
2.2 

3.2 
3.3 
2.2 

4.5 

4.1 



8.1 



13.9 
6.5 
15.7 
13.4 

9.3 
5.4 
14.7 
12.4 



9.3 
4.0 
8.7 
8.5 
6.1 

4.2 
13.5 
12.4 
11.5 
10.6 

4.6 
6.2 
10.0 

3.9 



0-2.S 



1.5 

.9 
1.4 
2.6 

.7 
1.6 

3.1 
.4 

1.4 
.8 

2.1 

1.9 
.5 

3.9 
.6 

1.5 



3.5 
.9 
.5 

1.7 

1.1 
2.1 
1.0 



5.0 



Per Cent of 
Expenditure 
for Current 
Expense and 
Capital Out- 
lay Used for 
Capital 
Outlay 



In Caroline, Prince George's, Washington, Somerset, and Mont- 
gomery, less than 2 per cent of the 1930 school expenditures were 
used for supervision. Each of these counties would have been 
entitled to employ at least one more supervisor than the number 
actually in service in 1929-30. For that year in Caroline there 
was a music, but no general elementary supervisor. In Calvert, 
a small county with a small total budget, the cost of supervision 
required more than 4 per cent of the total school current ex- 
penses. The State carries two-thirds of the cost of the super- 
visor's salary, and, through the Equalization Fund, helps even 
more to bear the expense of supervision and secure for even the 
least wealthy unit the benefits of an efficient program of instruc- 
tional supervision. (See Table 165.) 

Books, materials, and other costs of instruction required 



Distribution of School Expenditures 



255 



from 6.7 per cent of the budget in Allegany to as little as 2.5 
per cent in St. Mary's. Allegany, Washington, Carroll, Cecil, 
Kent, Montgomery, and Garrett were the only counties where 
at least 5 per cent of the amount for current expenses was used 
for books, materials, and other instructional costs. Expenditures 
for books will, of course, vary from year to year, and especially 
at times when a complete series of texts is replaced, the dis- 
bursements will necessarily be exceptionally large. Twelve coun- 
ties spent a larger portion of their budget for books and supplies 
in 1930 than in 1929, and in Washington, Baltimore, and Kent 
the increase was more than 1 per cent. The State encourages 
the counties to spend more for these very necessary aids to effi- 
cient instruction. (See Table 165.) 

The administration of a school system demands certain activi- 
ties whether the system be large or small. Teachers must be 
interviewed and engaged; books, suppHes, and fuel, ordered; 
buildings constructed; compulsory attendance laws enforced; 
financial transactions recorded. There is a minimum cost for 
such administration that must be met by every county, no matter 
how small. In the larger counties additional clerical help is 
needed and, in some, an assistant superintendent is appointed to 
carry some of the responsibility, but the cost of administration 
is in no sense proportional to the size of the school system. The 
proportion of the entire school budget used for general control 
and administration is, therefore, comparatively small in the coun- 
ties with a large school budget and population, and on the other 
hand, high in the counties where the total school budget is small. 
This explains the fact that in Allegany, Washington, Anne Arun- 
del, and Baltimore, the general control costs amounted to less 
than 3 per cent of the budget, whereas in Calvert and St. Mary's 
more than 7 per cent of all school money had to be paid for the 
expenses of administration. Through part-payment of salaries 
and the Equalization Fund the State is able to help the counties 
carry these costs. (See Table 165.) 

Costs of heating and cleaning the schools took an average of 
7.2 per cent of the county school budgets. In nine counties a 
larger percentage was used for these purposes in 1930 than in 
1929. Montgomery devoted more of its budget to this work than 
any county in the State, the per cent for 1930 being 10.1. The 
only large decreases are found in Dorchester and Somerset which 
had exceptionally high disbursements for fuel in 1929. (See 
Table 165.) 

Repair of the buildings and replacement of equipment took an 
average of 3.6 per cent of the school costs of the counties. Thir- 
teen counties had a higher proportion of the 1930 school budget 
devoted to these purposes than was the case in 1929. The in- 
crease was most marked in Charles, Anne Arundel, Garrett, and 



256 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



Prince George's. In Anne i^rundel the increase was due to the 
repairs necessitated by the fires in the AnnapoHs schools. In 
Charles, the large expenditures by the Federal government for 
maintenance at Indian Head explained the increase from 1.8 per 
cent in 1929 to 6.7 in 1930. (See Table 165.) 

Auxiliary agencies, including transportation, libraries, and 
health, are each year needing a larger percentage of the school 
budget. In 1930, 8.1 per cent of school disbursements were ex- 
pended for these items, whereas in 1929 only 7.1 per cent were 
so used. Ten counties spent from 10 to 15.7 per cent of their 
budgets for these purposes, and only three counties, Harford, 
Prince George's, and Washington, spent less than five per cent 
for auxiliary agencies. (See Table 165.) 

PROPORTION OF FUNDS FOR CAPITAL OUTLAY 
Capital outlay used 22.5 per cent of the combined expenditures 
for current expenses and capital outlay in the counties of Mary- 
land. Worcester used more than 53 per cent of the capital outlay 
and current expense disbursements for capital outlay, and in 
Baltimore and Montgomery corresponding capital outlay required 
43.3 and 32.3 per cent, respectively. The only other counties 
where capital outlay took more than a fourth of the combined 
disbursements were Washington, Charles, Talbot, Prince George's 
and Wicomico. (See Table 165.) 

CURRENT EXPENSE COST PER DAY SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 

The average cost of educating a day school pupil during 1930, 
irrespective of the type of school, was $55.49, an increase of 94 
cents over the cost in the preceding year. The per pupil cost 
varied from $72.46 in Garrett, where there were many one- 
teacher schools, no colored pupils, and an extensive vocational 
program, to $44.51 in Somerset, $46.00 in Calvert, and $46.15 in 
St. Mary's, in which the colored children form a large portion of 
the school population. (See Table 166.) 

Six counties, Allegany, Somerset, Wicomico, Worcester, Balti- 
more, and Calvert had lower per pupil costs in 1930 than in 1929. 
On the other hand, increases of from $2.94 to $6.82 occurred in 
St, Mary's, Harford, Carroll, Caroline, and Charles. The large 
increase in per pupil cost in Charles is partly due to the increased 
expenditures by the Federal government at Indian Head. (See 
Table 166.) 

The analyses of the costs for the white elementary, white high 
and colored schools given on pages 77-84, 159-172. and 211-212, 
explain the variation and changes from 1929 to 1930, 

Cost Per Pupil for General Control 

Certain administrative functions must be carried out whether 
a school system be large or small. A larger school organization 
does not necessarily occasion a proportionately larger expenditure 



% Distribution of School Expenditures; Cost per Pupil Belonging 257 



TABLE 166 



Cost Per Day School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses for Years 
1927, 1928, 1929 and 1930 



County 


1927 


1928 


1929 


1930 


Increase 

1930 
over 1929 


County Average 


$51 .97 








DO 




A(\ 

49 


S .94 


Garrett 


63.32 


DO 


9o 


71 


1 o 
12 


IZ 


4o 


1 .34 


Carroll 


61.65 


64 


14 


62 


79 


66 


83 


4.04 


Montgomery 


56.79 


57 


11 


62 


92 


64 


51 


1.59 


Allegany 


63.07 


62 


40 


62 


58 


t61 


31 


*1 .27 


Cecil 


51 .35 


56 


43 


60 


91 


60 


94 


.03 




58.70 


57 


09 


59 


66 


59 


72 


.06 


Kent 


57.15 


58 


00 


57 


45 


58 


23 


.78 


Baltimore 


57.95 


56 


40 


t57 


19 


t56 


71 


*.48 


Howard 


49.16 


53 


27 


54 


52 


56 


23 


1 .71 


Caroline 


49.61 


50 


91 


50 


97 


55 


67 


4.70 




4.7 07 
TCI . y # 


47 


76 


50 


93 


54 


58 


o . OO 


Talbot 


49.92 


50 


90 


52 


81 


53 


67 


.86 




45.30 


49 


37 


52 


59 


t53 


37 


.78 


Dorchester 


47.38 


47 


59 


50 


96 


51 


64 


.68' 


Frederick 


49.55 


48 


67 


50 


56 


51 


46 


.90 


Worcester 


47.85 


49 


02 


51 


96 


51 


35 


*.61 


Washington 


45.40 


45 


22 


49 


01 


t50 


71 


1.70 


Prince George's 


50.79 


50 


98 


t49 


74 


t50 


70 


.96 


Charles 


39.51 


40 


68 


42 


60 


49 


42 


6.82 




48.26 


48 


27 


t49 


64 


t48 


56 


*1.08 




37.79 


41 


74 


43 


21 


46 


15 


2.94 


Calvert 


43.86 


42 


57 


46 


28 


46 


00 


*.28 


Somerset 


41.48 


42 


72 


45 


.72 


44 


51 


*1.21 



* Decrease. 

t In making this calculation, expenditures for tuition to adjoining counties, and for evening schools 
have been excluded and number belonging at Towson, Salisbury and Bo^vie Normal Schools have not 
been considered. 



for general control. The per pupil cost for administration will, 
therefore, be comparatively high in the counties having a small 
public school population while it will be considerably lower in 
the counties with a large public school population. Thus, in 
Calvert, St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, and Garrett, the per pupil 
cost for general control was between $3.20 and $3.57 in 1930, 
while in the same year the administration cost amounted to less 
than $1..50 per pupil in Washington and Allegany. (See Table 
167.) 



258 



1930 Report of State Dep.^rtment of Education 



TABLE 167 



Cost Per Pupil Belonging for General Control 



County 


1928 


1929 


1930 


Increase 
1930 
over 
1929 


County 


1928 


1929 


1930 


Increase 
1930 
over 
1929 


County Average. . 


$1.82 


$1 


85 


$1 


92 


$.07 


Worcester 


$1 


77 


$2 


06 


$2 


10 


$.04 














Cecil 


2 


01 


2 


11 


2 


06 


•05 


Calvert 


3.54 


3 


67 


3 


57 


•10 




1 


83 
89 


1 


94 


1 


95 


.01 


St. xMarv's 


3.25 


3 


20 


3 


28 


.08 
.09 




1 


2 


00 


1 


85 


•15 


Queen Anne's ... 


3.18 


3 


13 


3 


22 


Prince George's.. . 


1 


57 


1 


42 


82 


.40 


Garrett 


3.24 


3 


01 


3 


20 


.19 


















Kent 


t2.86 


t2 


73 


2 


88 


.15 


Dorchester 


1 


94 




73 


1 


78 


.05 








Charles 


1 


70 


1 


79 


1 


76 


•03 


Talbot 


2.44 


2 


45 


2 


75 


.30 


Baltimore 


1 


46 


1 


63 


1 


66 


.03 


Howard 


2.75 


2 


54 


2 


63 


.09 


Harford 


1 


56 


1 


63 


1 


63 


Caroline 


2.28 


2 


25 


2 


41 

25 


.16 


Frederick 


1 


20 


25 


1 


61 


.36 


Montscomerj- 


2.18 


2 


31 


2 


•06 








Carroll 


2.12 


2 


13 


2 


18 


.05 


Anne Arundel. . . . 


1 


58 


1 


50 


1 


58 


.06 
















AUeganv 


1 


57 


1 


55 


1 


46 


•.09 
















Washington 


1 


09 


1 


17 


1 


20 


.03 



* Decrease. 

t Adjusted to include payments actually due in year in question. 
For 1930 disbursements for general control, see Table XXIV, page 354. 



All but six counties, Calvert, Montg-omery, Cecil, Somerset, 
Charles, and Allegany, had increases in the per pupil cost for 
general control from 1929 to 1930. The increases amounted to 
as much as 30 to 40 cents in Prince George's and Frederick, each 
of which added an assistant superintendent, and in Talbot, which 
appointed a more experienced superintendent. The cost per pupil 
for general control in the average county was $1.92, an increase 
of 7 cents over 1929. (See Table 167.) 

Cost Per Pupil jn Various Types of Schools 

The per pupil costs for current expenses, excluding general 
control, are given for all types of schools in Table 168. The costs 
have been considered in detail for white elementary schools on 
pages 77 to 84; for white high schools on pages 159-172, and 
for colored elementary and high schools on pages 211-212. 

The cost of educating a county elementary school pupil can be 
easily compared with the corresponding cost for a county white 
high school pupil in Chart 33. The cost per high school pupil, 
S97.60, is nearly twice the expenditure for each elementary pupil, 
S49.78. The higher salary, due to the longer period of training 
required for high school teachers, the smaller number of pupils 
per class and per classroom, and the more expensive books and 
equipment necessary in the high school grades all explain the 
tremendous difference in cost between elementary and high school 
education. 

The proportion of the total cost used for teachers' salaries, 
maintenance and operation, and auxiliary agencies is very similar 
for the white high and elementary schools. Textbooks and sup- 
plies required only 4.3 per cent of the total cost in the average 



Cost per Pupil for General Control and by Types of Schools 2 



o 
© 

w 

Cm 
© 

a. 



.So 

COS 
© 1-1 



52 Mjo 

o 



■© 
© 



88 



spoqag 



siooi[og 



sjooqog 



IIV 



sjooqog 



SJOOlfOg 



sjooqog 
jaqo^aX-auQ 



sjooqog 
q3iH a^iqM 



sjooqog 

Jjy UI JOJ-^UOQ JBJ3U90 

joj jidnj^ Jdd %so^ ui y\uv^ 



W 

J' 

o 
Pi 

§2 

^§ 
OO 

So 
o 



sjooqog 
;^JB:^u^uI^Jg 



sjooqog 



sjooqog 
XjB^uamojg 



IIV 



§ sjooqog 



§ sjooqog 
jaqoBox-oMX 



§ sjooqog 
jaqoBaX'^^O 



sjooqog 



joj:juo3 jbjouoo joj 
3uT3uoj9a jidHfj J9d :>so3 



030 O— < -OOO lOrfiC 



c; 1^ --D Tt< ^ — lie -H 00 lo 



OOTf O 

CO OO 



IM rH 



$25.02 

39.44 
23.14 
41 . 13 
19.03 
23.24 

34.46 
35.70 
18.67 
22.00 
27.49 


30.89 
23.61 
25.27 
21.99 

27.41 
21.07 
22.05 
19.18 
23.90 

36.75 
22.36 
19.96 

t67.43 

44,07 


f45.86 

08.20 
53. 18 


60.39 
67.87 

78 83 
69^33 
41 .93 
30.18 
41.29 






48.29 
47.36 

60 74 
45^87 


23.96 
31.70 

66 20 
35^83 
32.01 

62.05 

96.25 



KMOIIN •-iC«5C«5-H(N '-i.-KM (N 



■2 o s 



260 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 33 
1950 COST, EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL, 

PER COONTI PUPIL BELONGING 



In White 
High Schools 

In MLte 

Elementary ^ 97.60 

Schools 




a Supervision. 

b Text Books and Supplies. 



county white elementary school, but in the average county white 
high school they took more than half again as much, 6.6 per 
cent. The high school cost for auxiliary agencies increased from 
$6.93 per pupil in 1929 to $8.00 per pupil in 1930, due chiefly to 
the fact that a number of counties abandoned the policy of hav- 
ing high school pupils pay part of the cost of transportation to 
high school. (See Chart 33.) 

FINANCING OF VOCATIONAL WORK IN MARYLAND 
The maximum allotment to Maryland from the Federal gov- 
ernment under the Smith-Hughes Act is $96,052, of which a 
maximum of $33,864 is allocated to agriculture, $48,418 to in- 
dustrial education and home economics, and $13,770 to teacher 
training and supervision. The amount of this Federal fund 
actually used was $82,773, leaving an unexpended balance of 
$13,279, which was returned to the Federal government. The 
balance existed because the Act specifically designates that cer- 
tain amounts must be used for part-time and continuation work. 



Cost per High and Elementary Pupil; Vocational Education Cost 261 



and this phase of vocational training is just being developed by 
the State Supervisor of Industrial Education. Of the $82,773 
received and used, $189 was needed to cover an overdraft in 1929. 
From the remaining $82,584, $27,238 was expended for salaries 
of teachers of agriculture, $29,789 for salaries of teachers of 
trade and industrial subjects, $9,684 for salaries of teachers of 
home economics, and $15,873 for administration, supervision and 
teacher training in these three branches. 

In addition to the money available from the Smith-Hughes Act, 
$4,951 was allotted to Maryland from the George-Reed Fund. Of 
this, $2,810 was used for salaries of teachers and supervisors of 
home economics. The remaining $2,141 which was allocated to 
agriculture, was unused and therefore returned to the Federal 
government. From the Smith-Hughes and George-Reed Funds 
together, Maryland received and used $85,583 for continuing 
and promoting vocational education in Maryland. 

Vocational work is further aided through State appropriations 
amounting to $11,166 toward the salaries of vocational teachers 
in the counties, and $9,224 for administration and supervision 
of vocational work. In addition, there were expenditures for 
vocational work from county funds and from State funds such 
as high school aid and the Equalization fund totalling $38,484, 
from city funds amounting to $107,099, and from the University 
of Maryland aggregating $8,461. The total amount spent in 
Maryland in 1930 for vocational education, including the Federal 
reimbursement, was $260,017. For the vocational salary ex- 
penditures in the various counties, see Table 107, page 165. 

Baltimore City's Vocational Education Program 

The 1930 salary cost of the vocational education program in 
Baltimore City exceeded *$126,000, $5,000 more than in 1929. 
Baltimore City appropriations of *$107,098 covered the cost of 
85 per cent of the salary budget and the Federal reimbursements 
totalling $18,980 carried the remaining 15 per cent. Almost 
three-fourths of the vocational salary expenditures were used 
for teachers in the 5 day vocational schools which enrolled 1,040 
pupils. The salary cost per pupil was $89.72. (See Table 169.) 

In the part-time, general continuation, and evening industrial 
classes the Federal appropriations matched the city expenditures. 
The salary cost per pupil in the part-time industrial classes which 
enrolled only 38 pupils was $182.89. In the evening industrial 
classes with 1,176 enrolled, the salary cost per pupil was $7.66. 
(See Table 169.) 

The major portion of the salary cost in the evening home eco- 
nomics classes was paid by Baltimore City, federal funds carry- 
ing only $1,199 out of the total cost of $10,675. An enrollment 
of more than a thousand pupils brought the salary cost per pupil 
to $10.39. (See Table 169.) 



* Includes $900 toward the salary of the state supervisor of industrial education. 



262 



1930 Report of State Depaetment of Education 



TABLE 169 



Salary Expenditures in Baltimore City for Vocational Education, 
Year Ending July 31, 1930 



Type of School 


From 
City 
Funds 


From 
Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Enroll- 
ment 


Vocational 
Education 
Salary 
Cost per 

Pupil 
Enrolled 


Da V Industrial 

Part-time Industrial. . . 
General Continuation. . 
Evening Industrial. .... 
Evening Home Eco- 
nomics 

Total 


$86,125.95 
3,475.00 
2,615.00 
4,506.50 

9,476.03 


$7,184.05 
3,475.00 
2,615.00 
4,506.50 

1,198.97 


$93,310.00 
6,950.00 
5,230.00 
9,013.00 

10,675.00 


1,040 
38 
299 
1,176 

1,027 


$89.72 
182.89 
17.49 
7.66 

10.39 


$106,198.48 


$18,979.52 


$125,178.00 


3,580 


$34.97 



Administration, Supervision and Teacher Training in Vocational Education 
Administration, supervision, and teacher training in agricul- 
ture cost $14,695. Towards this total the State contributed 
$4,530, the University of Maryland, $3,246, and the Federal 
Government, $6,919. For supervision and teacher training for 
vocational work in trade and industry, the State contributed 
$2,023, Baltimore City paid $900, and the University of Mary- 
land expenditures were $2,977. The Federal allotment of $4,962 
made the total expenditures for these purposes $10,862. For 
vocational home economics the Federal Government almost 
matched expenditures by the State and University of Maryland, 
the State appropriation being $2,671 ; that of the University of 
Maryland, $2,238, thus making the total expenditure, including 
the Federal funds, $9,794. (See Table 170.) 

TABLE 170 



Expenditures for Supervision and Teacher Training in Vocational Education, 
Year Ending July 31, 1930 



Purpose 


Administration 
and Supervision 


Teacher-Training 


Total 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Univ. of 

Md. 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


State and 
University 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Agriculture 

Trade and Industry 

Home Economics 

Total 


$ 4,529.82 
t2.923.04 
2,671.47 


$3,673.09 
1,984.40 
2,646.05 


$3,245.70 
2,977.18 
2,238.16 


$3,245.67 
2,977.20 
2,238.16 


$ 7,775.52 
5,900.22 
4,909.63 


$ 6.918.76 
4,961.60 
4.884.21 


$10,124.33 


$8,303.54 


$8,461.04 


$8,461.03 


$18,585.37 


$16,764.57 



t Includes $900 paid by Baltimore City. 



Vocational Education Costs; Growth in Transportation 263 



GROWTH IN TRANSPORTATION OF PUPILS 
During the school year ending in June, 1930, the 23 Maryland 
counties spent $603,148 for the transportation of 22,814 pupils 
to the county elementary and high schools. The expenditures 
were $90,763 more than in 1929 and the number of children 
transported at public expense increased by 3,886. (See Table 
171.) 

TABLE 171 



County Expenditures for Transportation to School 1910 — 1930 



Year 


Expenditures for 
Transportation 


Number of 
Counties 


Number of Pupils 
Transported 


1910 


So, 210 


4 




1915 


17,270 


10 




1920 


64,734 


18 




1921 


84.870 


18 




1922 


90,011 


18 




1923 


132,591 


20 


4,334 


1924 


188,516 


21 


6,499 


1925 


242,041 


22 


8,618 


1926 


312,495 


22 


10,567 - 


1927 


.373,168 


23 


13,385 


1928 


*436,583 . 


23 


15,907 


1929 


t512,385 


23 


18,928 


1930 


603,148 


23 


22,814 



* Excludes $700 advanced to' driver for purchase of bus. 
t Excludes $1,056 advanced to driver for. purchase of bus. 



Of the 22,814 pupils transported at public expense, 16,980 were 
carried to elementary schools and 5,834 to county high schools. 
The increase over 1929 in number of pupils transported to, ele- 
mentary schools was 2,710, and to high schools, 1,176. (See 
Table 172.) 

The $441,441 paid for transportation to elementary schools 
covered the entire cost of transportation for the pupils carried 
at county expense. The public expenditure for high school trans- 
portation totalling $161,707 was augmented by payments from 
parents of pupils in Baltimore, Cecil, Frederick, Howard, Kent, 
Montgomery, Prince George's, and Queen Anne's Counties. The 
amounts paid varied from $1 to $4 a month. In Carroll and 
Harford, the parents had to pay the entire cost, if transportation 
was necessary to bring pupils to high school. (See Table 172.) 

Anne Arundel transported 2,369 children to elementary schools 
in 1930. Baltimore was a close second with 1,959 pupils carried 
to the elementary schools at the expense of the county. Fred- 



264 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 172 

Maryland Pupils Transported in 1930 at Expense of Counties 





Pupils Transported 


County Expenditures 
for Transportation 


COUNTY 


















To 














Ele- 


To 




To Ele- 


To 




1 otai 


men- 


nign 


1 oiai 


mentary 


Mign 






tary 


School 




School 


School 






School 










Total Counties. . . 


♦22,814 


*16,980 


5,834 


$603,148 


$441,441 


$161,707 


Anne Arundel .... 




, ooy 


OO-i 


Ol , 040 




19 1 9Q 


Baltimore 


2,780 


1.959 


821 


57,056 


34,989 


22,067 


Frederick 


1,806 


1,645 


161 


45,781 


40,686 


5,095 


Allegany 


1,355 


1,188 


167 


42,352 


36,188 


6,164 


Carroll .... 


1,090 


1,090 




34,691 


34,691 




Dorchester 


1 91 Q 




oOD 




99 nftft 

, UoO 


in 9Q1 


Garrett 


768 


419 


349 


27,468 


14,739 


12,729 


Caroline 


1,124 


786 


338 


26,918 


18,891 


8,027 


Montgomery 


1,331 


897 


434 


26,202 


20,368 


5,834 


Washington 


814 


601 


213 


25,132 


19,566 


5,566 


Somerset 


850 


525 


325 


23,347 


12,834 


10,513 


Charles 


709 


496 


213 


23,371 


15,588 


7,783 


Worcester 


866 


529 


337 


21,957 


12,953 


9,004 


Queen Anne's 


773 


541 


232 


20,895 


15,458 


5,437 


Prince George's. . . 


6914 


6708 


206 


20,496 


17,079 


3,417 


Talbot 


674 


446 


228 


19,825 


12,778 


7,047 


Wicomico 


627 


282 


345 


15,269 


6,709 


8,560 


Calvert 


408 


249 


159 


14,578 


9,614 


4,964 


Howard 


369 


258 


111 


13,775 


10,850 


2,925 


Kent 


386 


180 


206 


13,605 


7,021 


6,584 


Cecil 


435 


324 


111 


13,492 


10,220 


3,272 


St. Mary's 


483 


325 


158 


12,277 


7,968 


4,309 


Harford 


306 


306 




10,749 


10,749 
















o Includes 41 pupils transported to Bowie Normal School at state expense. 
6 Includes 24 pupils transported to Bowie Normal School at state expense. 
* Includes 65 pupils transported to Bowie Normal School at state expense. 

erick, Allegany, and Carroll each transported more than a thou- 
sand elementary children at public expense. Kent was the only 
county which transported fewer than 200 elementary school 
pupils and in only three other counties, Calvert, Howard, and 
Wicomico, did the elementary school transportation not include 
more than 300 children. 

Baltimore County transported by far the largest number of 
high school pupils, 821. Montgomery carried the next largest 
number, 434. In both of these counties the pupils and parents 



Pupils Transported, Cost of Transportation, Total and per Pupil 265 



paid part of the cost of transportation. In Anne Arundel, Dor- 
chester, Garrett, Wicomico, Caroline, Worcester, and Somerset, 
all of which pay the entire cost of high school transportation, 
between 325 and 365 pupils were transported to high school. In 
1930, transportation to high school was provided at public ex- 
pense for the children of St. Mary's County for the first time. 
(See Table 172.) 

Total expenditures for transportation varied from less than 
$15,000 a year in Harford, St. Mary's, Cecil, Kent, Howard, and 
Calvert to more than $42,000 in Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Fred- 
erick, and Allegany. No county spent less than $10,000 and Anne 
Arundel spent as much as $61,545 for transportation to the 
schools of the county. Baltimore and Montgomery counties both 
own a number of their buses and no amount has been included to 
cover the capital invested in them. (See Table 172.) 

Cost Per Pupil Transported 

TABLE 173 

Annual Cost Per Maryland County Pupil Transported 



County 



Total County. . 

Howard 

Kent 

Calvert 

Garrett 

Harford 

Washington 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Allegany 

Talbot 

Queen Anne's . . 
Dorchester. . . . 
Prince George's 
Prederick 

St. Mary's 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Wicomico 

Montgomery. . . 
Anne Arundel. . 
Baltimore 



Cost to County 
Per Pupil 
Transported 
to Elementary 
School 



$26 


10 


42 


05 


39 


01 


38 


61 


35 


18 


35 


13 


32 


56 


31 


83 


31 


54 


31 


43 


30 


46 


28 


65 


28 


57 


25 


77 


24 


97 


24 


73 


24 


52 


24 


48 


24 


45 


24 


03 


23 


79 


22 


71 


21 


23 


17 


86 



County 



Total County . . 

Allegany 

Charles 

Garrett 

Anne Arundel. . 
Somerset 

Kent 

Frederick 

Calvert 

Talbot 

Cecil 

Dorchester 

St. Mary's 

Baltimore 

Worcester 

Howard 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's . . 
Prince George's 

Montgomery. . . 

Carroll 

Harford 



Cost to County 
Per Pupil 
Transported 
to High 



School 


$27 


72 


36 


91 


36 


54 


36 


47 


33 


32 


32 


35 


31 


96 


31 


65 


31 


22 


30 


91 


29 


48 


28 


88 


27 


27 


26 


88 


26 


72 


26 


35 


26 


.13 


24 


81 


23 


.75 


23 


43 


16 


59 


13 


44 



266 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

The average cost of transporting a pupil to elementary school 
in the Maryland counties in 1930 was $26.10, a decrease of 85 
cents under the corresponding cost in 1929. The cost in the 
individual counties varied from $17.86 in Baltimore to $42.05 
in Howard. In 10 counties, elementary school transportation 
cost less than $25 per pupil and in five counties, Howard, Kent, 
Calvert, Garrett, and Harford, the cost per elementary pupil 
transported exceeded $35. In Harford, Charles, Carroll, and 
Howard, the per pupil cost of elementary school transportation 
showed a considerable increase. Decreases of between $5 and 
$17 in the cost per elementary pupil transported occurred in 
Garrett, Cecil, Anne Arundel, St. Mary's, and Kent. These de- 
creases are in general explained by the larger number of pupils 
transported in the latter counties. (See Table 173.) 

The average expenditure per high school pupil transported 
was $27.72, just 10 cents more than in the preceding year. In 
1930 for the first time Caroline, Charles, Garrett, and Washing- 
ton changed to the policy of paying the entire cost of high 
school transportation. In Charles and Caroline this change re- 
sulted in a large increase in the county expenditure per pupil. 
Allegany, Charles, and Garrett each paid more than $35 for 
every high school pupil transported and only two counties, Mont- 
gomery and Prince George's, spent less than $20 per high school 
pupil for this purpose. Increases in the number of pupils trans- 
ported, or reductions in expenditures for transportation to high 
school, or both of these factors combined, caused decreases of 
six dollars or more in the cost per pupil transported to high 
school in Cecil, Allegany, Montgomery, and Queen Anne's. (See 
Table 173.) 

Number of Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided 

In 1930 transportation was provided at public expense to 105 
graded elementary schools, to 53 two-teacher schools, and to 31 
one-teacher schools. There were thus altogether 189 schools 
having only elementary grades to which children were trans- 
ported. In addition, 119 schools with both high and elementary 
grades were provided with transportation at the expense of the 
counties. Of these 119 schools, 83 had both high and elementary 
pupils transported, 32 had transportation for the elementary 
pupils only, and 4 for the high school pupils only. Of the schools 
which limit their enrollment to high school pupils, 18, an increase 
of 2 over 1929, enrolled pupils who were transported at county 
expense. (See Table 174.) 

Colored pupils were transported at county expense to 18 
schools in 8 counties. Cecil, Harford, and Washington, which 
had transportation for colored pupils in 1929, reported no chil- 
dren transported to colored schools at county expense in 1930. 



Cost per Pupil Transported, Schools to Which Transported 267 

TABLE 174 

Number of Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided at County Expense, 

Year Ending July 31, 1930 



COUNTY 



Schools with Elementary 
Grades Onlj- 



One- 
Teacher 
Schools 



Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 



Graded 
Schools 



Schools 
Having 
Both High 
and Ele- 
mentary 
Grades* 



Schools 
Having 
High School 
Pupils 
Only 



Colored 
Schools 



Total 
Number 
in 

Different 
Schools 



Total Counties. 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel. 
Baltimore. . . . 

Calvert 

Caroline 



31 



Carroll. . . . 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. 
Frederick . . 



Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. 



Prince George's.. 
Queen Anne's . . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 



Washington . 
Wicomico . . . 
Worcester. . 



105 



11 



119 



3 
6 
4 
3 
bl3 

7 
1 
1 

2 
6 



18 



344 

22 
21 
28 
8 
18 

19 
13 
9 
16 
31 

16 
7 

5 
8 
22 

17 
19 
8 
8 
8 

20 
13 



Allegany . 
Carroll. . . 

Cecil 

Charles. . 
Frederick . 



"To Elementary 
Only 
5 
11 
3 



^To High 
Only 



Harford 

Howard 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's , 
Washington 



*To Elementary 
Only 
6 
1 



'=To High 
Only 



a Includes Greene St. Junior High School with only grades 7-9 and Bruce High School with no 
elementary grades below junior high school. 

b Includes the Bethesda Chevy Chase High School and the Takoma Silver Spring Junior High 
School with no elementary grades below the seventh. 

The total number of schools to which the counties transported 
pupils was 344, or 30 more than in 1929. In Frederick, trans- 
portation was provided to 31 schools, and in Baltimore, Allegany, 
Montgomery, Anne Arundel, and Washington pupils were trans- 
ported to from 20 to 28 schools. (See Table 174.) 

In the fall of 1930, there were 665 motor vehicles used for the 
transportation of Maryland county school children. Of these, 53 
were owned by the County Boards of Education and 612 by con- 
tractors. Montgomery owned 23 buses; Baltimore, 16; Prince 
George's, 6 ; Garrett, 4 ; Calvert, 2 ; and Harford and St. Mary's, 
one each. In addition, 1,440 pupils went to school on public 



268 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



buses, 324 rode on trains and electric cars, and 59 came in private 
conveyances at the expense of the county. In Calvert County a 
motor boat was necessary for transportation in one section of 
the county, and in Dorchester, Garrett, and Montgomery, one 
or two horse-drawn vehicles were in use. The total distance 
covered one way by the 670 conveyances exclusive of public 
buses, trains and cars, was 5,592 miles, an average route of 
8 1-3 miles. 

EXPENDITURES FOR CAPITAL OUTLAY 

Only in the years 1925 and 1926 did the counties have a larger 
capital outlay than they had in 1930. Of the total capital outlay 
of $2,450,000, an amount of $1,428,000 was invested in white 
elementary schools, $944,000 in white high schools, $72,240 in 
colored schools and $6,000 in a residence to be rented to a super- 
intendent. (See Table 175.) 

Baltimore County's investment of $872,500 in school buildings 
included nearly 36 per cent of the total for the counties. Mont- 
gomery, Worcester, and Washington came next with capital out- 
lay totalling from $250,000 to $275,000, while Prince George's 
spent close to $200,000 and Frederick $122,000. 

Garrett County was the only one which invested funds of any 
amount in one-teacher schools. Montgomery, Frederick, Charles, 
and Washington used as much as $22,000 and as little as $2,700 
for two-teacher schools. All of the counties, except Queen Anne's, 
Calvert, Dorchester, Cecil, Charles, Howard, Garrett, and Har- 
ford, invested at least $5,000 in graded schools. Baltimore 
County's amount was $617,000 and Montgomery, Washington, 
Frederick, and Prince George's invested at least $100,000. 

Most of the counties found it necessary to make substantial 
additions to their high school building program. The only ex- 
ceptions were St. Mary's, Calvert, Queen Anne's, Caroline, Som- 
erset, Kent, Harford, and Anne Arundel. Baltimore, Worcester, 
Washington, and Prince George's devoted $90,000 or more to 
this purpose. 

Wicomico and Baltimore Counties each spent $30,000 on 
schools for colored children. (See Table 175.) 

The major portion of the Baltimore City capital outlay of 
$1,508,000 was used for white and colored elementary schools. 
There was also a substantial outlay for white senior high schools. 

State Department of Health Reports on Sanitary Inspections of Schools 

Examination of the water supply and sewerage facilities avail- 
able in municipal and rural schools, to the extent normally of 
from 200 to 300 schools each year, are made by the Bureau of 
Sanitary Engineering in the State Department of Health. The 
inspections are usually restricted to the water supply and sewer- 
age facilities, but as occasion has arisen they have included 



Capital Outlay by Types of Schools 



269 



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270 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



lighting and ventilation where complaint regarding them has 
been made. As a result of the inspections, it has been found that 
many of the schools are being operated without any water sup- 
ply facilities and without minimum sanitary equipment. 

Inspections of the more recently constructed buildings have 
disclosed the fact that many of the new buildings are being con- 
structed without reference to their needs in these particulars. 
Some cooperative plan is desirable whereby the new school sites 
could be passed upon from a sanitary viewpoint before the sites 
are purchased and the buildings constructed. 

SCHOOL BOND ISSUES 
The only change from the statement regarding bond issues ap- 
pearing on pages 248 and 249 of the 1929 annual report is re- 
quired for the following counties, shown in Table 176. 



TABLE 176 

County Amount of Issue Status 

Anne Arundel $1,000,000 Favorable referendum November, 1930 

Howard 80,000 Unfavorable referendum 

Queen Anne's 20,000 Bonds issued 

Washington 150,000 

271,000 

Wicomico _. 300,000 

Baltimore City 1,500,000 Favorable referendum November, 1930 



Anne Arundel and Baltimore City had a favorable referendum 
on their bond issues of $1,000,000 and $1,500,000, respectively. 
The amount in Baltimore City is to be used for land and buildings 
for schools for handicapped children. 

SCHOOLS BONDS OUTSTANDING AS OF SEPTEMBER, 1930 
On September 30, 1930, the school bonds outstanding in 20 of 
the 23 counties aggregated $14,395,834, an increase of $881,000 
over the corresponding amount for 1929. The majority of the 
counties showed a decrease in the total amount of bonds out- 
standing. The only exceptions were Dorchester, Prince George's, 
Queen Anne's, Washington, and Wicomico, which added to their 
indebtedness the bonds recently issued. (See Table 177.) 

If the 1930 assessable basis for each county is divided by the 
school bonds outstanding, the wealth back of each dollar of 
school indebtedness is obtained. For the 23 counties the average 
is $64 and the counties vary from as little wealth back of each 
dollar of indebtedness as $36, $38, and $42 in Allegany, Balti- 
more, and Montgomery Counties, which are growing most rap- 
idly, to over $200 in Cecil, Harford, Somerset, Kent, Queen 
Anne's, Carroll, Garrett and St. Mary's. The last three counties 
have issued no bonds. (See Table 177.) 

Another way of showing bonded indebtedness is to find the 
per cent which bonds outstanding are of the assessable basis. 



School Bonds Outstanding 



271 



TABLE 177 

School Bonds Outstanding in Maryland, September, 1930 









Assessable 


Per Cent that 




School 


1930 Assessable 


Basis Back 


Indebtedness 




Bonds 


Basis Taxable 


of Each 


for School 


COUNTi 


Outstanding 


at the r ull Rate 


11 

Dollar 


Bonds IS oi 




September, 


for County 


of School 


Total County 




1930 


Purposes 


Indebtedness 


Basis 


Total Counties.. 


.$14,395,834 


$917,677,007 


$64 


1.6 


Allegany 


2 . 27o , 000 


81,910,860 


36 


2.8 


Anne Arundel . . 


389,667 


48,106,286 


123 


.8 


Baltimore 


4,289.667 


164,307,833 


38 


2.6 


Calvert 


43,000 


5,545,986 


129 


.8 


Caroline 


99,000 


15,170,502 


153 


.7 


Carroll 




3d , o3o , 932 






Cecil 


135,000 


35,916,385 


266 


"4 


Charles 


90,000 


10.162,001 


113 


.9 


Dorchester 


250,000 


22.494,944 


90 


1.1 


Frederick 


931,000 


65,243,581 


70 


1.4 


Garrett 




21 .o26.404 






Harford 


162,500 


50,845,715 


*3i3 


' '3 


Howard 


172,000 


17.956,072 


104 


1.0 


Kent 


35,000 


16,107,585 


459 


.2 


TV T „ J. 

Montgomery. . . 


. 1 , 988 , 000 


82,614,610 


42 


2.4 


Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's,. . 


. 1,216,500 


62,757,194 


52 


1.9 


28,000 


16,536,242 


591 


.2 


St. Mary's 




8,370,593 






Somerset 


32,500 


12,149,610 


374 


'3 


Talbot 


284,000 


20,486,515 


72 


1.4 


Washington. . . . 


1,359,000 


75,316,469 


55 


1.8 


Wicomico 


316,000 


26,250,052 


83 


1.2 


Worcester 


300,000 


21,364.636 


71 


1.4 


Baltimore City . 


. 23,944,821 


1,328,779.031 


55 


1.8 


Entire State 


$38,340,655 


$2,246,4.56.038 


$ 59 


1.7 



For 1930 the average for the 23 counties was 1.6 per cent, and 
for Baltimore City 1.8 per cent. In three counties, Allegany, 
Baltimore, and Montgomery, the outstanding bonds represent 
between 2 and 3 per cent of the assessable wealth. In Can-oil, 
Garrett, St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, Kent, Somerset, Harford, and 
Cecil, the school bonds outstanding are less than one half of one 
per cent of the assessable wealth. (See Table 111.) 

The credit of a governmental unit is considered sound and its 
bonds are rated as satisfactory for investment by savings banks 
and trust companies, if the bonds outstanding do not represent 



272 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



more than 7 per cent of the assessable wealth. Schools and roads 
are the usual purposes for which bonds are issued. If the 
amounts issued for roads are not excessive, no county in Mary- 
land has issued bonds for school purposes which would endanger 
its credit. 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY INCREASED 
The value of school property for the State of Maryland in 
1930 increased to $55,741,000, of which $21,484,000 was the total 
for the counties and $34,257,000 the aggregate value for Balti- 
more City. These amounts represent increases over 1929 of 
$1,564,000 in the counties and $1,376,000 in Baltimore City. 
(See Table 178.) 

TABLE 178 
Value of School Property, 1922—1930 



Year 


Value of School Property 


Value Per Pupil Enrolled 


Maryland 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


Mary- 
land 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


1922. . . 
1923. . . 
1924. . . 
1925 .. 
1926. . . 
1927... 
1928... 
1929. . . 
1930. . . 


$20,453,646 
22.236.638 
28.264.507 
33.622.503 
38.865.024 
48.654.045 
51 ,765.517 
52.801,013 
55,741,316 


0.014, 638 
11,790,630 
12.813,396 
14.946,810 
16.704.564 
17,889,796 
18,994,670 
19.920 102 
21,483,720 


$10,439,008 
10.440,008 
15.451.111 
18,675,693 
22,160,460 
30,764,249 
32.770.847 
32,880,911 
34,257,596 


$82 
87 
110 
129 
148 
182 
191 
193 
215 


$68 
77 
85 
97 
108 
114 
120 
124 
142 


$103 
100 
147 

164 
205 
277 
291 
290 
318 



The average value of property per pupil enrolled was $215 for 
the entire State, the amount for the counties being $142 and 
for Baltimore City $318. The average increase in value for the 
counties v»^as $18 per pupil and for Baltimore City $28. Since 
1922 the value of property per pupil enrolled has more than 
doubled in the counties and more than tripled in Baltimore City. 

In the latest data for the United States for the year 1928, 
the average value of school property per pupil enrolled was $218, 
at the time when it was $191 for Maryland. At that time Mary- 
land's rank among the states was thirtieth in this particular. 

In the counties the valuation of school property used by white 
pupils was $20,266,000, an average value per pupil belonging of 
$161. This is an increase of $9 over the value per pupil belong- 
ing in 1929. For colored pupils, the valuation of $1,217,000 
gives a value per pupil belonging of $47, an increase of $1 over 
1929. (See Table 179.) 



Value of School Property, Total and per Pupil 



273 



Valuation of school property per white pupil belonging in 1930 
varied from $349 in Montgomery, $255 in Allegany, and $219 
in Baltimore County to $78 in Worcester and St. Mary's, $79 in 
Carroll, and $82 in Garrett. Eight of the counties have a valua- 
tion of school property per white pupil belonging of under $100. 
In addition to the four counties just listed, Calvert, Anne Arun- 
del, Queen Anne's and Wicomico had valuations between $90 and 
$100. (See CJuirt 34 and Table 179.) 



CHART 34 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERPY PER '^TE POPIL BELONGING 




274 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 179 

Value of School Property Per Pupil Belonging, 1930 



COUaTY 


Schools for White Pupils 


Schools for Colored Pupils 


'\T 1 

V alue 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pupil 


V alue 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pupil 


Total Counties . 


$20,266,422 


125,530 


$161 


$1,217,298 


25,938 


$47 


Allegany 


a6 , 525 , zoO 


13,831 


OCT tr 

z5o 


OZ , UOO 


OIK 

31o 


ICC 

160 


Anne Arundel. . 


i2 A t f\r\f\ 

64 1 ,000 


0,903 


no 
93 


103,400 


o a A 1 

2,641 


orv 
39 


Baltimore 


S . 94d , 500 


17,999 


219 


214,000 


1 , 877 


114 


L/alvert 


91,200 


992 


92 


24,200 


1,048 


23 


Caroline 


358,800 


2,844 


126 


21,500 


848 


25 


Carroll 


f>4 / 6 , 802 


D , 030 


i-r(-\ 

79 


14, 913 


ooc 
326 


A Cl 

46 


Cecil 


ICO ctr\r\ 
4oo , 600 


3,914 


116 


lo, UUU 


454 


4U 


Cnarles 


ZZo , 67 O 


1 TO r 

1 , / 8o 


1Z7 


K C OO C 

55,3z5 


1 ATi 

1 ,471 


00 
00 


Dorchester 


494,800 


3,713 


133 


38,000 


1,459 


26 


Frederick 


cl, 218, 650 


9,353 


130 


54,150 


950 


57 


Garrett 


366,995 


4,468 


82 








Harford 


575,900 


4,998 


115 


33,300 


685 


49 


Howard 


308,700 


2,270 


136 


15,900 


528 


30 


Kent 


214,450 


1,960 


109 


19,860 


894 


22 


Montgomery. . . 


d2, 528, 500 


7,245 


349 


107,650 


1,697 


63 


Prince George's . 


p1 422 800 


8 581 


166 


158 600 


2,707 


59 


Queen Anne's. . . 


191,400 


2,' 030 


94 


15,500 


'725 


21 


St. Mary's , 


95,450 


1,223 


78 


20,200 


1,059 


19 




313,700 


2,982 


105 


31,100 


1,765 


18 


Talbot 


435,500 


2,475 


176 


48,600 


1,154 


42 


Washington .... 


/I, 733, 950 


12,555 


138 


40,700 


349 


117 


Wicomico 


421,500 


4,452 


95 


94,600 


1,519 


62 


Worcester 


227,600 


2,927 


78 


35,800 


1,467 


24 


Baltimore City. 


^^30,098,356 


86,511 


348 


4,159,240 


21,076 


197 


Total State 


50,364,778 


212,041 


238 


5,376,538 


47,014 


114 



a Excludes $110,000, value of the Training Schilfl at Frostburg. 
b Excludes $3,000, value of six schools closed this year. 

c Excludes $1,950, value of four school closed this year, and $105,000, value of a new building^ 
not yet used. 

d Excludes $10,500 for two schools not opened during 1929-30. 
e Excludes $180,000 for two schools not yet completed. 
/Excludes .$9,000 for school not opened this year. 
y Excludes $444,603, value of the administration building. 

All of the counties, except Allegany, Baltimore, Harford, Kent,, 
Anne Arundel, and Calvert, showed increases in valuation of 
school property per white pupil belonging. The total valuation 
of school property decreased in the counties just named except 
Baltimore and Anne Arundel, but in these two counties the in- 



Value of School Property per Pupil and per Building in Use 275 



crease in valuation did not keep pace with the growth in school 
enrollment. The greatest increases appeared for Montgomery 
which has the highest valuation for the counties, for Dorchester 
which is still below the average in its valuation, for Talbot which 
ranks fourth in valuation per white pupil and in Charles which 
is also still below the average for the counties (See Chart 34 
and Table 179.) 

The counties which have had no bond issues, St. Mary's, Car- 
roll, and Garrett, are at the foot of the list. Worcester which is 
at the bottom for 1930 will show a gain for 1931 as a result of 
the erection of its new high school buildings. (See Chart 34 and 
Table 179.) 

In Baltimore City the valuation of school property per white 
pupil belonging ($348) was $8 higher than in 1929. The valua- 
tion of property per colored school pupil belonging is described 
on pages 215 to 218. 

AVERAGE VALUE PER SCHOOL BUILDING USED BY WHITE 
PUPILS INCREASED 

A conception of the increase in the value per school building 
used by white pupils, due largely to the abandonment of the one- 
teacher schools through consolidation, is gained from a compari- 
son of the corresponding figures for 1925 and 1930. The average 
value per building used by white pupils was $9,040 in 1925 and 
increased to $16,791 by 1930. The increase from 1929 to 1930 
was as much as $2,159. (See Chart 35.) 

The value per building is highest in Allegany, the amount be- 
ing over $47,000 in 1930. Montgomery and Baltimore stand next 
with amounts between $42,000 and $43,000. In Prince George's 
and Talbot, the average value per building is close to $21,000. 
At the opposite extreme, in seven counties, the average value per 
building used by white pupils is under $7,000, it being close to 
$3,000 in Garrett and St. Mary's, just over $4,000 in Calvert, 
around $6,000 in Carroll, Queen Anne's, and Worcester, and al- 
most $7,000 in Kent. Reference to Table 65, page 93, which gives 
the number of elementary schools of various sizes, will show that 
the last named counties still have a large number of small schools 
in use. (See C/iar^ 35.) 

With the exception of Cecil, Kent, Carroll, Calvert, and Wor- 
cester, the counties exhibit a steady and marked increase in the 
average value per building from 1925 to 1927, from 1927 to 
1929, and from 1929 to 1930. A revaluation of buildings taking 
into consideration depreciation, and the impossibility of making 
capital outlay investments because bond issues failed of authori- 
zation or of approval, explain the decreases or lack of increase 
from year to year in the five counties just mentioned. (See 
Chart 35.) 



276 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 35 







AVERAGE VALDE PER SCHOOL BDILDING DSED BY WHITE PUPILS 






IN THE MARYLAND COUNTIES, 1925, 1927, 1929, AND 1930 


County 1925 


1927 


1929 1930 




Av. ! 


^ 9,040|11,900$14,632 $16,791 




All. 


30,969 


37,000 


43,617 47,003 




Mont. 


12,089 


17,877 


29,067 42,856 




Bait. 


27,835 


40,073 


41,622 42,403 




P. G. 


11,568 


17,175 


20,321 21,236 


WWBMBIi^Bi 


Talb. 


9,712 


10,354 


14,717 20,738 


IHH^H^Hii 


A. A. 


11,133 


13,812 


16,919 17,806 




Wash. 


11,286 


14,841 


15,429 16,358 




Fred. 


6,526 


7,869 


12,353 14,862 




Caro. 


5,860 


9,603 


13,585 14,352 


HIHHHII 


Dor. 


3,041 


3,548 


6,090 rU245 




Somer. 


4,022 


8,561 


9,847 10, U9 


— 1 


Harf. 


7,346 


8,344 


9,205 10,104 




Chas. 


1,923 


2,653 


7,391 9,842 




Howard 


3,613 


8,797 


9,046 9,647 




Cecil 


5,154 


7,764 


6,876 8,400 




Kico. 


5,926 


6,208 


6,620 7,953 




Kent 


7,104 


6,735 


6,918 6,918 




ISorc. 


4,802 


5,895 


6,522 6,322 




Q. A. 


4,436 


4,770 


5,662 6,174 




Carr. 


4,849 


4,666 


6,231 6,815 




Calv. 


2,240 


4,053 


4,569 4,146 




St. U. 


1,448 


1,928 


2,975 5,291 




Garr. 


1,764 


2,027 


2,550 5,110 





COUNTY BUDGETS FOR ALL PURPOSES AND FOR SCHOOLS, 1930-31 
The county levies in the 23 Maryland counties for all purposes 
for 1930-31 aggregated $15,253,567, an increase of more than 
$307,000 over the levy for the preceding year. A large part of 
the increase occurred in the amount levied for school purposes, 
but the major part of the increase is explained by the necessary 
addition of $160,000 to Baltimore County's school current ex- 
pense budget. For county school current expense the levy of 
$6,292,780 was $234,000 more than the sum total of budgets re- 
ported for the preceding school year, Baltimore County being 
responsible for two-thirds of this increase. The levy for school 
debt service, $915,944, was $20,000 less than in 1929-30; while 
the levy for school capital outlay ($296,363) was $106,000 more 
than the corresponding amount levied the preceding year. (See 
Table 180.) 



Value of School Property per Building, County Budgets 1930-31 277 



TABLE 180 
County Tax Budgets, 1930-31 



COUNTY 



Total Counties 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel. 
Baltimore t • • • 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . 
Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford t 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 
Wicomico. . . . 
Worcester. . . . 



Total 



$15,253,567 

1,361,343 
1,124,045 
3.166,694 
128,174 
273,437 

700,977 
543,777 
140,867 
431,853 
948,933 

392,143 
621,276 
350,751 
300,170 
1,136,920 

802,176 
268,181 
119,679 
239,328 
317,720 

1,039,042 
497,485 
348,596 



COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS FOR 



SCHOOLS 



Current 
Expenses 



$6,292,780 

725,259 
432,426 
1,040,088 
41,082 
110,500 

307,808 
210,712 
64,725 
149,235 
422,500 

143,838 
242,000 
120,000 
109.329 
444,687 

450,180 
107.556 
56,000 
86,500 
147,000 

552,393 
187,265 
141,697 



Debt 
Service 



$ 915,944 

*119,087 
37,272 
293,717 
*4,452 
*14,362 

*1,000 
11,750 
*5 , 885 
*10,125 
*58,203 



20 . 625 
*9.740 
*2,550 
128,840 

*65,940 
*7,050 



*2,500 
"13,450 

79,926 
*13.970 
*15,500 



Capital 
Outlay 



$ 296,363 



9,710 
11,500 
7,000 
9,200 

53,118 
45,000 
5,275 



5,000 



25,000 
1,500 



12.000 



31,000 
2,850 



70,955 
7,255 



Schools 
Total 



$7,505,087 

844,346 
479,408 
1 , 345 , 305 
52.534 
134,062 

361.926 
267,462 
75 . 885 
159.360 
485 , 703 

168,838 
264,125 
129,740 
111.879 
573.527 

528.120 
114.606 
56,000 
120.000 
163,300 

632,319 
272,190 
164,452 



Roads 

and 
Bridges 



Other 
County 
Purposes 



$3,565,144 $4,183,336 



144.397 
270 . 363 
908,449 
30 . 224 
66.080 

86.000 
114.250 

20,000 
152,396 
226,222 

98,765 
176,350 
123,180 

71,102 
286,560 

1.53,523 
59 , 785 
23,000 
37,093 
87,140 

215,002 
119,763 
95 , 500 



* Paid by County Commissioners directly, 
t Budgets for the calendar year 1931. 

The total county budget was lower for 1931 than for 1930 in 
eight counties, Caroline, Charles, Frederick, Harford, Kent, St. 
Mary's, and Somerset. The school current expense budgets were 
also lower in eight counties — Calvert, Caroline, Carroll, Charles, 
Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset, and Wicomico. In all ex- 
cept seven counties, Baltimore, Montgomery, Queen Anne's, Tal- 
bot, Washington, Wicomico, and Worcester, there was a decrease 
in the levy for school debt service. The levy for school capital 
outlay was the same or greater in all of the counties, except 
Howard, St. Mary's, Talbot, and Washington. (See Table 180.) 

The levy for school purposes must be expected to increase in 
counties which are growing and require the addition of new 
teachers to take care of additional elementary pupils ; in counties 
which are developing their high school program so that a con- 
stantly larger number of elementary school graduates is entering 
high school; in counties which are improving the training and 
experience of their teaching staffs and which are building up a 
more adequate supply of books and materials as aids in the 



278 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



learning and teaching process ; in counties which are putting up 
new buildings to care for increased elementary or high school 
enrollment or to replace antiquated, poorly lighted and ventilated 
rural school buildings with modern well constructed consolidated 
schools. 

Baltimore County's school current expense levy for the calen- 
dar year, 1931, totalling $1,040,088, was an increase of $160,000 
over the levy for the year 1930, which was unusually low because 
in addition to the $880,418 levied in 1930 a balance of $100,000 
which had accumulated over a period of years was used up. 
Other counties w^hich had larger levies for school current ex- 
pense in 1931 than in 1930 varied in the amount of the increase 
from $2,000 to $24,000. Anne Arundel's levy increased by $24,- 
000, Harford's by $15,000, Prince George's by $13,000, Alle- 
gany's by $9,000, Cecil's by $7,000, Washington's and Talbot's 
by $6,500 and $6,000, respectively, Dorchester's, Worcester's, 
and Kent's by $4,000, $3,600, and $2,000, respectively. 

The only counties which had a larger levy for school debt 
service were Baltimore with an increase of $21,600, Washington 
with $12,800, Wicomico with $11,160, and Montgomery with 
$5,200. Included in this item are amounts for interest and 
principal on outstanding school bonds paid out not only by the 
county boards of education, but also by the county commissioners 
directly. (See Table 180.) 

Provision for school capital outlay in the levy was increased 
by $48,200 in Carroll, by nearly $33,000 in Cecil, by nearly 
$11,000 in Wicomico, by from $5,000 to $8,000 in Prince George's, 
Worcester, Calvert, Caroline, Somerset, Frederick, and by close 
to $2,000 in Garrett and Anne Arundel. Carroll has not secured 
a bond issue for school construction and of necessity must make 
some capital outlays. Cecil desires to finance further school 
capital outlay on a pay-as-you-go policy. Wicomico is setting 
aside $70,955 for capital outlay and Somerset is paying off the 
amounts due the holding companies in Princess Anne and Cris- 
field which advanced the funds needed for the erection of new 
buildings in these localities. Garrett has not secured a bond 
issue and must finance school construction from the county levy. 
(See Table 180.) 

PROPORTION OF LEVY FOR COUNTY AND INCORPORATED TOWNS 

USED FOR SCHOOLS 
In order to know the proportion of funds used for school pur- 
poses, it is necessary to add to the county levy for all purposes 
the amounts levied by incorporated cities, towns, sanitary dis- 
tricts, etc., which in certain counties perform functions delegated 
in other counties solely to the county. For this purpose all of 
the superintendents co-operated in securing the amounts levied 



County School Budgets 1930-31; Proportion of Le\'Y for Schools 279 

CHART 36 



PER CENr OF 1931 BUDGETS FOR COUNTIES AND INCORPORATED 
TOWNS AND DISTRICTS USED FOR SCHOOLS 



County- 



Total 
Per Cent 
Used For 
Schools 



County Average 42.6 
Pr. George's 56.2 
St. Mary's 
Charles 
Carroll 
Allegany 
Talbot 
Queen Anne's 
Washington 
Cecil 

Anne Arundel 
Frederick 
Harford 
Montgomery 
Caroline 



Garrett 
Kent 

Worcester 

Howard 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Dorchester 



45.2 
52.2 
46.6 
45.6 
43.4 
40.3 
41.2 
45.1 
39.1 
40.2 
37.9 
44.0 
41.3 
39.9 
34.1 
38.5 
35.8 
42.5 
41.0 
43.3 
43.9 
30.9 



Current 

Expense 



Debt 
Service 



Capital 
Outlay 








39.2 




•39.1 


mm 




34.7 




34.1 




34.1 





34.0 


1 5.9 \ 


33-3 












32-8 




32.1 




5.4 1 




^ "-^ 1 


70.2 ^1 




1 29.0 E 





in incorporated towns and districts which levy taxes in addition 
to those levied by the county. 

The total amount of the county levies was fifteen and a quarter 
million dollars. The additional amounts levied by cities, towms 
and districts totalled over two and a quarter million dollars and 
were found in every county except Baltimore and Calvert. These 



280 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



additional amounts were close to half a million dollars in Wash- 
ington and Allegany Counties, in which the cities of Hagerstown 
and Cumberland are located. Frederick's additional levy was 
$258,000, and Montgomery, Prince George's, Wicomico, and 
Anne Arundel raised between $100,000 and $166,000. In Charles 
and St. Mary's the additional amounts levied were close to $4,000. 

On the average the 23 counties levied for school current ex- 
pense 35.7 per cent of the total amount levied for county, city, 
town, or district purposes. An additional 5.2 per cent was levied 
for school debt service and 1.7 per cent for school capital outlay 
making the total for all school purposes in the 23 counties 42.6 
per cent. (See Chart 36.) 

The counties varied greatly in the per cent of funds levied used 
for school purposes. For school current expense, the percentages 
varied from 48, 45 and 44 in Prince George's, St. Mary's, and 
Charles, respectively, to less than 33 per cent in Dorchester, 
Wicomico, Somerset, Calvert, and Baltimore Counties. Fifteen 
of the counties ranged between 33 and 40 per cent in the pro- 
portion of the levy for county, city, town, and district purposes 
devoted to keeping the schools in operation. 

The per cent levied for school debt service ranged from 2 per 
cent or less in St. Mary's, Garrett, Carroll, Kent, Somerset, Dor- 
chester, and Cecil to from 5 to 10 per cent in Washington, Alle- 
gany, Prince George's, Baltimore, and Montgomery. One-half 
of the counties used between 2 and 5 per cent of their levy for 
school debt service. (See Chart 36.) 

There was no levy for school capital outlay in St. Mary's, 
Allegany, Queen Anne's, Washington, Montgomery, Kent, How- 
ard, and Dorchester. On the other hand, Carroll, Cecil, Somerset, 
and Wicomico devoted from 7 to 11 per cent of their levy to 
school construction. 

The total percentage of the levy needed for all school purposes 
varied from 56 to 45 per cent in Prince George's, Charles, Car- 
roll, Allegany, St. Mary's, and Cecil, respectively, to from 30 to 
40 per cent in Dorchester, Kent, Howard, Harford, Worcester, 
Anne Arundel, and Garrett. The remaining 10 counties ranged 
and Wicomico devoted from 7 to 11 per cent of their levy to 
school purposes. (See Chart 36.) 

THE 1930 ASSESSABLE BASIS 

Probably due to the financial depression and partly due to the 
change in the method of taxing shares of fidelity, casualty and 
guaranty companies, the 1930 assessable basis of the 23 counties, 
taxable at the full rate for county purposes ($917,677,000), 
shows a decrease of $3,631,000 under the corresponding figure 
for 1929. The average annual increase from 1923 to 1929 was 
$43,260,000. The decrease in 1930 is accounted for by the tax 
legislation of 1929 removing from taxation at the full county 



Proportion of County Le\^ for Schools; 1930 Assessable Basis 281 

rate shares of fidelity, casualty and guaranty companies which 
since June, 1930, are taxed at $1.00. The assessment of these 
companies against the counties in 1929 totalled $8,772,026. (See 
Table 181.) 

TABLE 181 

Assessable Basis Taxable at the Full Rate for County Purposes 

in Thousands of Dollars 

Figures furnished by State Tax Commission 



County 


*1923 


1925 


1926 


1927 


*1928 


1929 


1930 


Total Counties .... 


$661,724 


$726,064 


$753,216 


$781,971 


$883,508 


$921,308 


$917,677 




69,886 


75.718 


78,021 


78,837 


80,715 


81.931 


81,911 


Anne Arundel 


30,692 


36,956 


41,259 


44.565 


47,544 


48,138 


48,106 




104,232 


124,971 


135,321 


139,232 


157,654 


167,461 


164,308 


Calvert 


4,427 


4,623 


4,801 


4,935 


5,305 


5,518 


5,546 


Caroline 


14,027 


14,616 


14,716 


14,761 


15,283 


15,190 


15,170 


Carroll 


33,382 


34.183 


34.633 


35,636 


39,875 


39.201 


36,537 


Cecil 


23,189 


24.700 


25,201 


25,628 


30,408 


35,732 


35,916 




8.394 


8.854 


8,845 


9,315 


9,938 


9,956 


10,162 


Dorchester 


18,987 


19,628 


19,907 


20,439 


21,918 


22,033 


22,495 




51,248 


54,941 


55,028 


57,655 


65,234 


65,660 


65,244 




16,303 


19.556 


18,945 


18,903 


21,653 


21,468 


21,526 


Harford 


28,580 


29.487 


28,866 


29,561 


39,763 


51,361 


50,846 




15,670 


15.682 


16,043 


16,539 


18,063 


18.390 


17,956 


Kent 


14,519 


14,777 


14,735 


14,956 


16,162 


16,294 


16,108 




45,503 


50.676 


54.809 


60,239 


77,889 


81,230 


82,615 


Queen Anne's 


33,651 


37,776 


40.213 


42,878 


59,312 


61,195 


62.757 


14.793 


15,024 


14.705 


14,803 


16,692 


16,607 


16.536 


St. Mary's 


7.162 


7,825 


7.860 


7,809 


8.289 


8,700 


8.371 




10.609 


11,307 


11.972 


11,972 


12.392 


12,325 


12.150 


Talbot 


16.927 


17,524 


17,648 


18,048 


20,478 


21,009 


20,486 




62.570 


68.281 


69,424 


72,867 


72.908 


75,113 


75,316 


Wicomico 


20.394 


21,379 


22,395 


24,109 


25.092 


26,047 


26,250 




16.579 


17,580 


17,869 


18,284 


20.941 


20,749 


21,365 


Baltimore City .... 


902.208 


1,083,959 


1,166,356 


1,230,198 


1.255.978 


1,305,074 


1.328.77& 



State $1,563,932 $1,810,023 $1,919,572 $2,012,169 $2,139,486 $2,226,382 $2,246,456 



• Includes reassessment figures. 

Not all of the counties, however, show decreases. There are 
ten which had increases varying from $28,000 to over $1,562,000. 
Prince George's and Montgomery are the only ones with a growth 
in taxable wealth from 1929 to 1930 of over one million dollars. 
Worcester County, because of the development at Ocean City, 
shows a gain of $616,000. Dorchester's increase is $462,000. 
Charles, Washington, and Wicomico each had increases of $200,- 
000, Wicomico's being explained by the transfer of the home 
office of a steamship company from St. Mary's to Wicomico, while 
Garrett and Calvert had wealth greater by $58,000 and $28,000, 
respectively. 

The greatest decreases in wealth taxable at the full rate were 
found in Baltimore and Carroll Counties, the decrease in the 



282 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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1930 Assessable Basis; Tax Rates for 1930-31 283 

former being $3,153,000 and in the latter $2,664,000. In Talbot 
and Harford the basis taxable at the full rate was over $500,000 
less in 1930 than in 1929, in Howard and Frederick, it was $400,- 
000 less, in St. Mary's over $300,000 less due to the transfer of 
the home office of a steamship company from St. Mary's to Wico- 
mico, in Kent and Somerset nearly $200,000 less, in Queen 
Anne's $71,000, in Anne Arundel $32,000 less, and in Caroline 
and Allegany $20,000 less. (See Table 181.) 

The distribution of the items making up the 1930 assessable 
basis taxable at the full rate for county purposes as furnished 
by the State Tax Commission, gives in column 1 of Table 182 
the real and tangible property assessed by the county commis- 
sioners. Assessments for items shown in the remaining col- 
umns are made up by the State Tax Commission and certified 
to the County Commissioners. These items include railroad 
rolling stock, ordinary business corporations, domestic share cor- 
porations, personal property of non-stock corporations and dis- 
tilled spirits. (See Table 182.) 

TAX RATES FOR 1930-31 

The last column in Table 183 shows the total county tax rates 
as they are published in the various counties. In most cases the 
figures must be accepted without check. The total county tax 
rates as published vary from $1.30 in Washington, Frederick, 
Cecil, and Montgomery and $1.35 in Prince George's to $1.80 in 
GaiTett and Dorchester, $2.34 in Calvert and $2.43 in Anne 
Arundel. 

Persons living in incorporated cities and towns which have 
a levy and those who live in the metropolitan area around Wash- 
ington have to pay taxes in addition to those levied for the 
county. Although these are not included in the report, they are 
available at the office of the State Department of Education. 

If the figures of the 1930-31 county school levy for current 
expense, debt service and capital outlay are divided by the as- 
sessable basis taxable at the full rate for county purposes, the 
figures obtained are those which appear in the first column of 
Table 183. They show that the county rate for school current 
expense in 1930-31 varies from over 84 cents in Anne Arundel, 
Allegany, and Carroll to less than 64 cents in Charles, Baltimore, 
Cecil, Montgomery, and Harford. In Charles contributions re- 
ceived from the Federal government for the school at Indian 
Head are excluded. (See Table 183.) 

The levy of only 65 cents in Queen Anne's means that unless 
the amount necessary to bring the county le\T to 67 cents is 
secured Queen Anne's will lose the State aid provided by the 
Equalization Fund. The Board of County Commissioners has 
promised to make available the shortage of $3,237. 

It will be noted that Anne Arundel, Allegany, Carroll, Calvert, 



284 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



Caroline, Wicomico, Somerset, and Kent, all of which counties 
receive the Equalization Fund, are levying more than the bare 
minimum requirement of 67 cents in order to carry a program 
which provides for more than the State guarantees. Such addi- 
tions take care of salaries above the minimum State schedule, 
teachers in excess of the number required by law in elementary 
and high schools, aids to instruction over and above of the 24 
per cent provided for in fixing the cost of the minimum program 
for the calculation of the Equalization Fund. St. Mary's, Gar- 
rett, Dorchester, and Worcester will receive sufficient additional 
funds for school purposes to make their levy equivalent to 67 
cents so that they will be entitled to share in the Equalization 
Fund. (See Table 183.) 



TABLE 183 



County 



1 1930-31 County School Tax Rate for 
School 



Current 
Expenses 



Debt 
Service 


Capital 
Outlay 


$ .010 


$ .032 


.078 


.020 


M45 




*.003 


.145 


*.080 


.126 


*.106 




*.095 


.061 


*.054 


.272 


M05 


.019 


*.066 


.013 


*.021 


.255 


*.016 




*.054 





Total 



County Average 

Anne Arundel. . 

Allegany 

Carroll 

Calvert 

Washington .... 

Caroline 

Wicomico 

Prince George's. 

Talbot 

Somerset 

Kent 

Howard 

St. Mary's 

Garrett 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Queen Anne's . . 

Frederick 

Charles 

Baltimore§. . . . 

Cecil 

Montgomery. . . 
Harford § 



% .686 

.899 
.884 
.843 
.741 
.734 

.728 
.720 
.718 
.718 
.713 

.680 
.669 

a. 669 
.668 

0.664 

.663 
.650 
.648 
6.637 
.633 

.584 
.538 
.477 



*.045 

*.073 
*.043 
*.067 
*.058 
.179 

♦032 
*.156 
*.041 



,116 
.034 



.007 
.052 
.007 

.125 

.003 



$ .818 

.997 
1.029 
.991 
.947 
.840 

.884 
1.046 
.842 
.797 



696 
723 
669 
784 
709 

770 
693 
,722 
.747 
,819 

,741 
,694 
,521 



t Obtained by dividing county budget for various school purposes by county basis, taxable at the full 
rate for county purposes. 

* Paid directly by county commissioners in whole or in part. 

a Excludes tongers' licenses. 

b Excludes federal funds for Indian Head. 

§ For the calendar year 1931. 



1930-31 Tax Rates for Schools and All County Purposes 285 



For school debt service the counties are levying less than three 
cents in St. Mary's, Garrett, Carroll, Kent, and Somerset and 
from 10 to 18 cents in Prince George's, Washington, Allegany, 
Montgomery, and Baltimore, if the levy for debt service is divided 
by the assessable basis taxable at the full rate for county 
purposes. 

The tax rate required to carry the county levy for capital 
outlay varies from nothing in Allegany, Washington, Kent, How- 
ard, St. Mary's, Dorchester, Queen Anne's, and Montgomery to 
over 11 cents in Garrett, Cecil, Calvert, Carroll, Somerset, and 
Wicomico. (See Table 183.) 

The total 1931 county tax rate for all school purposes, obtained 
by dividing the budget for all school purposes by the assessable 
basis taxable at the full rate for county purposes, varies from 
between 94 and 105 cents in Wicomico, Allegany, Anne Arundel, 
Carroll, Somerset, and Calvert to rates between 52 and 70 cents 
in Harford, St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, Montgomery, and Kent. 
(See Table 183.) 

The county levy provides for only a part of the school program. 
Had the entire program for school current expense been carried 
by the counties in 1929-30, the county tax rates required would 
have varied from 61 cents in Harford, 65 cents in Baltimore 
County, and 68 cents in Montgomery (bounty to amounts over 
$1.35 in Caroline, Charles, Garrett, Somerset, and Calvert. Had 
there been no State aid, the school tax rate in Calvert would have 
been approximately three times that in Harford. (See Chart 
37.) 

Actually the county rates for school current expense in 1929-30 
varied from 46 cents in Harford to 89 and 91 cents, respectively, 
in Allegany and Anne Arundel. Note the black portion of the 
bars in Chart 37. 

The difference between the total shown at the left of the bars 
and the black portion of the bar is accounted for by State aid 
in forms available to all of the counties and in the Equalization 
Fund. State aid in the distribution of which all counties shared 
represented from 12 and 13 cents on the tax rates of Baltimore 
and Montgomery County up to from 40 to 48 cents in St. Mary's, 
Charles, Somerset, and Calvert. In addition, the Equalization 
Fund represented a tax rate in terms of county funds of a cent 
or less in Allegany and Anne Arundel to over 50 cents in Calvert, 
Garrett, and Somerset Counties. 

The black bars in Carroll, Anne Arundel, and Allegany Coun- 
ties appear to be out of alignment with the other counties ad- 
jacent which carry only the minimum program. Anne Arundel 
and Allegany pay salaries in excess of the minimum State 
schedule and all three counties employ teachers in excess of the 
minimum number required by law. (See Chart 37.) 



286 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 37 



TAX RATES REQUIRED TO CARRY TOTAL 1930 SCHOOL PR0GRAA5, 
EXCLUSIVE OF BOND ISSUES 



County- 



Co. Av. 



Tax Rate for School Current Expenses 

Coiir i ty Tax Ra te Representee! by 

Total Coimty State Aid 

Required Le\'y, and Other 

Locally All Funds than Equali- 

Vt'ere Other than Equal i- zation 

rVire I3o State and zation Fund 

S-oate Aid Federal Aid Fund 
■■ 

$ .92 



Tax Rate for 



Debt 
Service 



1.79 
1.77 
1.53 
tl.44 
1.38 
1.22 
1.22 
1.17 
1.15 



Calvert 
Somerset 
Garrett 
Charles 
Caroline 
St. Mary's 
Dorchester 
VTicomico 
Carroll 
Anne Arund.*1.13 
Allegany 1.10 
Worcester ♦I. 09 
Kent 1.04 
Q. Anne's 1.01 
Pr. George's 
Howard 
Talbot 
Washington 
Frederick 
Cecil 

Montgomery 
Bal timore 
Harford 



.94 
.92 
.90 
.90 
.84 
.76 
.68 
.65 
.61 



Capital 
OuUay 

CZD 



1 .80 1 




.71 




.69 








.76 




.67 j 


= .40 t^lS /^.ll 1 


.69 




.74 


^^.2fl^^..l5^ .23 1 


.84 




*.9J 




.89 













1 





Bal to. City .77 
State .78 




.70 


mm 




.64 





In order that counties receiving the Equalization Fund may- 
know the policy with respect to the levy of 67 cents and the use 
of sufficient amounts for aids to instruction the State Superin- 
tendent sent the following letter to County Superintendents and 
members of County Boards of Education. 



Co. Tax Rates for Schools Represented by Co. Levy and State Aid 287 

It is required by section 204 of the 1927 edition of the Maryland school 
laws "that the board of county commissioners of each of the several 
counties sharing in the Equalization Fund shall levy and collect an 
annual tax for the schools of not less than 67 cents on each $100 of 
assessable property, exclusive of the amount levied for debt service and 
capital outlay for the schools." We find that in several counties which 
levied only the bare minimum of 67 cents for school purposes, the county 
board of education in 1928-29 paid out of this minimum appropriation, 
which could only be used for current expense purposes, certain sums for 
interest and principal payments on bonded or current school indebted- 
ness, and also for furniture, equipment and other capital outlay pur- 
poses. 

It must be definitely understood that any payments for debt service 
and capital outlay which must be made require additional (and sepa- 
rate) appropriations from the board of county commissioners. Any 
county entitled to receive the Equalization Fund which uses part of 
the minimum 67 cents levied for current expenses for debt service or 
capital outlay or for both, will be considered as having levied less than 
the minimum required by law. 

It is also understood that teachers in excess of the minimum required 
by law cannot be carried by a county which levies only the bare mini- 
mum of 67 cents for school current expense. The law sets up 67 cents 
as the very least that a county may levy and still share in the Equaliza- 
tion Fund. 

The amount required to be spent on current expense purposes other 
than salaries of teachers and supervisors and transportation is easily 
determined by finding the difference between total salaries as required 
, ; by law and this sanie amount after it is divided by .76. For example: 
Total minimum salaries as required by law — $76,000; 
$76,000 divided by .76=$100,000 ; 
$100,000 less $76,000 = $24,000; 
in this instance the County Board would be required to expend $24,000 
of the budget for current expense other than teachers' salaries and 
transportation. The amount of this difference is available for current 
expense other than teachers' salaries, to wit : for general control, books; 
materials, and "other costs of instruction and supervision"; operation; 
. maintenance; health ; library, and fixed charges. The Bureau of Meas- 
urements will carefully check these expenditures at the close of each 
fiscal year to see that the requirements of the law have been complied 
with; however, it is not our purpose to discourage a county from mak- 
ing some salary increases beyond the minimum provided by law where 
such procedure is absolutely essential to hold or to secure outstanding 
teachers in key positions; but comparatively little of this may be done 
unless the levy is above 67 cents for "current expenses." 

It is essential that county superintendents, county boards of educa- 
tion, and county commissioners understand the necessity of meeting the 
above conditions upon which receipt of the Equalization Fund depends. 

COMPARISON OF 1930 STATE PUBLIC SCHOOL TAXES WITH STATE 
AID RECEIVED FOR SCHOOLS 
A comparison of the receipts collected by each county from 
the 1930 State public school tax of 10.58 cents on each $100 of 
property assessable at the full rate for State purposes with the 
1930 State aid for schools received by each county shows that 
Baltimore City and Baltimore County are the only units in the 
State which paid more into the State Treasury than was returned 
in State aid for schools. To the amounts sent in by the collectors 



288 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



of taxes in the individual units of the State, as reported by the 
State Comptroller, have been added an estimate of the amounts 
attributable to the individual counties for the tangible tax on 
ordinary business corporations, totalling $99,351.91, and for in- 
corporated institutions, totalling $178,534.03, both of these latter 
amounts being paid directly to the State Treasurer without going 
through the offices of the county collectors of taxes. (See 
Table 184.) 

TABLE 184 



Comparison of State Aid for Public Schools with Amounts Paid for 
Public School Tax, 1930 





Stafp Aid 






for 


State Public 






Total Counties 


$2,300,170 


$1,037,557 


Allegany _ 


- 166,580 


124,715 


Anne Arundel 


- 102,897 


52,190 


Baltimore 


200,405 


208,002 


Calvert _ 


54,974 


5,826 


C^.S^ Toll TIP 


94 962 


13,314 


Carroll - _ 


120,456 


41,522 


Cecil 


64,010 


31,474 


Charles 


79,445 


9,649 


Dorchester 


.„ _ 116,139 


22,704 


Frederick. 


115,705 


70,447 


Garrett 


173,372 


24,030 


Harford „ _ 


73,963 


51,515 


Howard _ 


.._ 42,917 


21,823 


Kent „ 


52,373 


17,036 


Montgomery 


_ - 106,070 


91,931 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's „. 


, 131,427 


58,303 


49,597 


17,235 


St. Mary's _ 


„ 47,941 


7,469 


Somerset _ 


„ 129,512 


13,103 


Talbot 


48,880 


24,217 


Washington 


128,759 


80,986 


Wicomico 


110,566 


29,559 


Worcester _ 


89,220 


20,507 


Baltimore City 


1,387,977 


1,765,013 


Total - 


$3,688,147 


$2,802,570 


* cents on each $100 a 


s reported by State Comptroller, 1930, 


statement H, page 3 



It will be noted that the State aid in 1930 for the State as a 
whole ($3,688,147) was greater by $885,577 than the amount 
collected in State public school taxes ($2,802,570). This differ- 
ence is explained by the fact that approximately two-thirds of 
the State Public School Budget for 1930 is derived from direct 



State School Aid Received and State School Taxes Paid; P. T. A.'s 289 



State public school taxes and the remaining third comes from 
General Funds in the State Treasury. The General Funds, 
which are obtained from sources such as franchise taxes, organ- 
ization or bonus taxes, gross receipts taxes, inheritance taxes, 
licenses, interest and penalties collected on deferred payments of 
taxes, the State Racing Commission, the State Insurance Com- 
mission, etc., cannot be allocated as having been paid for by any 
particular county or by Baltimore City. 

If State aid for schools is to insure at least minimum educa- 
tional standards to bring about equalization of educational op- 
portunity throughout the State, it must be distributed so that 
even the least wealthy school unit need not tax itself beyond a 
reasonable maximum to carry the State's minimum requirements. 
Maryland's plan of equalization makes it possible for every 
county to carry the minimum State program on a county tax 
rate of 67 cents. The general funds of the State together with 
the receipts from the State Public School Tax of 10.58 cents have 
made it possible for the financially poorer counties to carry the 
minimum program required by the State school law on a reason- 
able county tax rate for schools. 

Baltimore City, Baltimore County, and Montgomery County 
are in a position to carry a program far in excess of the minimum 
set up by the State with a county or city rate for school current 
expenses amounting to 67 cents or less. This means that with 
such a rate they can pay salaries in excess of the State's mini- 
mum, carry a program of special and adult education in Balti- 
more City, and many other school activities not even attempted 
in many of the counties. (See Table 184.) 

PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 
Parent-Teacher Associations took an active part in the school 
program of 576 county white schools in 1930. This is 4 fewer 
than the number in 1929, but because of consolidation, 47.7 per 
cent of all schools, 1.6 more than in 1929, had organizations. 
(See Table 185.) 

TABLE 185 

Number and Per Cent of Parent-Teacher Associations in White Schools, 

1924 to 1930 



Parent-Teacher Associations 
in White Schools 



Year Number Per Cent 

1924 490 30.8 

1925 623 40.6 

1926 638 42.8 

1927 649 45.1 

1928 617 45.4 

1929 588 45.8 

1930 576 47.7 



290 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



The greatest increase in both number and per cent is found 
in the graded schools which had 253 associations in 86.1 per cent 
of the schools. This is 9 more in number and 3.5 more in per 

TABLE 186 

Parent-Teacher Associations in Maryland County White Elementary Schools 



Parent-Teacher Associations 



White Elementary Schools Having Number Per Cent 

One Teacher'. 181 27.4 

Two Teachers 131 58.0 

Three or More Teachers 253 86 . 1 

All Elementary 565 47 . 8 



CHART 38 



PABH^T-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS 

Number Per Gent 

1929 1930 1929 1930 



County Number Per Cent 

Total and 

Co. Average SB8 676 45.8 



Caroline 


26 


25 


100.0 


Baltimore 


94 


93 


98.9 


Anne Arundal 36 


34 


94.7 


Talbot 


20 


19 


90.9 


Kent 


24 


27 


77.4 


Montgomery 


51 


50 


86.0 


Howard 


21 


21 


61.8 


Pr. George' 3 43 


42 


63.2 


Allegany 


32 


41 


38.6 


Somerset 


17 


17 


51.5 


Wicomico 


37 


28 


66.1 


Frederick 


40 


42 


40.8 


Charles 


7 


12 


28.0 


Queen Anne 


s 3 


15 


8.8 


Calvert 


5 


8 


22.7 


Dorchester 


17 


16 


34.0 


Worcester 


13 


12 


36.1 


Carroll 


23 


21 


27.4 


Cecil 


10 


12 


16.9 


Harford 


32 


11 


50.0 


Washington 


17 


16 


15.9 


Garrett 


19 


14 


14.8 


St. Mary's 


1 




3.1 



100.0 
]00.0 



94.4 
I 90.5 




84.7 
£3.6 
S3.G 



53.1 
52.8 



50.0 
49.4 
36.4 
3S.4 



Parent Teacher Associations; County School Administration 291 



cent than in 1929. The two-teacher schools with 131 P. T. A.'s 
had one more association than in 1929. The decreasing number 
of one-teacher schools, due to their consolidation with the larger 
graded schools, accounts for most of the decrease of 27 in the 
number of associations in the one-teacher schools. There were 
181 P. T. A.'s in 27.4 per cent of the one-teacher schools in 1930 
as compared with 208 in 28.2 per cent of the schools in 1929. 
(See Table 186.) 

In every white school in Baltimore and Caroline Counties, co- 
operative associations of parents and teachers took an active part 
in the affairs of their respective schools. Anne Arundel and 
Talbot were the only other counties in which more than 90 per 
cent of the schools had P. T. A.'s. In ten counties fewer than 
half of the schools had organized Parent-Teacher Associations, 
and in one of these, St. Mary's, not a single school had such an 
organization. Decreases that cannot be accounted for by con- 
solidation occurred in Harford and Wicomico. Although the 
general tendency was for a decrease in the actual number of 
P. T. A.'s within a given county, seven counties had more than 
in 1929. The increase was most marked in Queen Anne's, but 
is probably explained by the fact that the number of P. T. 
A.'s in existence and reported during 1929 was unduly low. The 
1930 situation w^as quite similar to that of 1928. In Charles, 
Calvert, Allegany, Frederick, Kent, and Cecil, as well as in Queen 
Anne's, there was an increase in both number and per cent of 
schools having Parent-Teacher Associations. (See Chart 38.) 

COUNTY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION 

The salary of the Maryland county superintendent, according 
to the minimum State schedule, is determined by years of experi- 
ence and the number of teachers employed. Eight Maryland 
counties had less than 150 teachers in their schools, 7 employed 
more than 150 but fewer than 200, and in the remaining 8 
counties the teaching staff exceeded 200. The State salary 
schedule for county superintendents ranges between $2,500 and 
$4,140, and from the funds appropriated in the State Public 
School Budget for Part-Payment of Salaries, the State reim- 
burses the counties to the extent of two-thirds of the superin- 
tendent's scheduled salary. In many of the counties, however, 
the salary actually paid the superintendent exceeds the minimum 
given in the State schedule. In 1930, county superintendents* 
salaries ranged from $2,500 to $8,000. (See 'Table 187 and 
Table XXIV, page 354.) 

A survey of the academic preparation of the 23 Maryland 
county superintendents shows that 18 have their Master's De- 
grees and of these 8 have done further graduate work. 



292 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE 187 



Minimum State Salary Schedule for Superintendents and for Supervising and 
Helping Teachers in Maryland Counties 



Experience 
in Years 


County Superintendents in 
Counties Having 


i 

Supervising j Helping 
Teacher ! Teacher 


Less Than 
150 Teachers 


150-199 200 or More 
Teachers i Teachers 


1-4 

5-7 

8 + 


rS2.500.00 
1 2.940.00 


S2.940.00 i $3,540.00 
3.240.00 1 3.840.00 
3.540.00 4,140.00 


S2.040.00 SI. 440. 00 
2.340.00 I 1,740.00 
2,640.00 \ 2,040.00 

1 



CONFERENCES OF SUPERINTENDENTS 
The Maryland superintendents and supervisors are kept pro- 
fessionally alert through a series of well planned conferences 
with the State Department of Education. The superintendents 
and supervisors held their fall meeting on October 24, 1929, just 
prior to the meeting of the State Teachers' Association. 

The program of the superintendents' meeting was as follows : 

I. Reports of Standing Committees: 

1. Committee on Certification of Teachers — C. Milton Wright, 
Chairman. 

2. Other committee reports. 

II. Membership in County, State and National Associations, present 

status and future policy. 

III. Should the minimum requirements for materials of instruction 
{maps, cJmrts, supplementally books, reference material) for State- 
aided high schools be raised? 

Should there be higher minimum requirements for library books, 
equipment, and library service in high schools based on the student 
enrollment? 

Should the county be required to furnish a minimum library appro- 
priation for each high school on a per pupil basis? 

IV. Shall the State Department prepare and furnish Form B of the 
Geography Test and of the History Test either this year or next? 
(A seventh grade Maryland history test is now in press.) 

V. A fair basis for determining the charge for pupils from adjoining 
counties : 

1. Between two equalization fund counties. 

2. Between two non-equalization fund counties. 

3. Between an equalization fund county and a non-equalization fund 
county. What shall the equalization fund county pay? Should 
this cost be included in the equalization fund? What shall the 
non-equalization fund county pay? 

Introduced by Su^^erintendent Orem. 
VI. The Rehabilitation Act was accepted by the State. What are its 
purposes and requirements? 

Introduced by Mr. Thompson, Supervisor of Rehabilitation. 
VII. The State's program for vocational education — a resume and a look- 
forward. 

Introduced by Mr. Blackwell, Director of Vocational Education. 



1929-30 State Conferences of Superintendents 



293 



VIII. Should we evolve a State policy in reference to transportation of 
high school pupils in whole or in part at public expense? 
How many counties charge part of the cost to the pupils? 
We included 100 per cent of the cost in the estimate for equalization 
for the next two years. Is this a sound public school policy? 

At the mid-winter conference of superintendents held on Jan- 
uary 10, 1930, the following questions were discussed : 

1. Recommendations of Committee concerning **Rate of Charges for 
Pupils Attending School in Adjoining Counties.'' 

2. Safety rules for school busses, bus drivers, and pupils. 
Insurance carried. 

What records regarding pupils transported should be required 
from bus drivers or principals? How frequently should records 
be furnished? What information is necessary? 

3. How many graduates of the county elementary schools enter 
county public high schools? Will the superintendents cooperate 
in a study of this? 

What happens to over-age pupils promoted only because they 
have spent two years in the seventh grade? Are they or should 
they be admitted to high school? 

4. Are we ready to recommend changes in the provisions of the 
compulsory attendance law? Introduced by Miss Stern. 

5. What are the possibilities for your cooperation if special sum- 
mer courses in music are arranged at Johns Hopkins University? 

Introduced by Miss Wiedefeld. 

On Thursday, April 3, 1930, the superintendents and super- 
visors met at the Towson Normal School to discuss the Eighth 
Yearbook of the Department of Superintendence entitled "The 

SupeHntendent Surveys Supervision." 

The following topics were presented by the superintendents designated 
and discussed by the group: 

1. What I understand by a well-balanced program of supervision — 
Mr. Charles L. Kopp, Allegany County. 

2. What superintendents should be doing to promote the growth of 
supervisors and of supervision. — Mr. William K. Klingaman. 

3. What I hope the present survey of Baltimore County schools 
may accomplish. — Mr. Clarence G. Cooper, Baltimore County. 

4. What superintendents should be doing to interpret their schools 
to the people. — Mr. Maurice S. H. Unger, Carroll County. 

5. What are the functions of a county High School Supervisor? — 
Miss M. Lucetta Sisk, Baltimore County. 

6. What I understand by the term Creative Supervision. — Mr. Ed- 
win Broome, Montgomery County. 

On April 4, 1930, the superintendents discussed the following 
administrative problems : 

1. Problems of administering a county-wide program of elementaiy 
music. — Mr. E. M. Noble, Caroline County. 

2. A supplementally discussion of charges for pupils attending 
school in an adjoining county, when one or both share in the 
Equalization Fund. Introduced by Mr. Orem. 

3. A tentative suggestion for amending Section 50 of the State 
School Law. 

4. If a full-time attendance officer is employed by a county the 
$1,200 State appropriation shall not be included in estimating 
the maintenance budget for a county sharing in the Equaliza- 



294 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



tion Fund; or, if included, shall be considered as part of the 
cost of instruction. 

5. Amendments to the school attendance law tentatively proposed 
upon suggestion of the school attendance officers. 

6. How may a County Superintendent determine the amount to be 
allotted to a school for materials of instruction, home economics 
supplies, etc? — Mr. Orem. 

7. Should the State Department arrange for a course in social case 
work for county attendance officers? — Mr. Grimes. 

charges for pupils attending school in adjoining counties 
The following plan for the rate of charges for pupils attending 
school in adjoining counties was approved to go into effect 
September 1, 1930. 

A. Rate of Charges: 

1. Tuition charges shall be 60 per cent of the average State cost, 
exclusive of general control and capital outlay, for respective 
types of schools for the preceding school year, provided no 
tuition charges shall he collected by an Equalization Fund County 
since such costs are covered in the Equalization Fund compu- 
tation. 

2. Capital outlay charges for every county shall be $15 additional 

per child for elementary pupils, and $20 per child for high school 
pupils: one half of the respective amounts for colored pupils. 
This shall be budgeted under "tuition." 

3. Transportation charges, if furnished for pupils coming from an 
adjoining county by the receiving county with the approval of 
the sending cotinty, shall he at cost, provided no such transporta- 
tion charges shall he collected by an Equalization Fund County 
from any other county 

B. Adjustment of Tuition Charges in Equalization Fund Counties: 

1. Tuition charges paid by Equalization Fund Counties shall be 
considered as a proper expenditure in computing the Equaliza- 
tion Fund. 

2. Capital outlay charges shall not be considered as receipts or 
expenditures in calculating the Equalization Fund. 

3. Transportation charges paid by an Equalization Fund County 
for pupils coming from an adjoining county sJiall be considered 
a proper maintenance expenditure in comjmting the Equaliza- 
tion Fund. 

proposed amendments to the compulsory attendance law 
In connection with the proposal to lower the minimum age 
for compulsory school attendance from 7 to 6 years, it was 
brought out that it was probably advisable for some children not 
to attend school until they were 7 years old. 

The other proposal was to raise the upper age limit for com- 
pulsory attendance to 14 j^ears. Under the present law, children 
may leave school at 13 years to work at home or on farms, if 
they attend school 100 days during the year. To raise the upper 
age limit would mean that children up to the age of 14 years 
would be required to attend school the entire time it is in session. 
Children from 14 to 16 years, not at work, would also attend the 
entire time school is in session. This change would eliminate 
the advertisement in the law that children need attend school 
only 100 days. 



1930 Conferences of Superintendents and Attendance Officers 295 

The annual meeting of the county attendance officers was held 
on February 13 and 14, 1930, Mr. Gibson presiding. The pro- 
gram for the first day was centered on the education of the 
under-privileged child. On the second day the problems and 
data in A. 0. Heck's ''Administration of Pupil Personnel" were 
considered and discussed in the light of their application to the 
Maryland situation. The exact program was as follows : 

"The Under-privileged Child and Special Education," 
Mr. Henry J. Gideon, 

Bureau of Compulsory Education, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Discussion of school attendance problems from the point of view of: 

1. The State Board of Health, 

Dr. R. H. Riley, Director. 

2. Board of Mental Hygiene, 

Dr. George H. Preston, Commissioner. 

3. Bureau of Labor and Statistics, 
Employment of Children, 

Miss Mai-y Wootton, Supei*visor of Special Permit Department. 

4. The Maryland Children's Aid Society, 

Miss Katherine T. Kii*wan, Director. 

5. Vocational Rehabilitation, 

Robert C. Thompson, Supervisor, 
State Department of Education. 
During these discussions, opportunity \\ill be given for questions on the 
part of attendance officers or any other officials present. 

1. Present status of school census in the United States, with a com- 
parison of Maryland's school census plan. See discussion, page 
144, in *"Administration of Pupil Personnel." 

2. Age-grade-progress study, and relation of overageness to school 
attendance. See discussion, page 323, "Administration of Pupil 
Personnel." 

3. Present status regarding ages for compulsory school attendance 
in the United States. Suggestions as to changes in Maryland 
Law. See discussion, page 37, "Administration of Pupil Per- 
sonnel." 

4. The visiting teacher in the Akron Schools. To what extent can 
the Maryland county attendance officer be a home \4sitor? See 
discussion, page 93, "Administration of Pupil Personnel." 

5. The teacher and compulsory attendance. See discussion, page 16, 
"Administration of Pupil Personnel.'' 

6. Summary of "Administration of Pupil Personnel." 

7. Brief report of the October, 1929, meeting of National League 
of Compulsory Education Officials. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE STATE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 
In order that the organization of the State Department of 
Education may be available, a chart showing the members of 
the Staff and their relation to the State Department and State 
Board of Education is included. As will be seen, the various 
members of the professional staff are directly responsible to the 
State Superintendent. The clerical and stenographic staff of 
seven members is under the supervision of the credential secre- 
tary who acts as office manager. (See Chart 39.) 



* See Heck, A. O., Administration of Pupil Personnel, Ginn and Company, S2.50. 



296 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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Organization Chart and Objectives of State Dept. of Education 297 

Objectives 

The objectives of each professional member of the staff are 
presented at a conference of the State Department of Education 
staff held annually at the beginning of the school year. The ob- 
jectives for the year 1930-31 discussed in September, 1930, are 
printed here in order that they may be recorded in permanent 
form. 

Objectives of ALBERT S. COOK, State Superintendent of Schools 

The State Superintendent will keep in close touch with all activities of 
the Department, and perfoiTn all of the functions of the Department re- 
quired of him by the State School Law that he has not specifically dele- 
gated to his professional assistants. Along with these duties he will under- 
take : 

I. To assist members of the Department in keeping the main pur- 
poses of the State Program for Education before the people of 
the State. 

1. By speaking before State-wide and county-wide organizations, 
and before general meetings of all the teachers of a county. 

2. By giving out statements to the press concerning the schools 
so that the public may be informed on the needs of the schools 
and on evidences of progress in realizing the State program. 

3. By reading critically all material for courses of study, bulle- 
tins, reports, circular letters, etc., before they are issued. 

4. By assisting in the preparation of material for publication and 
suggesting sources of material for bulletins. 

II. To keep in close personal touch with administration and supervision 
in the various counties : 

1. By personal visitation with county superintendents and super- 
visors. 

2. By discussing in detail the findings of his professional assistants 
on their supervisory visits. 

3. By studying carefully all statistical studies made by the De- 
partment which give the relative standing of each county in 
the measurable administrative and supervisory activities, in- 
cluding both educational and financial items. 

4. By study of county superintendents' and county supervisors' 
reports. 

5. By conducting, or assisting in conducting, all called meetings 
of the Department with county school officials. 

III. To keep the staffs of the State Normal Schools in close touch with 
the progress of the State program in the several counties; to 
assist in checking the reasons for success or failure of the products 
of the State Normal Schools; to see that provisional certificates 
are not issued until all available certificated teachers are assigned. 

IV. To do all that is possible as a member of the Board of Trustees 
of the Teachers' Retirement System to assist in working out policies 
that will tend to make the Retirement System a success, and to 
lose no opportunity to secure public support for this important 
instrument of professional progress. 

Objectives of I. JEWELL SIMPSON, Assistant Superintendent in Charge 
of Elementai-y Instruction, and M. THERESA WIEDEFELD, 
Supervisor of Eleynentary Schools. 
The Elementary School Supervisors will endeavor this year: 

I. To promote continued progress toward attaining the objectives 
of preceding years by studying each county with respect to: 
1. Achievement in Reading: 

a. Continuation of growth in reading abilities by emphasiz- 
ing the subject through testing programs in counties, 
schools, or grades not up to standard. 



298 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



b. Encouragement of wide reading for information and for 
pleasure, in all subjects and in all grades. This requires 
further development of school libraries and increased sup- 
plies of texts and references. 

2. The Social Studies: 

a. Emphasis on the need for subject matter; and on the enrich- 
ment of the primary curriculum. 

b. Evaluation, with super\isors, of classroom activities in 
connection with the social studies ; and measuring results 
in the subjects by means of tests. 

3. Course of Study Making and Revision: 

a. Assistance given, when requested, in those counties where 
fine progress is being made in developing courses of study. 

b. Special attention given those counties in which little or no 
progress is being made in developing courses of study. 

4. Quality of Teachers' Meetings. 

5. Teacher Preparation of Daily Work. 

6. Methods for reducing large numbers of non-promotions, par- 

ticularly among boys. 

II. To enrich the curriculum: 

1. By furthering interest and accomplishments in music. 

2. By making some definite beginnings in fine and industrial arts. 

3. By promoting and improving activity periods that are in a 
real sense educative. 

III. To strengthen supervision in Maryland: 

1. By keeping in close touch with supervision in the counties. 

a. Visiting schools with supervisors. 

b. Attending and evaluating teachers' meetings conducted by 
supervisors. 

c. Studying the annual reports of supervisors. 

d. Planning State-wide and sectional meetings of supervisors. 

e. Furthering the use of Maryland School Bulletins. 

2. By encouraging the development of leaders, — prospective prin- 
cipals, helping teachers, critics, and supervisors. 

IV. To prepare for publication as aids to teaching and supervision: 

1. Tests in history and geography. 

2. A revision of the social studies bulletin for primary grades. 

Objectives of SAMUEL M. NORTH, E. CLARKE FONTAINE and W. K, 
KLINGAMAN, State Supervisors of High Schools. 
The High School Supervisors present the following as their objectives 
for the session 1930-31: 

I. Continuing the administrative aspects of the work; i. e., studying 
each high school with regard to: 

1. Library facilities. 

2. Laboratory equipment. 

3. Curriculums offered. 

4. Departmentalization of work. 

5. Daily schedule. 

6. Units offered. 

7. Distribution of principal's time. 

8. Size of classes. 

9. Efficiency of record system. 

10. Extra-curricular activities. 

11. Distribution of teachers' grades. 

II. Continuing the Regional Principals' Conferences. Subject, dates, 
and places of meetings, and the assignment of the various princ- 
pals will be announced later. 



Objecti\tes of State Supervisors of Elementary and High Schools 299 



III. Further to encourage and stimulate teachers and groups of teach- 
ers in the preparation of large units of subject matter in the various 
high school fields, including the preparation of tentative goals of 
achievement in these learning units and of tests based on these 
goals. To cooperate with these groups by holding conferences and 
in other ways that may be found feasible. 

IV. Preparing a set of subject-matter tests concerning minimum essen- 
tials in several of the formal subjects for each high school year. 
These sets of minimum essentials are to be based upon the judg- 
ments of selected outstanding teachers of their respective subjects, 
worked over and organized by the High School Supervisors, and 
given throughout the State at the close of the school year as tests. 
This undertaking is designed to sensitize teachers both to the 
necessity of determining minimum essentials in our schools and to 
the actual achievem.ents of their pupils in subject matter. 

V. Stressing, with each principal, the importance of planning care- 
fully each year a series of strictly professional faculty meetings 
as indicated and amplified in the Revised Edition of Man/land 
High ScJwol Standards (1927), pages 27-67, ''High School Teach- 
ers' Meetings.*' 

VI. Revising and expanding the required and the supplementary read- 
ings in English literature to meet the increasingly varying social 
and cultural backgrounds of our high school pupils, and instmct- 
ing the teachers of this subject in the technique of a less rigid 
and formal — ar.H, we believe, a more effective — method of attain- 
ing the recogTiized goals of the subject. 
VII. Attending, when possible, professional faculty meetings in indi- 
vidual schools. 

VIII. Making sure that, so far as is possible, every high school teacher 
is taking and studying at least one professional journal ; also stimu- 
lating, in every way possible, the cultural as well as the profes- 
sional growth of teachers by calling their attention both to recent 
outstanding professional books and to non-pedagogical writings 
of opinion touching important problems of contemporary life. 

IX. Emphasizing the importance of each teacher's continually check- 
ing up the results of instruction by the use of informal and stand- 
ard tests of the objective type, and of using the results of these 
tests as a means of improving instruction to fit the peculiar needs 
of the individual pupil. 
X. Keeping the county superintendents in close touch with the work 
and progress of their respective high schools. 

XI. Exercising, as heretofore, their paramount function of coopera- 
tive professional supervision of actual classroom instruction. 
XII. Stressing with the high school people of the State, at every pro- 
fessional opportunity, the vital importance of agreeing upon cer- 
tain fundamental principles underlying necessary changes and 
additions in our high school curriculums, to the end that our in- 
stmction and our programs of study may more nearly meet the 
present and probable future needs of our pupils. 

XIII. To encourage in every way possible the concentration of the high 
school population of each county into larger centers to the end 
that the widely varying capacities and tastes and the present and 
probable future needs of the individual high school pupil may be 
more eff:'ectively met, and to discourage the opening of any addi- 
tional high schools unless transportation routes to an already 
established high school are impracticable or impossible. 

XIV. Before recommending a school for State aid, checking with each 
county superintendent on the basis of data furnished by the Cre- 



300 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



dential Secretary, the number of provisionally certificated teachers, 
and those uncertificated; and including in the annual report to the 
county superintendent and county board of education the status 
of each school in this respect. 

Before recommending a school for State aid, to check with each 
county superintendent, on the basis of data furnished by the Cre- 
dential Secretary, the number of teachers in each county who are 
teaching subjects for which they are not certificated. 
In anticipation of the possible issuance of a bulletin for distri- 
bution among the high school principals of the State, planning with 
them the preparation of a Comprehensive Report, which shall sum- 
marize, from the principal's viewpoint, the salient features and 
needs of their several schools, the contents of such bulletin to 
include noteworthy excerpts from the several reports. 
Having in mind the distinguishing characteristics of the junior 
high school — as these are summarized, for instance, in Research 
Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 1, of the National Education Association — 
encouraging the study by superintendents and principals of this 
type of organization for possible adoption in the larger communi- 
ties of the State. 

Studying the organization and the direction of the extra-class activ- 
ities in each high school, with the aim of determining whether these 
activities are being over-emphasized or unwisely directed, and are 
consequently out of harmony with the main purposes of the school. 
To encourage in every way possible the improvement and enlarge- 
ment of the high school libraries and the effective use of the 
library by the pupil during the school day, involving as a neces- 
sary element the professional training in library work of one or 
more members of the high school faculty 

Objectives of J. WALTER HUFFINGTON, Supervisor of Colored Schools. 
I. The Supervisor of Colored Schools will endeavor to improve the 
supervisory work in the counties among the colored elementary 
schools : 

1. By helping the county supervisors to set up attainable as well 
as desirable objectives. 

2. By helping supervisors to effect a better classroom organiza- 
tion within their several schools. 

3. By accompanying the supervisors to only a few schools when 
visiting their counties. Upon these visits he will try to help 
them analyze a classroom situation and make an effort to 
develop with them, step by step, what can be done by the 
supervisors to improve a poor condition and, if possible, to 
make even better a good condition. 

4. By trying to help supervisors recognize the specific needs of 
each teacher in a county system, and to appreciate these needs 
as a supervisory problem which they should attempt to solve. 

5. By attempting to arouse in the supervisors a sense of their 
responsibility for the improvement of instruction and general 
pupil progress in their respective counties. 

6. By stimulating supervisors to test frequently the pupils in 
their schools and by trying to direct them in such remedial 
work among the teachers as the tests reveal to be necessary. 

7. By helping the supervisors to plan their teachers' meetings 
with the view of meeting specific needs of groups of teachers. 

8. By suggesting definite professional reading and study, for both 
teachers and supervisors, as an aid in the solution of super- 
visory problems. 

9. By helping the supervisors to check results of their instruc- 
tion of teachers; to re-teach, if deficiency is discovered; and 
to make a re-check. 



XV. 
XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 
XIX. 



Objectives of State Supervisors of High and Colored Schools 301 

10. By holding two conferences with the supervisors for instruc- 
tional purposes. 

11. By advising the superintendent, upon each visit to his county, 
of the quality of instruction found in his schools, and by giv- 
ing him at the end of the year a summary of these separate 
reports, with emphasis on the items which appear to deserve 
the most consideration. 

II. The Super\isor of Colored Schools, in cooperation with the Rosen- 
wald Fund, will do what he can: 

1. To stimulate, where it is possible to do so, the construction 
of negro schools. 

2. To check up even more carefully than heretofore on the build- 
ings while they are in process of construction. 

3. To arouse such interest in libraries that many will be secured. 

4. To encourage transportation where Rosenwald aid can be se- 
cured and to give attention to the establishment of routes. 

III. The Supervisor of Colored Schools will try to effect an improve- 
ment in the colored high schools: 

1. By nominating to superintendents for existing vacancies teach- 
ers certificated in the subjects they are to teach. 

2. By a more careful check on: (a) the status of pupils in the 
schools; (b) the care of records. 

3. By giving more attention to the content of courses offered in 
the schools. 

4. By stimulating the purchase of libraries and other equipment 
necessary to have better work done. 

5. By visiting classrooms to learn the quality of instruction. At 
a suitable time help the teacher to analyze her teaching act 
in the light of principles and, if possible, suggest remedial 
measures when the analysis reveals such to be necessary. 

6. By directing the teachers in occasional testing to discover the 
progress of pupils and to point the way to effective classroom 
procedure. 

7. By holding conferences with all the teachers of one school, and 
groups from several schools, for discussion of an instructional 
program. 

8. By keeping the superintendent informed of the quality of in- 
struction, the discipline, and the tone of the school. 

Objectives of J. D. BLACKWELL, State Director of Vocational Education. 
I. Administration of Vocational Education: 

1. Cooperation with Federal, State, City, and County school au- 
thorities in the development of Vocational Education. 

2. Assisting in coordinating the different types of Vocational Edu- 
cation. 

II. Supervision of Agricultural Education: 

1. Assisting in the development of new departments of Vocational 
Agriculture in the following schools: 

Glen Burnie, in Anne Arundel County. 
Reisterstown and Sparks, in Baltimore County. 
Cambridge and Vienna, in Dorchester County. 
Hancock, in Washington County. 
Denton Colored, in Caroline County. 

2. Aiding new teachers of Vocational Agriculture at the follow- 
ing schools: 

Middletown and Frederick, in Frederick County. 
Friendsville and Grantsville, in Garrett County. 
Boonsboro, in Washington County. 

3. Supervising each of the teachers of Vocational Agriculture in 
the forty-five high schools as often as is possible. 

4. Supervising projects in each of the forty-five communities hav- 
ing Vocational Departments. 



302 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



5. Assisting in the development of the State-wide judging, public 
speaking, and project contests. 

6. Assisting in the organization of local chapters of F. F. A. in 
each of the forty-five high schools having departments. 

7. Reorganizing the third and fourth year courses in Farm Man- 
agement and Agricultural Economics. 

8. Working on course of study in science as related to Vocational 
Agriculture. 

9. Assisting in the coordination of project work with subject mat- 
ter. 

10. Assisting in developing better farm shop work. 
Objectives of ELISABETH AMERY, State Supervisor of Home Economics 
Education. 

I. To improve the quality of General Home Economics Education in 
the State by: 

1. Two personal conferences during the year with each teacher in 
her school. (An effort will be made to visit new teachers early 
in the year and give additional help if necessary.) 

a. The objective of the first visit will be to offer definite 
assistance in planning and organizing the work for the 
year. 

b. The objective of the second visit will be to check on methods 
and progress in the development of ability goals in Home 
Economics Education. 

2. County and district conferences with teachers and superin- 
tendents. 

a. Group discussion will be directed to the planning of new 
units, and to methods of stud,ying classroom problems. 
Demonstrations and critiques will be conducted at certain 
conferences for this purpose. 

b. Special conferences will be held during the year with Alle- 
gany County teachers, in order to develop and adapt a series 
of units and to improve the status of the work in the 
County. 

3. Conferences with High School Supervisors. In order to make 
the Home Economics course function in the development of 
each high school, plans and progress w^ll be discussed with 
the Supervisor of the district concerned. 

4. Conferences with the Home Economics teacher-trainers in the 
State. 

a. They will be invited to attend conferences and will be kept 
informed as to policies and progress in Home Economics 
Education in the State. 

b. The supervisor, on invitation, will confer individually with 
teacher-trainers of the State. 

II. To improve Vocational Home Economics courses in the State by: 

1. Carrying out the objectives listed under I, with the addition 
of at least one more personal conference with each teacher. 

2. Stimulating interest in improving home projects. A study was 
made of last year's results, and suggestions based on these 
findings have been prepared and sent out to teachers. 

3. Planning program and conducting the Home Economics Section 
of the Annual State Conference on Vocational Education. 

III. To promote an understanding of the function of Home Economics 
in the educational program by: 

1. Making contacts with school and civic organizations and ex- 
plaining the aims and purposes of Home Economics in the 
school program. 

2. Assisting superintendents in planning Home Economics labora- 
tories and equipment in new buildings. 



Objectives of Director and Supervisors of Vocational Education 303 



Objectives of JOHN J. SEIDEL, State Supervisor of Indusrtrial Education. 

I. To assist in promoting the organization of more part-time indus- 
trial classes in Baltimore City. 

II. To assist in improving the program at Hagerstown and Cumber- 
land: 

1. By organizing the junior high school courses for the new 
schools. 

2. By organizing more definite courses of study for the trade 
preparatory classes in the senior high schools. 

III. To assist in the organization of training programs in the various 
industrial plants throughout the State, as well as in Baltimore 
City: 

1. By assisting the educational director of the various plants. 

2. By conducting foreman-training courses. 

3. By conducting foreman-training courses in cooperation with the 
local office of the National Metal Trades Association. 

IV. To reorganize the industrial education program in Baltimore 
County. 

V. To promote the organization of programs of general industrial 
courses in towns of less than 25,000. 
VI. To improve the instruction of industrial arts subjects: 

1. By making personal visits to all industrial shops in the high 
schools. 

2. By advocating better planned and better controlled industrial 
shop periods. 

3. By advocating the reorganization of existing manual training 
shops with the "General Shop" idea in mind. 

4. By having a copy of the manual in the hands of each new 
teacher at the earliest possible date. 

Objectives of K. C. THOMPSON, Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation. 
I. To build on the case work carried on for the period September 1, 

1929, to June 30, 1930. 
II. To assist in the proposed survey of employers in Baltimore. 

III. To supervise guidance of crippled boys and girls in county high 
schools. 

IV. To establish an Employment Bureau for the handicapped. 

V. To compile records regarding all crippled children in Maryland. 
VI. To cooperate with the Maryland League for Crippled Children in 
conducting clinics. 

VII. To cooperate with the Division of Special Education, Baltimore City 
Schools. 

VIII. To cooperate with the Division of Guidance and Placement, Balti- 
more City Schools. 
IX. To continue the present program of rehabilitation. 
Objectives of THOMAS L. GIBSON, State Supervisor of Music. 

I. In elementary school music, cooperating with the State Supervisor 
of Elementary Schools through conferences on plans to improve 
and extend the teaching of music. 
II. Extending and improving the teaching of music in the county high 
schools by: 

1. Conferring with county superintendents and high school prin- 
cipals on administrative problems in high school music, for the 
purpose of having certain features of music taught, and some 
social music activities carried on in every county high school 
in the State. For definite outlines of plans, see pages 179-186, 
in Standards for Mari/land Count// High Schools, issued by the 
State Department of Education, November, 1927. 

2. The organization of the high school music teachers of each 
county into a group under the direction of a chairman for the 
purpose of continuing to work out a more definite course of 



304 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



study in high school music. The State Supervisor of Music 
is always ready to advise and confer with these groups and 
their chairmen. 

3. Helping the individual teacher, and especially the beginning 
teacher, in her classroom, by observing her teach, by teaching 
for her, and by conferring with her. 

4. Meeting with each county group of music teachers as frequently 
as it is practicable for demonstration teaching and critiques 
and for the discussion of subject matter, lesson plans, goals, 
etc., which have been considered by members of the group as 
acceptable content for a county course in high school music. 

5. Assembling from the different county courses of high school 
music and from other sources of study such matter as might 
eventually make up a helpful State bulletin on high school 
music. 

6. Informing the officials of the colleges in Maryland again of 
the need for additional high school music teachers in the State, 
so trained that they will legally qualify as high school music 
teachers, to the end that all the colleges will offer music as 
a major subject to students possessing musical talent. 

7. Conferring with the heads of college music departments on 
courses which will meet the Maryland State requirements for 
a high school music certificate, 

8. Advising directors of State summer schools of the need and 
demand for summer school courses in high school music, and 
of the type of subject matter which will be most helpful to 
the Maryland high school music teachers. 

9. Keeping before county superintendents, high school principals, 
and music teachers the obligation resting upon them to offer 
music as an elective and applied high school subject to all 
pupils who possess special musical talent. 

10. Stimulating the social service which instruction in high schooli 
music may render, through music festivals, concerts, local and 
county-wide vocal and instrumental contests, etc. 

Helping to find and adjust problems in school attendance by: 

1. Conferences with county superintendents and attendance offi- 
cers on the specific problems in each county. 

2. Advising with attendance officers as to studies they might 
profitably make of their problems by field surveys and through 
reading books on the subject. 

3. Assisting in the preparation of a program for the annual two- 
day meeting of the county school attendance officers, which 
will bring the vital attendance problems before the group for 
discussion and a possible solution. 

4. Helping to coordinate more completely the different State wel- 
fare agencies which bear any relation to school attendance. 

Representing the State Department in standardization of elemen- 
tary schools by: 

1. Inspecting schools, at the request of county superintendents, 
to discover whether they have met the requirements for a 
standard elementary school. 

2. Making a report to the State Department of Education of all 
schools which have met standard requirements, and the neces- 
sary data on which a certificate of standardization can be 
issued. 

3. Checking up through superintendents and elementary super- 
visors to see that schools receiving certificates are kept up to 
standard requirements. 



Objectives of Supervisors of Music, Phys. Education and Libraries 305 

Objectives of DR. WILLIAM BURDICK, Supervisor of Physical Education. 
I. Promotion of physical education for every child in every school, 
in order to secure for each good behavior, good health, and the 
pursuit of happiness, with the understanding that physical edu- 
cation is a part of general education — the education through 
physical means. 

II. Offer opportunity for the athletic interests of youth by badge tests 
and a progressive set of team games. 

III. The continued development, through more carnivals, of track and 
field athletics for the individual girls and boys, so that such activi- 
ties will lead to competitive sports. 

IV. Operation of inter-county athletics involving field ball, soccer, 
and baseball to include 100 per cent of the high schools. 

V. Promotion of field dodge ball for elementally school children in 
schools with a two- and three-teacher organization. 
VI. Organization of basketball for boys and girls for the whole State. 
VII. Coordination with State Board of Health in health examinations. 
VIII. Assistance to schools and communities in the installation of play- 
grounds, gymnasia, and community recreation (such as horse shoe 
pitching, alumni games, and harmonica bands.) 
IX. Cooperation with county superintendents, supervisors, helping 
teachers, and teachers in the field, both at school and in the normal 
and summer schools, in solving athletic problems. 
X. Aid, if desired, at Western Maryland, Goucher, and the University 
of Maryland in planning courses in physical education, for students 
who are preparing to teach in the secondary schools of Mai-yland. 
XL Preparation for parent-teacher associations of recreation pro- 
grams, in addition to music. 
Objectives of ADELENE J. PRATT, State Director of Public Libraries. 
The Director will endeavor to attain the objectives of the preceding year: 

I. The improvement of library service in the State of Maryland. 

II. The promotion of the intelligent and appreciative use of books 
and libraries. 

III. Further extension of reading in the rural schools. 

IV. Promotion of community reading and adult education. 

V. Development of adequately supported county libraries throughout 
the State. 

Of equal importance in the improvement of library service in Maryland 
is the development of better high school libraries and the establishment 
of county libraries. On these we hope to concentrate our efforts this year. 
Detailed objectives of the former have been worked out at a conference 
during the year with the State Superintendent of Schools and the State 
High School Supervisors. The development of the county libraries should 
be a matter of concern_to all members of the State Department of Educa- 
tion and all county superintendents of schools. Only with such interest and 
cooperation can this objective be attained and successfully carried on. 

Objectives of BESSIE C. STERN, Statistician, and HELEN W. DODSON, 
Assistant Statistician. 
1. Preparation of a short bulletin for the Governor, showing progress 
from 1920 to 1930 in school conditions in Maryland. 

II. Publication of a bulletin entitled "Equalization of Educational 
Opportunities in Maryland," which explains and evaluates the 
Maryland plan for distributing school funds. 

III. Calculation of the estimated needs for the Equalization Fund for 
the years 1931-32 and 1932-33 for inclusion in the Governor's 
budget to be presented to the 1931 legislature. 

IV. Collection, summary, and interpretation of the school census to 
be taken in November, 1930. The legislation of 1929 requires 



306 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



more complete data on handicapped children than have previously 
been gathered, which will be secured through the school census. 
The State Health Department has requested that information be 
collected on the 1930 school census blanks on the place of birth. A 
check on the accuracy and completeness of the school census com- 
pared with the Federal census will be possible, since both Federal 
and school census are being taken in the year 1930. Data from 
the school census, when collected, will be available in the distribu- 
tion of school funds for the years 1932 and 1933. 
V. Preparation of the annual report for 1930, which will contain in- 
formation similar to that included in the 1929 report, with the 
following additions: 

1. Information to be gathered from the Report of the Bureau of 
Labor and Statistics. 

2. Data regarding over-age conditions. 

3. Progress in organization of classes for physically handicapped 
children and of the work on vocational rehabilitation. 

4. Years of experience of teachers resigning from Maryland 
schools, with reasons for resignations. 

5. Turnover of teachers in colored schools. 

6. Organization chart for the State Department of Education. 

7. Maryland's rank among the states in data for 1927-28, collected 
by the United States Bureau of Education. 

8. Any pertinent data from the Federal census. 

VI. Preparation of monthly bulletins on attendance by types of schools 
in the counties. 

VII. Addition to the cumulative file of data on certification, salary and 

experience of teachers of the information for October, 1930. 
VIII. Preparation of blanks and tabulation of data regarding funds, 
other than those from county and State, available and spent for 
extra-curricular activities. 
IX. Analysis of the 1930 Federal census data as they appear for the 
individual counties. 

Objectives of MERLE S. BATEMAN, Credential Secretary. 

I. To settle as promptly as possible all certificate applications. 
II. To make for the annual report studies of certification during the 
year 1929-30 and of the results of the efforts to improve the certifi- 
cation of high school teachers, with a view to stimulating better 
conditions. 

III. To check the certification of the high school teachers of the State 
for the year 1930-31, and to follow this up with whatever action 
is necessary to see that every secondary teacher holds a valid cer- 
tificate for the year. 

IV. To furnish the high school supervisors immediately before the 
State-aid for high schools is calculated with the names of any high 
school teachers in their districts who are not certificated; also 
with the names of those who hold only provisional certificates. 

V. To check the assignment of the high school teachers according to 

the subjects in which they are certificated. 
VI. To check the certification of the elementary school teachers and 
to do follow-up work in an effort to see that every elementary 
school teacher in the State is certificated. 
VII. To help in the inspection and rating of private secondary schools 
and colleges. 

VIII. To route the stenographic and clerical work smoothly and eflfi-' 
ciently. 

IX. To check more carefully the work of the clerical staff and try to 
give definite help in improving it. 



Objectives of Statistician and Credential Secretary; Certification 307 



*NUMBER OF CERTIFICATES ISSUED 
Table 188 indicates the number of certificates of the various 
kinds which have been issued during the period from December 
1 to November 30 in the years 1921-22, 1928-29, and 1929-30. 
There are no significant differences in the numbers of the differ- 
ent types of certificates issued in the last two years, except in 
connection with the vocational and the non-public certificates. 
The increase in the former is due both to an increase in the 
vocational work and to more complete certification of the voca- 
tional teachers. The fact that the number of non-public certifi- 
cates is much larger than in 1928-29 is due to this certificate's 
having been devised only shortly before the end of the 1928-29 
period. The certificates are now being issued to qualified teach- 
ers in the non-public secondary schools which have been inspected 
and approved by the State Department of Education. 

The significant differences between the numbers of certificates 
issued in 1921-22 and in 1929-30 occur chiefly in the elementary 
field. No more third grade certificates are being issued, though 
214 were issued in 1921-22 ; and only 5 second grade certificates 
were issued in 1929-30, as contrasted with 325 in 1921-22. (See 
Table 188.) 

TABLE 188 





Number of Certificates Issued 




December 1 to November 30 


Grade of Certificate 










1921-22 


1928-29 


1929-30 


Administration and Supervision 








Administration and Supervision 


4 


1 





Elementarv Supervision 


9 


10 


6 


Helping Teacher 


10 


2 


2 


Attendance Officer 





1 


2 


High School 








Principal 


7 


19 


22 




157 


186 


181 




30 


43 


49 




24 


12 


70 


Non-Public 





7 


102 


Elementary 










43 


30 


35 


First 


370 


538 


486 


Second 


325 


7 


5 


Third 


214 









High School Teachers' Certificates Not Valid in Elementary School 

By-law 29, which made it permissible for high school teachers' 
certificates to be used as first grade certificates in elementary 
schools, was repealed by the State Board of Education on Feb- 
ruary 21, 1930. 



* Prepared by Merle S. Bateman, Credential Secretary. 



308 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

^PROVISIONAL CERTIFICATES 

The number of provisional or emergency certificates issued 
during each of the last 8 years, including 1930-31 up to January 
1, is given in Table 189. The increase in the number of such 
certificates issued in 1926-27 and 1927-28 for elementary school 
teachers is chiefly the result of more complete checking by the 
State Department office and the subsequent certification of 
teachers who had formerly been allowed to work without valid 
certificates. The figures for these two years, therefore, do not 
indicate retrogression in preparation of elementary school 
teachers, but are larger simply because they give a true picture 
of the situation. During this school year, up to January 1, 1931, 
the number of provisional certificates issued to elementary school 
teachers is 15, only 2 fewer than were issued up to the corre- 
sponding date of the preceding year. Practically all of the pro- 
visional certificates in the elementary field have been authorized 
for elementary school principals. (See Table 189.) 



TABLE 189 



fProvisional or Emergency Certificates 
Issued for 

YEAR Elementary High School 

School Teaching Teaching 

1923- 24 276 225 

1924- 25 316 184 

1925- 26 175 132 

1926- 27 214 104 

1927- 28 268 108 

1928- 29 72 110 

1929- 30 35 112 

1930- 31 15* 85* 



t Includes both white and colored teachers. 
* Up to January 1, 1931. 



From the standpoint of provisional certificates, the high 
schools show continuous improvement. The number of provi- 
sional certificates has dropped from 225 in 1923-24 to 85 in 
1930-31, up to January 1, after which very few will be issued. 
The decrease has occurred in spite of the fact that the total 
number of teachers has greatly increased. The comparison in 
the high school figures, moreover, is quite accurate, because it 
has for some years been possible to check completely the certifi- 
cation of the high school teachers and to authorize provisional 
certificates for those who, through an oversight, have not been 
certificated early in the year. Sixty of the 85 are for teachers 
of special subjects. The supply of qualified teachers for these 



Provisional Certificates; Medical Exams.; Normal Graduates 309 



fields is not yet adequate. Twelve of the provisional certificates 
were issued to high school principals (4 to colored principals) 
and only 13 are held by teachers of academic subjects. Probably 
this number should be still further reduced, as some of the un- 
placed college graduates would perhaps fit into these particular 
positions. (See Table 189.) 

MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS 
Beginning with the summer of 1929, all prospective Maryland 
teachers have undergone special medical examinations conducted 
by physicians especially appointed for this purpose. The num- 
bers examined, accepted, and rejected during the two years the 
regulation has been in force are as follows : 

Year Xumber Accepted XiimberRejected Total 

1929- 30 910 7 917 

1930- 31 872 11 883 

TRAINING TEACHERS AT THE NORMAL SCHOOLS FOR 
WHITE STUDENTS 

Fewer County Graduates in 1930 

There were 271 county and 133 city students graduated in 
1930 from the three State normal schools at Towson, Frostburg, 
and Salisbury. The number of county students graduated in 
1930 was 45 fewer than in 1929 and the decrease w^as shared 
by the three institutions. The increase of 18 over 1929 brought 
the number of city graduates from Towson to 133 in 1930. The 
addition of the 1930 county graduates to the graduates of pre- 
ceding years brought the cumulative total from the three State 
normal schools up to 2,866 for the period 1920-1930, inclusive. 
In addition, 932 Baltimore City graduates have been trained for 
elementary school teaching by the Towson Normal School since 
it took over this function for the city in the fall of 1924. (See 
Table 190.) 

TABLE 190 



White Graduates of Maryland State Normal Schools, 1920-1930 



year 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Total 
Counties 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


Total 


1920 


37 
50 
114 
240 
239 
293 
214 
214 
189 
153 
129 




37 
50 
114 
240 
239 
527 
428 
353 
286 
268 
262 


13 
29 
28 
58 
71 
59 
84 
91 
82 
81 
72 




50 
79 
142 
298 
310 
352 
325 
377 
346 
316 
271 


1921 






1922 






1923 






1924 






1925 


234 
214 
139 
97 
115 
133 




1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

Total, 1920-30 


27 
72 
75 
82 
70 


1,872 


932 


2,804 


668 


326 


2,866 



210 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

The fact that in the fall of 1930, 94.5 per cent of the white 
elementary teachers in the Maryland county schools held first 
grade certificates, which represent normal school graduation or 
its equivalent, is due very largely to the splendid work of the 
State normal schools. (See Table 39, page 57, and Table X, page 
340.) 

Types of Positions Secured by Normal School Graduates 

While there were 271 county graduates in 1930, only 217 re- 
ceived teaching appointments in the Maryland county schools in 
the fall of 1930. Of these 93 went into one-teacher schools, 24 
into schools with a two-teacher organization, and 100 into the 
larger schools. The proportion of 1930 graduates teaching in 
the graded schools was larger than the proportion entering the 
one-teacher schools, which, in the past, recruited the major por- 
tion of the normal school graduates. This shift in the type of 
school entered by beginning teachers is to be expected from the 
changes in school organization due to State-wide emphasis on 
consolidation. At Towson almost 63 per cent of the appoint- 
ments were made to the graded schools and only 28 per cent to 
the one-teacher rural type. In Frostburg and Salisbury the re- 
verse is still the case, with about 26 per cent of the 1930 
graduates teaching in the three-teacher or larger schools and 57 
and 64 per cent, respectively, having their first year of teaching 
experience in the one-teacher schools. (See Table 191.) 

TABLE 191 



Per Cent of 1930 County Normal School Graduates Teaching in the Counties 
in Various Types of Schools 





Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisburt 


Total 


Type of School 




















No. 


Per 


No. 


Per 


No. 


Per 


No. 


Per 




Cent 


Cent 


Cent 


Cent 


One-Teacher 


33 


28.0 


28 


57.2 


32 


64.0 


93 


42.9 


Two-Teacher 


11 


9.3 


8 


16.3 


5 


10.0 


24 


11.0 




74 


62.7 


13 


26.5 


13 


26.0 


100 


46.1 


Total 


118 


100.0 


49 


100.0 


50 


100.0 


217 


100.0 



The number of county normal school graduates who failed to 
secure appointments in the fall of 1930 was considerably higher 
than in former years. The 11 graduates from Towson, 23 from 
Frostburg, and 20 from Salisbury who were not teaching in the 
year following their graduation from normal school indicate that 
the time is propitious for lengthening the normal school course 
from two to three years of training. The legislature is being 
asked to change the school law making this possible. In 1930 



Teaching Positions of 1930 Normal School Graduates 311 
TABLE 192 



Distribution of 1930 Normal School Graduates by County Placement 
and Type of School 





TOWSON 


Frostpurg 


SaLISPX'Rv 


Grand 


Total 


COUNTY 


le-Teacher 


v^o-Teacher 


aded 




le-Teacher 


vo-Teacher 


•aded 


'o 


le-Teacher 


;vo-Teacher 


•aded 


Is 
o 


o 


1 Two-Teacher 


•aded 






O 


H 


O 


O 


O 


H 


O 




O 




O 




O 

— — 


O 


o 




1 

3 






1 


9 






9 










10 






10 




2 


10 

34 


15 

38 


1 


3 


4 






4 


4 


3 


Q 
O 


17 


23 




3 


1 
















3 


1 


34 


38 


Calvert 


1 
1 


1 


2 












1 




1 


1 


2 


3 




1 




2 










1 




1 


2 


1 




3 




6 


1 


7 


2 


2 




4 


7 




1 


8 


15 


2 


2 


19 


Qecil 


2 




1 


3 










4 






4 


6 




1 


7 








1 


1 






















1 


1 
15 




1 




6 


7 










4 


1 


3 


8 


5 


1 


9 
8 




1 




5 


6 






2 


2 


3 




1 


4 


4 


12 


Garrett 






10 


1 




11 










10 


1 




11 

8 


Harford 


2 


2 


1 


5 






2 




1 


3 


4 


2 


' 2 




1 




1 










3 


1 


4 


4 


1 




5 
















4 




4 


4 






4 




1 


2 


4 


7 


















1 


2 


4 


7 


Prince George's .... 




2 


2 






2 


2 






2 


2 




6 


6 




1 






















1 






8 


St Mary's 


1 


1 


2 


4 


1 


1 


(i 










4 


2 


2 


^0nierset 


4 




4 






2 




2 


4 


2 




6 




1 

3 




1 

6 


2 










1 






1 


2 




' 1 


3 




1 


10 


3 


3 


5 


11 






6 


4 


11 


21 














3 




1 


4 


3 




1 


4 




1 




1 


2 
















1 




1 


2 


Total Counties: 


33 


11 


74 


118 


28 


8 


13 


49 


32 


5 


13 


50 


93 


24 


100 


217 




11 


23 




20 


54 


Baltimore City: 






12C 


120 


















12C 


120 








13 






















13 


Entire State: 


32 


11 


194 


238 


2J 




I 13 


49 


32 


c 


IS 


50 


9C 




22C 


337 


Not Teaching 


24 




23 




20 


67 



























the normal schools graduated more county students than there 
were vacant positions in the county schools which needed filling. 
It will, therefore, be possible to extend the required period of 
professional training without unduly handicapping the county 
schools through too great a reduction in the supply of teachers. 
Only 13 of the 133 Baltimore City graduates were not teaching 
in October, 1930. This was a great improvement over the situa- 
tion in the preceding year when 58 out of 115 Baltimore City 
graduates did not secure positions. 

The 1930 Towson graduates were employed in 20 of the 23 
counties. Garrett, Kent, and Wicomico were the only counties 
where no Towson graduates received appointments, while Balti- 



;312 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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Graduates Teaching in Home Co.; Enrollment Fall of 1930 SI? 

more, Anne Arundel, and Washington placed as many as 38, 15, 
and 10 graduates, respectively. Salisbury graduates found posi- 
tions in 14 counties and in largest numbers (8) in Dorchester 
and Carroll. Frostburg secured positions for its graduates in 
8 counties, Garrett, Washington, and Allegany employing the 
largest groups. (See Table 192.) 

Return of Graduates to Home Counties 

If a teacher is employed in or near her home community, the 
factors causing her to want to change her position are often 
greatly reduced. The number of normal school graduates com- 
ing from a county and the proportion who return to teach in 
the home county will, under the usual conditions, bear a rather 
close relationship to the stability or turnover of the teaching 
staff. 

In 1930. Charles, Prince George's, Calvert, St. Mary's, How- 
ard, and Montgomery had fewer than 5 of their residents gradu- 
ated from the State normal schools, and with the exception of 
Charles and Calvert, had to employ from 3 to 6 graduates from 
other counties to fill vacancies in their teaching staffs. Anne 
Arundel and Carroll also had to employ 19 and 13 graduates, 
respectivelj^ from other counties. On the other hand, Allegany. 
Baltimore, Queen Anne's, Somerset, Talbot, Wicomico, and 
Worcester had many more local graduates than could be placed 
in their own schools. The graduates from Baltimore and Wash- 
ington Counties numbered 46 and 25, respectively, and in each 
case about 80 per cent received appointments in their home 
counties. (See Table 193.) 

Normal School Enrollment in Fall of 1930 



TABLE 194 
Enrollment at State Normal Schools 



Fall 


Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 


of 


Count}' 


City 


County 


State 


1920 


184 




57 




241 


241 


1921 


397 




101 




498 


498 


1922 


.506 




134 




640 


640 


1923 


569 




125 




694 


694 


1924 


602 


518 


149 




751 


1.269 


1925 


513 


411 


197 


107 


817 


1.228 


1926 


475 


275 


201 


158 


834 


1.109 


1927 


402 


268 


192 


170 


764 


1.032 


1928 


359 


315 


178 


186 


723 


1.038 


1929 


368 


346 


173 


174 


715 


1.061 


1930 


348 


298 


161 


165 


674 


972 



The normal school enrollment in the fall of 1930 (972) was 
lower by 89 students than in 1929. Of the 972 enrolled, 646 



314 



1930 Eeport of State Department of Education 




Normal School Enrollment Fall of 1930 



315 



TABLE 195 

Enrollment in Maryland State Normal Schools for White Students, 
October, 1930 



COUNTY 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . 
Baltimore. . . . 

Calvert 

Caroline 



Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles . . . 
Dorchester . 
Frederick . . 



Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. 



Prince George's . 
Oueen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 



jWashington. 
Wicomico . . 
Worcester. . 



Total Counties. 

Out of State 

Baltimore City . . . 

Grand Total . . . 



TOWSON 



Juniors 



337 



Seniors 



309 



646 



Frostpurg 



Juniors Seniors 



60 



60 15 



75 



45 



12 



75 



161 



Salis- 

TfURv 



20 



ttl8 
t9 



165 



All Normal Schools 



Juniore 



29 



494 



Seniors 



478 



972 



Total 



972 



* Includes one irregular senior who returned for six weeks' work to obtain diploma deferred as of 1930. 
t Includes one irregular student who returned for twelve weeks' work. 
° Includes one man. 



were at Towson, 165 at Salisbury, and 161 at Frostburg. The 
decrease of 68 at Towson affected the city enrollment by 48 and 
the county enrollment by 20. There were 12 fewer students at 
Frostburg, and 9 fewer at Salisbury. (See Table 194.) 

When the schools are considered together, it is evident that 
the decrease in enrollment was entirely in the junior class ; the 
senior class was practically the same as in October, 1929. Like- 
wise the decrease was in women students ; the number of men 
remaining the same. Salisbury admitted no men to the junior 



316 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



class in the fall of 1929, and in 1930, with the exception of one 
man from outside of the State, had only women students. 

Every county in the State had local high school graduates in 
the State normal schools in the fall of 1930, and Charles, St. 
Mary's, Kent, and Prince George's were the only ones with fewer 
than 10. There were more students from Anne Arundel, Balti- 
more, Calvert, Caroline, Garrett, Harford, Montgomery, and 
Prince George's than in the preceding year. This is as it should 
be, for, with the exception of Baltimore and Caroline, these 
counties did not have a sufficient number of local normal school 
graduates to fill the vacancies in their elementary schools. Coun- 
ties where there were more graduates than available positions 
had, in general, fewer students in normal school in 1930 than 
in 1929. This is especially true of Allegany, Worcester, Wico- 
mico, and Talbot. Carroll, however, had to employ 13 graduates 
from other counties in the fall of 1930 and at the same time 
Carroll County students were enrolled in smaller numbers in 
both junior and senior years of the State normal schools than 
in the preceding year. (See Table 195, Chart 40, and pages 119- 
22 and 366-71.) 

Courses Taken by Juniors Admitted in 1930 

The per cent of the junior entrants to normal school who had 
taken the academic course at high school amounted to almost 
94 per cent in Salisbury, 87 per cent at Towson, and 72 per cent 
at Frostburg. At Towson and Frostburg these were lower per- 
centages than in 1929 and resulted in increased numbers of 
students from both the general and commercial courses. (See 
Table 196.) 



TABLE 196 
1930 Normal School Entrants 



High School Course 


Per Cent Having 
Had Various High 
School Courses 


Third of 
Class 


Per Cent from Upper, 
Middle and Lower Third 
of Class 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Academic and College 


86. 9 
8.0 
4.5 

.3 
.3 


72.4 
17.1 
10.5 


93.9 
3.7 
2.4 


Upper 


53.1 
39.2 
7.4 
.3 


58.1 
31.1 
8.1 
2 7 


42.7 
40.2 
9.8 
7.3 




Middle 




Lower 


Scientific, Vocational or 


Unclassified. . 
Total. . . . 








Total 






337 


70 


82 


337 


74 


82 



Junior Entrants Fall of 1930; Withdrawals of 1929 Juniors 317 

High School Class Standing of Junior Entrants in 1930 

Well over half of the entrants at Frostburg and Towson came 
from the upper third of their high school classes. At Salisbury 
this group comprised about 43 per cent of the entrants. From 
the middle group, Frostburg had 31 per cent, Towson 39, and 
Salisbury 40 per cent. In no school did those coming from the 
lowest third of the high school class amount to as much as 10 
per cent of the entrants as was the case in Towson and Frost- 
burg in 1929. Salisbury which had the smallest proportion in 
1929 had the highest in 1930, 9.8 per cent. Towson and Frost- 
burg follow with 7.4 and 8.1 per cent from the lowest third of 
the class. The percentage of pupils reported as ''unclassified" 
is unusually large at Salisbury. (See Table 196.) 

For unconditional admission to the normal school, a by-law of 
the State Board of Education states that the applicant must have 
made a grade of A or B in at least 60 per cent of the college 
entrance courses which were pursued in the last two years of 
the high school course, and a grade of C or higher in all other 
college entrance courses pursued during the same period. An 
applicant who does not meet these standards, but who passes the 
entrance examinations, may be admitted on probation, at the 
discretion of the normal school principal. 

Of the 494 juniors who entered the normal schools in the fall" 
of 1930, 298 met the requirements of the by-law and were ad- 
mitted in full standing; the remaining 196 entered on probation 
and their continuance at the normal school depended on the 
quality of their work during the first semester. 

Towson had the smallest proportion of probationary students. 
Thirty-seven of the 161 city students and 74 of the 176 county 
students were not given full standing at the time of their ad- 
mission to the normal school. The students on probation com- 
prised slightly less than a third of all the Towson juniors. At 
Frostburg, 41 out of 75, and at Salisbury 51 out of 82 entrants 
did not qualify for full admission and were admitted on pro- 
bation. 

Withdrawal of Juniors Who Entered in 1929 

There were 584 juniors enrolled in the three State normal 
schools in September, 1929. Before the close of the school year, 
149 of these had withdrawn, either voluntarily or at the request 
of the school. For the schools taken together, the voluntary 
withdrawals almost equaled the withdrawals by request, al- 
though in the individual schools, the relation of these items shows 
considerable variation. (See Table 197.) 

Towson had the highest percentage of withdrawals with 31.1 
per cent of the 1929 county entrants and 24.4 per cent of the 
city entrants withdrawn before 1930. Of the 63 county students 
who withdrew, 33 did so of their own volition and 30 at the 
request of the school. The 22 Salisbury withdrawals comprised 
23.9 per cent of the entrants, and only a third of the withdrawals 
were rnade at the request of the school. It is, of course, difficult 
to distinguish between the cases where the withdrawal is truly 
voluntary or made in anticipation of a request for withdrawal. 



318 



1930 Report of IState Department of Education 



At Frostburg, 16 or 16.3 per cent of the juniors withdrew, one- 
fourth voluntarily and three-fourths because the school felt them 
unable to meet satisfactorily the standards of the school. (See 
Table 197.) 

TABLE 197 

Juniors Who Entered Maryland Normal Schools in September, 1929, 
Who Withdrew at the Request of the School or Voluntarily 
Before September, 1930 



Junior Enrollment, September, 1929. . . . 
Withdrawals for Removal, Transfer or 

Death 

Withdrawals bv Request 

Withdrawals Voluntarily 

Per Cent Withdrawn bv Request 

Per Cent Withdrawn Voluntarily 

Total Per Cent of Withdrawals 



Towson 




Frost- 


Salis- 


Countv 


Citv 


burg 


bury 


204 


190 


98 


92 


1 


1 






30 


27 


12' ' 


'7" 


33 


19 


4 


15 


14.8 


14.3 


12.2 


7.6 


16.3 


10.1 


4.1 


16.3 


31.1 


24.4 


16.3 


23.9 



The Normal School Faculty 

In the fall of 1930 as well as in 1929 there were 47 instructors 
on the faculties of the three State normal schools, 31 at Towson 
and 8 each at Frostburg and Salisbury. The campus elementary- 
schools were staffed by 19 teachers and there were 35 county 
teachers at the training centers who co-operated in demonstra- 
tion and supervision of practice teaching for the normal school 
students. Nine librarians and 13 members of the office staff 
were employed at the three schools. The only significant change 
from 1929 to 1930 was in the dormitory staff, 8 instead of 11. 
A reduction of 2 took place at Towson and of 1 at Salisbury. 
(See Table 198.) 

TABLE 198 

Faculty at Maryland Normal Schools for White Students, Fall of 1930 





Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 




1 


1 


1 


3 




31 


8 


«8 


47 


Library 


5 


2 


b2 


9 


Campus Elementary School . . . . 


12 


4 


3 


19 


Training Centers 








35 




*18 


6 


11 


Baltimore City 


*20 






20 


Office Staff 


8 


2 


3 


13 




5 


2 


cl 


8 



a Includes the Director of Training, who is also Principal of the Elementary School. 

b The Librarian teaches English part-time, and the Assistant Librarian does office work part-time. 

c The Social Director also acts as School Nurse and as Teacher of Home Economics. 

* One additional during first term. 



Faculty, Training Centers, Summer Session at Normal Schools 319 



Training Centers for Practice Work 

There were 9 schools in the counties (Baltimore, Anne Arun- 
del and Harford) and 9 in Baltimore City to which Towson 
students went for demonstration and practice teaching. This is 
one more for the city and one less for the counties than in 1929. 
Eighteen county teachers and 20 from the city co-operated in 
this work. The Frostburg students worked in 5 Allegany County 
schools under the direction of 6 teachers. At Salisbury Normal 
School practice teaching was done in 7 Wicomico County schools 
and in one school in Somerset. (See Table 199.) 

TABLE 199 

Training Centers for Maryland Normal Schools, Fall of 1930 



Normal School at 
Towson 



Frostburg . 
Salisbury . 



Number of 

County Co-operating Schools 

Baltimore 7 

Anne Arundel 1 

Harford 1 

Total Counties 9 

Baltimore City 9 

Campus School 1 

Allegany 5 

Campus School 1 

Wicomico 7 

Somerset 1 

Campus School 1 



Number of 
Teachers 
14 
3 
* 1 

*18 
*20 
12 

6 
4 

10 
1 

3 



* One additional teacher for the first term. 



Normal School Summer Session Discontinued 

The 1930 Summer Session at Frostburg enrolled 117 students. 
All but 3 came from the Maryland counties ; Allegany sending 
83, Garret 15, Washington, Talbot, Frederick, Carroll, Dorches- 
ter, and Cecil each being represented by from 1 to 6 students. 
Seventeen of those enrolled were junior students at the regular 
session of the normal school and 8 others were seniors who re- 
turned to complete work necessary for graduation. There were 
10 faculty members not including the principal of the school. 

By action of the State Board of Education there will be no 
further summer sessions at the State normal schools. It is con- 
sidered of advantage to the teaching staff, which is at present 
composed almost entirely of normal school graduates, to take 
their summer school work at colleges and universities. 

Total and Per Student Costs at the Normal Schools 

The increased State appropriations for the normal schools 
provided in the 1930 budget made possible an increase in the 
instruction budget at Towson, in the dormitory budget at Frost- 



320 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

burg and in the instruction and dormitory budgets at Salisbury. 
Constant refinement in the classification of expenditures to con- 
form more accurately with actual conditions has brought about 
changes in classification from year to year. A comparison of 
figures, which show large increases or decreases from one year 
to the next, is explained in part by a reallocation of items. 

The total expenditure shown for instruction at Towson, $201,- 
338 in 1930, included certain items previously charged against 
the dormitory. For example, food and service used in the enter- 
tainment of guests at the school for graduation exercises, the 
volley ball teams, speakers and visitors during the year, etc., 
were in the nature of charges against educational administration, 
rather than a cost incurred because of the county students living 
in the dormitories. Prior to 1930, these amounts w^ere allocated 
as dormitory costs. The increase from 1929 to 1930 in instruc- 
tion costs of $13,657 came from the larger State appropriation. 
The total dormitory expenditures were practically equal to those 
reported for the preceding year. (See Columns 1 and 2 in 
Table 200.) 

At Frostburg expenditures by Allegany County for the ele- 
mentary training school were added to the instruction budget 
for the regular session since Allegany County received reim- 
bursement for this school from State funds and the entire cost 
is to be paid by the normal school in the future. The total 
instruction cost was, therefore, $56,391, lower by $1,064 than 
for the year preceding. Dormitory costs of $20,190 were ap- 
proximately $4,000 more than in 1929, largely due to a realloca- 
tion of expenditures for operation formerly charged against in- 
struction. (See Columns 3 and 4 in Table 200.) 

Summer session costs at Frostburg of $7,974 were $1,179 more 
than for the year preceding, partly due to an increase in dormi- 
tory costs for more students. (See Columns 5 and 6 in Table 
200.) 

At Salisbury the 1930 instruction expenditures of $56,962 
were approximately $7,000 more than in 1929, almost the entire 
increase occurring for salaries of instructors, books, and educa- 
tional, vocational, and recreational supplies and equipment. It 
should be remembered, however, that $7,000 the preceding year 
was transferred to the construction account. The increase of 
$5,356 in dormitory costs went into more food and service. (See 
columns 7 and 8 in Table 200.) 

Cost Per Student 

The total instruction cost per student was $333 at Towson, 
$339 at Salisbury and $350 at Frostburg. These amounts in- 
clude as a charge against the normal school students the total 
cost of running the elementary training schools which, of course, 
are providing an elementary school education for the pupils en- 



Total and per Student Cost at Normal Schools 



321 



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30:^ 



322 1930 Report of State Department of Education 



rolled therein. When the fees for registration, health, library, 
etc., are deducted, the cost to the State for instructing a student, 
using as a divisor the average number of students, was $310 at 
Towson, $323 at Salisbury, and $330 at Frostburg. (See Col- 
umns 1, 3 and 7 in Table 200.) 

The total cost, per dormitory student, using the average num- 
ber in residence as a divisor, was $284 at Salisbury, $288 at 
Frostburg, and $383 at Towson. Deducting the average payment 
in fees per student, the cost to the State of food and service per 
resident student was $116 at Salisbury, $146 at Frostburg and 
$212 at Towson. At Towson reductions in the dormitory staff 
have been made for the year 1930-31. (See Columns 2, 4 and 8 
in Table 200.) 

The combined cost to the State of instruction and dormitory 
for resident students was $439 at Salisbury, $476 at Frostburg 
and $522 at Towson. 

At the Frostburg summer session the total cost of instructing 
a day student was $51. Since the registration fee was $10, the 
cost per student to the State for instruction was $41. The total 
cost of food and service for a dormitory student was, therefore, 
$80, of which $45 was paid by the student, leaving the State's 
contribution toward a resident, $35. The combined cost to the 
State of instruction and dormitory service for a resident summer 
school student at Frostburg in 1930 was $76. (See Columns 5 
and 6 in Table 200.) 

Inventories of N^ormal Schools 

The inventories of the three normal schools as of September 
30, 1930, are shown in Table 201. At Towson there is an in- 
crease of $10,000 over 1929. At Salisbury the amount shown 
for buildings and equipment in 1929 was incorrect. The 1930 
inventory of $675,700 is, therefore, the correct total as of Sep- 
tember, 1930. (See Table 201.) 



TABLE 201 



Inventories of the Normal Schools 



Towson 



Frostburg 



Salisbury 



Land 



$ 98,147 
1,023,064 
168,982 
1,174 



$ 25,868 
293,654 
15,886 



$ 16,266 
628,762 
30,672 



Buildings. . 
Equipment 
Livestock. . 



Total 



$1,291,367 



$335,408 



$675,700 



Cost per Student; Inventory; Teachers' Retirement System 323 



THE MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 
Contributions from County Teachers and Membership 

The Maryland Teachers' Retirement System in its third year 
of operation received contributions from county teachers to the 
amount of $265,744, an increase of $7,844 over the amount con- 
tributed during 1928-29. In October, 1930, 4,819 county teach- 
ers, 93 per cent of the entire teaching staff, were active members 
of the system. For the preceding October, only 91 per cent of 
the teachers were contributing members. (See Table 202.) 

The proportion of the teaching staff in active membership in 
the Retirement System varied in the individual counties from 
81.6 and 84.5 per cent in Wicomico and Talbot, respectively, to 
98.1 per cent in Somerset. While in 1929 no county had more 
than 96.9 per cent in active membership, in 1930, Somerset, Al- 
legany, Prince George's, Baltimore, Carroll, and Cecil had at 
least this proportion of their teachers enrolled in the Retirement 
System. Contributions from the 189 members in the State De- 
partment of Education, the normal schools, and the four State 
schools for handicapped and delinquent children brought the 
total contributions for 1929-30 to $286,486. (See Table 202.) 

Retirement and Death Benefits Received 

During 1929-30, $101,238 was paid to teachers retired on an 
annual pension of $400, the plan in effect before the contributoiy 
plan was put into operation. At the end of this period there 
were 238 teachers receiving this type of pension. Since the 
establishment of the Teachers' Retirement System in 1927, 139 
teachers have been retired on the new basis. Of these, 117 were 
retired because they had reached the age permitting or requiring 
retirement, and 22 because of disability. Of those retired on the 
new basis, six have died. State appropriations to the amount of 
$61,796 plus $887 from their own contributions were used dur- 
ing the year ending July 31, 1930, to pay the annual allowances 
to the remaining 133 retired teachers. The beneficiaries of 13 
teachers who died in service during 1929-30 received in death 
benefits $5,780 from State funds and $1,807 which the teachers 
themselves had contributed. Teachers who left the service with- 
drew contributions and accrued interest to the amount of $41,- 
088. The expense of administration was $8,633. 

State Appropriations 

For the year ending September 30, 1929, an appropriation of 
$197,000 was available from the Public School and supplemental 
budgets. The 1929 Legislature appropriated funds amounting 
to $424,654 in 1930 and $445,886 for 1931 which covered the 
normal contribution and the accrued liability contribution of the 
State of Maryland on account of the county members of the 



324 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 202 

Contributions to the Annuity Savings Fund of the Teachers' Retirement System of 
the State of Maryland for the Year Ending July 31, 1930 and Per Cent of October, 
1930 Staff Who Are Contributors 



Amount Contrib- Active Members in 



COUNTY OR INSTITUTION uted Year Ending Oct. 1930 Staff 



County: 


July 31, 1930 


Number 


Per Cent 










Allegany 


$29 . 142 . 


82 


449 


97.8 


Anne Arundel 


13,418. 


96 


260 


87.0 


Baltimore 


38 , 489 . 


53 


551 


97.0 


Calvert 


2,788. 


83 


64 


94.1 


Caroline 


5,777. 


28 


118 


88.1 


Carroll 


12,941. 


74 


249 


96.9 


Cecil 


9 , 243 . 


83 


158 


96.9 




4,374. 


89 


104 


96.3 


Dorchester 


7,720. 


56 


173 


91 .5 


Frederick 


17,771. 


86 


315 


95.2 


CJarrett 


9 , 286 . 


74 


176 


92.6 


Harford 


10,195 


08 


192 


91.4 


Howard 


4,926 


12 


97 


89.8 


Kent 


5,688. 


11 


106 


95.5 


Montgomery 


17,653 


,87 


329 


95.6 


Prince George's 


19,331 


.00 


374 


97.1 




5,423 


.95 


91 


91.9 


St. Mary's 


3,254 


.51 


79 


92.4 


Somerset 


7,115 


.36 


159 


98.1 


Talbot 


5 , 576 


.38 


109 


84.5 


Washington 


20,300 


.53 


359 


86.1 


Wicomico . . 


8,604 


.14 


164 


81.6 


Worcester '. 


6.717 


.75 


143 


90.5 


Total Counties 


$265,743.84 


4819 


93.0 


Normal School; 










Towson 


6,629.08 


49 




Frost burg 


1 , 288 


.77 


14 




Salisbury 


1,979 


.55 


15 






933 


.26 


19 




Total 


$10,830.66 


97 




Dkpartment: 










State Department of Education 


•1 




23 




Md. Public Library Advisory Commission. 


.\ 4 , 609 


.48 


4 




Md. Teachers' Retirement System 


•j 




2 




Total 


$4,609 


.48 


29 




Other School-: 










Md. Training School for Boys 


1,653 


.10 


20 




Montrose School 


674 


.81 


9 




Md. School for the Deaf 


2,089 


.24 


26 




Rosewood 


884 


.68 


8 




Total 


$5 , 301 


.83 


63 




Grand Total 


$286,485.81 


5,008 





Teachers' Retirement System of Mahyland 



325 



Maryland State Teachers' Retirement System. The law provides 
that the State shall contribute to the City of Baltimore an amount 
equal to what would be required if the teachers of Baltimore City 
were members of the Maryland Teachers' Retirement System 
instead of belonging to the Retirement System available to all 
employees of the City of Baltimore. These amounts, fixed by the 
actuary at $411,893 for 1930 and $432,487 for 1931, were in- 
cluded in the State Public School Budget. In addition, an annual 
appropriation of $7,500 was made to meet the expenses of ad- 
ministration of the State Retirement System. 

The total State appropriations for the Teachers' Retirement 
System for 1932 and 1933 set by the actuary at $977,964 and 
$1,026,362, respectively, have been included in the Governor's 
budget. The amount for the earlier year includes $494,342 for 
the Retirement System for the county teachers, $10,000 for the 
administration of the system, and $473,622 as the State's share 
towards the Baltimore City Retirement System. For 1923 the 
corresponding amounts are $519,059, $10,000, and $497,303, 
respectively. 

Physical Examination of Teachers 

In order to make more effective section 126 of the State school 
law requiring physical examination of teachers and to prevent 
the Teachers' Retirement System from admitting to membership 
physically handicapped teachers, arrangements were made be- 
ginning in the fall of 1929 to have the physicians at the normal 
schools give a thorough physical examination to all graduates 
who are planning to take positions in the Maryland counties. All 
entrants in the service who have not had such examinations are 
required to visit the physician in each county appointed to ex- 
amine such teachers. The State Department of Education bears 
the expense of such examination. Reports of these examinations 
are forwarded to the Medical Board of the Teachers' Retirement 
System. Certificates are issued only to those teachers, reports 
of whose physical examination are approved by the Medical 
Board. The number examined, accepted and rejected during the 
two years the regulation has been in force are as follows : 



Year 

1929- 30 

1930- 31 



Examined 

917 
883 



Number 
Accepted 



Rejected 

7 
11 



910 
872 



326 



1930 Eeport of State Department of Education 



No. Subject Page 

Financial Statements 327 

I. Number of Schools - _ 330 

II. Total Enrollment _ „ 331 

III. Non-Public School Enrollment _ 332 

IV. Non-Catholic Private Schools „ 333 

V. Catholic Parochial and Private Schools 334-5 

VI. Number Belonging; Per Cent of Attendance _ 336 

VII. Days in Session ; Aggregate Days of Attendance ; Average 

Daily Attendance _ _ 337 

VIII. Non- Promotions by Grade and Sex — White) Elementary 

Schools _ „ 338 

IX. Number of Teaching Positions * „ 339 

X. Certificates of White Elementary Teachers, October, 1930... 340 
XI. Certificates of Teachers in White One-Teacher Schools, 

October, 1930 _ 341 

XII. Certificates of Teachers in White Two-Teacher Schools, 

October, 1930' _ _ „ 342 

XIII. Certificates of Colored Teachers, October, 1930 343 

XIV. Average Number of Pupils Belonging Per Teacher, 

1929^30 „ _ - - 344 

XV. Average Salary Per Teacher, 1929-30...... - — 345 

XVI. Badge Tests— White Schools 346 

XVII. Teams and Entrants— White Schools — - 347 

XVIII. White Girls' Relay Teams and Entrants 34S 

XIX. Badge Tests— Colored Schools _ 349 

XX. Teams and Entrants^ — Colored Schools 350 

XXI. Receipts from State, 1929-30 „.„ 351 

XXII. Receipts from All Sources, 1929-30 „ 352 

XXIII. Total Disbursements, 1929-30. 353 

XXIV. Disbursements for General Control 354 

XXV. Disbursements for Instruction and Operation 355 

XXVI. Disbursements for Maintenance, Auxiliary Agencies, and 

Fixed Charges _ _ 356 

XXVII. Disbursements for Debt Service and Capital Outlay 357 

XXVIII. Disbursements for White Elementary Schools „ 358 

XXIX. Disbursements for White One-Teacher Schools 359 

XXX. Disbursements for White Two-Teacher Schools 360 

XXXI. Disbursements for White Graded Schools 361 

XXXII. Disbursements for Junior High Schools 362 

XXXIII. Disbursements for White High Schools 363 

XXXIV. Disbursements for Colored Elementary Schools 364 

XXXV. Disbursements for Colored High Schools 365 

XXXVI. Cost, Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates, Normal School 

Entrants, Courses in Individual High Schools 366-71 

XXXVII. Enrollment by Subject in Individual High Schools 372-377 

XXXVIII. Enrollment in Commercial Courses in Individual High 



Schools _ 378-80 



Statistical Tables; Financial Statement 



327 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 
For Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1930 



Account 


State 
Appropriation 


Receipts 
from Fees, 
Federal 
Aid and 
by Budget 
Amendment 


Withdrawals 
by Budget 
Amendment 
and Failure 
to Collect 
Tax 


Total 
Available 

and 
Disbursed 


Maryland State Nor- 
mal School, Towson . 

Maryland State Nor- 
mal School, Salis- 
burv 

Maryland State Nor- 
mal School, Frost- 
burg 

Maryland State Nor- 
mal School, Bowie . . . 

State Department of 
Education 


$250,039.00 

70,815.00 

63,265.00 
42,200.00 
a76, 150.00 

16,420.00 

12,000.00 

7,000.00 

15,000.00 
15,000.00 

5,000.00 

3,000.00 

1,000.00 
1,500.00 

500.00 

500,954.00 

187,000.00 

30,750.00 
200,000.00 

50,000.00 

1,900,000.00 
6499,365.51 

10,000.00 


$71,011.28 

28,119.61 

18,369.58 
15,217.80 
1,013.41 

570.52 


$ .45 
4.76 
.45 


$321,049.83 

98.929.85 

81,634.13 
57,417.80 
77.163.41 

16,989.13 

8,858.45 

6,424.57 

15,000.00 
23,500.40 

9,651.82 

850.97 

1,018.20 
1.500.00 

42.50 

500,937.00 

183,213.66 

28,500.00 
200,000.00 

50,000.00 

♦1,797,305. 69 
496,076.75 

10,000.00 


Maryland Public Li- 
brary Advisory 
Commission 

Bureau of Educational 
Measurements 

Bureau of Publications 
and Printing 

Physical and Health 
Education 


1.39 
3,141.55 
575.43 


Vocational Education 
Vocational Rehabilita- 
tion 


8,500.40 
4,651.82 

18.20 




Extension Courses for 
Teachers 

State Board of Educa- 
tion 


2,149.03 


Consultant Architect . . 

Examination and Cer- 
tification 

State Aid to Approved 
High Schools 

Part-Payment of Cer- 
tain Salaries 

State Aid to Colored 
Industrial Schools. . . 

Free Textbooks 


457 . 50 
17.00 
3,786.34 
2,250.00 


Materials of Instruc- 
tion 






Census and Attend- 
ance 

Equahzation Fund .... 

State Aid for Handi- 
cannpd ChilHrpn 

Totals 

Teachers' Retirement 

System 

County Teachers 

Baltimore City 

Teachers 


14,815.31 


*1 17, 509. 62 
3,288.76 


#o,95o,9oo .51 

$423,520.61 

411,893.00 
8,633.39 


!tblDiS,z87 .93 


loo, l5^ .iiO 


$423,520.61 

411,893.00 
8,633.39 


Expense Fund 






Totals 






$4,801,005.51 


$162,287.93 


$133,182.28 


$4,830,111.16 



a Includes $2,500 transferred from 1929 budget. *Reduction of $117,509.62 because collections 
failed to equal estimated receipts from Public School Tax. 
b Includes $13,907.51 transferred from 1929 budget. 



328 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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Financial Statements — Normal Schools and State Department 329 



Receipts 



PCRPOSE 


State 
Appropriation 


Other ' fc» Budget 
Receipts Amendment 


Total 
Receipts 


Vocational Education 

Physical and Health Eaucation . 
Educational Measurements. . . . 
Publications and Printing 


§15,000.00 
15.000.00 
12.000.00 
7.000.00 
3.000.00 
1,500.00 
1.000.00 

500.00 
250.00 


al8,271.05 


$229.35 


$23 . 500 . 40 
15.000.00 
12,000.00 
7.000.00 
3.000.00 
1.500.00 
1.018.20 

500.00 
5.144.6.5 
11.725.00 
9.651.82 










Extension Teaching 






Consultant Architect 






State Board of Education 

Examination and Certification 
of Teachers 




18.20 


Suoervision of Colored Schools . 
Julius Rosenwald Fund 


64,894.65 
cll,725.00 
a4,651.82 




Vocational Rehabilitation 


5.000.00 









E'iPENDITCRES 



Salaries 



Traveling County 
Expenses I Subsidies 



Vocational Education 

Physical and Health Education 
Educational Measurements. . . 
Publications and Printing. . . . 

Extension Teaching 

Consultant Architect . 

State Board of Education. . . . 
Examination and Certification 

of Teachers 

Suoervision of Colored Schools 

.Julius Rosenwald Fund 

Vocational Rehabilitation .... 



$10,999.92;$3,426.19 



8,625.00 



47.05 



1.500.00; 



1.018.20 



42.50 . . 
4.000.00! 1 



144 . 65 



4.800.00 1,160.84 



Miscel- 
laneous 



$8,348.13 $726.16 

15,000.00 

I 186.40 

,424.57 
600.00 250.97 



Budget 
Amend- 
ment 



rfll,725.00 



3.690.98 



$3,141.55 
575 . 43 
2,149.03 



457.50 



Total Dis- 
bursement 



$23,500.40 
15.000 00 
12.000.00 
7.000.00 
3,000.00 
1,500.00 
1,018.20 

500.00 
5 , 144 . 65 
11.725.00 
9.651.82 



n From Federal Government. 

b From General Education Board. 

c From Julius Rosenwald Fund. 

d For buildings, libraries, and transportation. 



330 



2 



T3 C « 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



pajojoo 



pajoioo 



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paAOJddy 



5 05 



SJaqoBax 
aioy^ JO aajqx 



sjaqoBax OMX 



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II 



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uT3 ojs^ ta>.<: o."-'''*- 



Number of Schools; Enrollment 331 



B 






a 


IS iiiiiilisi -.l 


iiiSiiSiiSgg iio|SSS5S| i 


Senior High and 
Junior High (Grade 9) 


1 








1 










1 








i 


Elementary, Vocational, 
Junior High 
(Grades 7 and 8) 


1 


27,041 
26,759 

273 
c2,749 
2,078 
1,176 
898 
344 
449 
1,561 
1,522 
919 








IS SiiiiilSSi :i 

coco ^-H 




1,521 
1,472 

24,192 


>l 


13,691 
13,543 

131 
cl,355 
1,055 
581 
459 
175 
209 
782 
751 
469 


316 
472 
916 
dl,431 
426 
611 
936 
541 
168 
737 
775 

9,993 
9,853 
8,874 
8,770 
121 
114 


; ; gs 


WHITE SCHOOLS 


11 


135,896 
133,497 

14,753 
7,503 

19,726 
1,062 
3,115 
6,449 
4,274 
1,927 
3,995 
9,913 
4,945 
5,508 
2,502 
2,076 
7.921 
9,459 
2.210 
1,328 
3,178 
2,653 

13,246 
4.967 
3,186 

94,076 
92.272 
68,293 
66,773 
717 
705 
15,114 
14,930 
9,952 
9,864 

225,769 


Senior High and Junior 
High (Grade 9) 


1 


ci^-^- ^- ^ ^ : : : : 


----- « 


1 


13,614 
13.544 

1,453 
624 

1,523 
96 
406 
679 
501 
215 
480 

1,041 
429 
625 
236 
294 
789 
907 
285 
109 
386 
404 

1.118 
602 
412 

6.733 
6,673 


1,953 
1,929 
4,780 
4,744 

20,217 


1 


aS SSi"ii§liiilSIiSS§i«iSs is : - : 




Elementary, Vocational, 
Junior High 
(Grades 7 and 8) 


1 

H 


111,010 
108,737 

12,104 
6,361 
al6,769 
887 
2,405 
5.209 
3.349 
1,523 
3,163 
7,981 
4,178 


liSiSBSIiSSi liiRgs 


11,500 
11,360 

1 

187,575 


>l 


53,452 
52,374 

5, 942 
3,147 
a8,087 

468 
1,149 
2.486 
1,567 

704 
1,500 
3,868 
1,978 
2.136 

940 

756 
3,082 
3,677 

821 

497 
1,191 

907 
5,518 
M,913 
1,118 

39,082 
38,271 
33,280 
32,541 
156 
154 


5,646 
5,576 

90,645 




57,558 
-56,363 

3,214 
a8,682 

419 
1,256 
2,723 
1,782 

819 
1,663 
4,113 
2,200 
2,269 
1,092 

816 
3,418 
4,102 

912 

619 
1,275 
1,055 
5,668 
61,961 
1,338 

41,428 
40,567 
35,013 
34,232 
561 
551 


is : i 1 
; ; g 


COUNTY 


County Total, Including Duplicates 

County Total, Excluding Duplicates. .., .-r 

Allegany 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 


Kent 

Prince George's 

St. Mary's 

Talbot 

Washington 

Baltimore City Total (Including Duplicates 

\ Excluding Duplicates. ,t: 

Elementary /Including Duplicates 

\ Excluding Duplicates 

Vocational (Including Duplicates 

\Excluding Duplicates 


Junior High (Including Duplicates 

\ Excluding Duplicates 

Senior High /Including Duplicates 

\Excluding Duphcates 

Total State Excluding Duplicates 



332 1930 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE III 



Number of Pupils Reported Enrolled in Maryland Non-Public Elementary 
and Secondary Schools, for the Year Ending June 30, 1939 



County 


WHITE 


COLORED 


No. 
of 
Schools 


Enrollment 


No. 
of 

Teachers 


Elemen- 
tary 


Commer- 
cial 
and 
Secondary 


No. 
of 
Schools 


Enroll- 
ment 


No. 
of 

Teach erp- 


t Catholic Parish and Private Schools and Private Institt tions, Fall of 1929 




9 
1 

14 
1 
2 
2 
8 
1 
1 
3 
2 
5 

10 
1 


2.285 
338 

2.464 
27 
186 
304 
535 
75 
135 
260 
108 
619 
956 
334 


280 


75 
8 
87 
12 
9 
13 
62 
4 
3 
10 
18 
28 
40 
8 










1 


93 


2 


Baltimore 


127 
23 
58 


Caroline 








Carroll 










1 

2 


110 

26 


2 
2 


Garrett 


318 


Harford 














1 


45 


1 




131 
63 
112 


St. Mar>''s 

Washington 


1 

3 


90 
«269 


2 
16 


Total Counties 

Baltimore City 

Total State 










60 
65 


8,626 
29.002 


1,112 
2,478 


377 
776 


9 
9 


a633 
61,334 


25 
53 


125 


37,628 


3,590 


1,153 


18 


1,967 


78 


*Nox-Catholic Private Schools 


Anne Arundel 


4 
8 
8 
1 

5 
2 
1 
3 


82 
360 
463 
14 
11 
26 
240 
39 
12 
17 


187 
637 
356 


Full 
Time 


Part 
Time 








19 
119 

41 
1 
7 
2 

c48 
4 
1 

dl8 


1 
31 
17 










Cecil 


















44 
12 
cl82 


1 








Kent 








Montgomery 


c24 




























St. Marv's 


dl68 


dl 










1 


crf95 


c20 


Washington 


2 


31 
59 


67 


8 
1 


4 
4 




1 


26 


2 


Total Counties 

Baltimore City 

Total State 




37 
13 


1.354 
2.024 


1.653 
878 


269 
212 


83 
45 


2 
1 


121 
e79 


22 
3 


50 


3,378 


2.531 


481 


128 


3 


/200 


25 



Schools tor Handicapped Children 

Baltimore, School for the Blind 53 23 . . 1 2 ... 5 

Frederick, School for the Deaf 155 15. . . 19 

Montgomery, Reinhardt School for 

Deaf Children 21 6 

t Figures furnished by Rev. .lohn I. Barrett, Sujjerintendent of Catholic Schools. 

* Figures furnished by principals of schools and by Mrs. V. D. Pickard, Superintendent of Seventh 

Day Adventist Parochial Schools. 
a Includes 51 high school pupils. 
b Includes 15 high school pupils. 

c Excludes the enrollment, but includes the faculty of the junior college groups at National Park 

Seminary, Chevy Chase School, St. Mary's Seminary, and Princess Anne Academy. 
d High school pupils. 
e Includes 1 high school pupil. 
/ Includes 96 high school pupils. 



Enrollment in Private and Parochial Schools 



333 



TABLE IV 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Non-Catholic Private Elementary and 
Secondary Schools in Maryland, Year Ending June 30, 1&30 



Number of 

Enrollment Teachers 

Elemen- Second- Full Part 

County and tary ary Time Time 
School 

Anne Arundel 

Severn 125 10 . . 

Holladay 67 .. 4 1 

U. S. Nav. Ac. 

Prep 62 4 .. 

Mrs. Thomas 

Kgn 15 .. 1 .. 

Total 82 187 19 1 

Baltimore 

McDonogh 256 179 22 14 

Oldfield's 100 12 8 

Greenwood 11 85 12 4 

Hannah More. .. 16 71 16 . . 

St. Timothy's 79 26 . . 

Marston 31 44 8 

Roberts Beach . . 22 51 12 4 

Garrison Forest . 24 28 11 1 

Total 360 637 119 31 

Cecil 

Tometown 230 135 16 10 

Tome 11 180 11 6 

Parish 96 . . 3 

Perry Point 52 . . 2 

West Notting- 
ham 13 38 5 

Mabel Reynolds 30 . . 11 
Seventh-Day 

Adventist .... 22 3 2 
Blythedale 

Church 9 . . 1 

Total 463 356 41 17 

Garrett 

Zion Lutheran . . 14 . . 1 
Howard 

Donaldson 11 44 7 1 

Kent 

Seventh -Day 

Adventist. ... 26 12 2 

Montgomery 

Washington Mis- 
sionary Col .. . 113 69 4 .. 

Bradford Home. 75 . . 6 . . 

National Park 

Seminary t70 °28 °18 

Chevy Chase 

Country 52 6 

Chevy Chase t43 °14 °6 

Total 240 182 58 24 



Enrollment 

County and Elemen- Second- 

School tary ary 

Prince George's 
Avondale 

Country 24 

Seventh Day 

Adventist .... 15 

Total 39 

Queen Anne's 
.Seventh-Day 

Adventist.... 12 

St. Mary's 

Charlotte Hall . . . . 106 
St. Mary's 

Seminary . . t62 

Mrs. Town- 

shend's 17 

Total 17 168 

Washington 

St. James' 22 66 

Seventh-Day 

Adventist .... 9 1 

Total 31 67 

Wicomico 

Mrs. Herold's... 59 

Colored Schools 

•Somerset 

Princess Anne Ac. t95 

Wicomico 
St. Marie 

Institute 26 

Baltimore Citv 

Friends 373 173 

Roland Park 

County 262 118 

Gilman Country 193 151 

BrynMawr... 244 91 

Park 205 93 

Calvert 289 

Bov's Latin .... 96 64 

Girl's Latin 26 102 

Immanuel Luth- 
eran.... 123 

Mt. Washington 

Country 109 

Samuel Reedy . . 38 27 
St. Paul's for 

Boys 27 25 

Seventh-Day 

Adventist .... 39 8 
Carey's Army 

NaA-y Prep ... 26 

Total 2,024 878 

Seventh-Day Ad- 
ventist (Colored) . 78 1 



Number of 
Teachers 



Full Part 
Time Time 



7 
=10 

1 
18 

7 4 

1 

S 4 



=20 



33 10 



45 



t Excludes junior college enrollment. 



Includes junior college faculty. 



334 



1930 Report of State I'epartmext of Education 



TABLE V 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions Fall of 1929 



Enrollment _ 
High t 

County and School Elemen- and -f 

tar>- com- 5 
mercial C 

Allegany 

SS. Peter and Paul's. 

Cumberland 4S9 67 1-1 

St. Mar^- s. Cum- 
berland 375 7S 11 

St. Patrick's, Cum- 
berland 411 15 

La Salle Institute, 

Cumberland 76 13a S 

St. Peter s, Western- 
port 269 6 

St. Michael's, Frost- 
burg 263 11 

St. Joseph's, Midland. . 162 4 

St. Patrick's, Mt. 

Savage 162 4 

St.Michael's, Eckhart. 78 2 

Total 2.285 2S0 7-5 

Anne Arundel 

St. Man 's. Annapolis . . 338 S 
St. Mary's, (Colored) 

Annapolis 93 2 

Baltimore 

St. Mark's, Catons- 

^-ille 327 S 

Mt. de Salos Academv 

Catonsville 47 49 IS 

School of the Immacu- 
late, Towson 202 7S 9 

Our Ladv of Mt. Car- 

mel. Middle River . . 254 5 

St. Michael s. Overlea . 253 5 

St. Joseph's, Fullerton. 230 5 

St.CharIe■5.Pikes^■iUe. 204 6 

St.Rita's.Dundalk. . .. 201 5 

St. Agnes', "^oodlawn. 179 4 

St. Clement's, Lans- 

downe 159 5 

Ascension, Halethorpe. 153 4 

St. \ incent's Orphanage 

Tow-son Ill 7 

St. Joseph's, Texas S6 3 

Little Flower, Wood- 
stock 58 3 

Total 2.464 127 S7 



County and School 



Elemen 
tary 



Caroline 

St. Gertrude's Acad- 
emy, Ridgely 

Carroll 

St. John's, Westminster 
St. Joseph's, Taney- 
town 

Total 

Charles 

Sacred Heart, La Plata 
St. Marj-'s, Brj-antown 

Total 

St . Mary's, (Colored) 
Bryantown 

Frederick 

St. John's, Frederick. 

Visitation, Frederick . 

St. Euphemia's, 

Emmitsburg 

Mt. St. Mary's Prep, 
Emmitsburg 

St. Anthony's, Em- 
mitsburg 

St. Joseph's College 

High, Emmitsburg... 



St. Peter's 
town. . . 



Liberty- 



Total 

St. Peter's. (Colored) 
Liber tj-t own 

St. Euphemia's (Col- 
ored) Emmitsburg. 

Garrett 

St. Peter's, Oakland. . 

Harford 

St. Margaret's, Bel Air 



Em-ollment 
High 
and 
com- 
mercial 



153 
33 
186 



165 
139 



135 



304 




13 


110 




2 


179 


58 




31 


20 


16 


155 




4 




135 


11 


106 




5 




105 


16 


32 




2 


32 




1 


535 


318 


62 


16 




1 


10 




1 


75 




4 



Enrollment in Catholic Parochial and Private Schools 



335 



TABLE V— Continued 

Vumber of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions Fall of 1929 



Enrollment 
High 

County and School El^men- and 
tary com- 
mercial 

Howard 

St. Paul's, Ellicott City 114 
St. Augustine's, Elk- 
ridge 94 

St. Louis, Clarksville. . 52 

Total 260 

St. Augustine's, (Col- 
ored) Ellicott City. . 45 
Montgomery 

Georgetown Prep, 

Garrett Park 131 

St. Martin's, Gaithers- 

burg 108 

Total 108 131 

Prince George's 

St. Jame's, Mt. Ranier. 247 
St. Mildred's, Laurel . . 154 
Maryhurst, Hyattsville 119 
St. Mary's, Upper 

Marlboro 99 

La Salle Hall, Ammen- 

dale 63 

Total 619 63 

St. Mar>-'s. (Colored) 

Upper Marlboro. .. . 90 
St. Mary's 

St. Mar>-'s Academy, 

Leonardtown 112 55 

Leonard Hall, Leonard - 

town 38 57 

Little Flower, Great 

Mills 166 

Holv Angels', Abell. . . 146 
St. John's. Hollywood. 131 
St. Joseph's, Morganza 92 
Our Lady, Medlev's 

Neck 84 

St. Michael's. Ridge. . . 73 
Sacred Heart, Bush- 
wood 60 

St. Da^^d'8, St. Mary's 

City 54 

Total 956 112 



28 



40 



Enrollment r 
High t 

County and School Elemef- and -f 

tary com- ? 

mercial r- 

Sr. Peter Cla%-ers. St. 
Mary's, Ridge » Col- 
ored 106 4 

Cardinal Gibbons' 

Institute (colored) . . 33 51 10 

St. Joseph's (colored) 

Morganza 79 2 

Washington 

St. Joseph's, Hagers- 

town 334 S 

Total Countv, White 

Catholic Schools 8,626 1,112 377 

Total County Colored 

Catholic Schools. . . . 582 51 25 

Baltimore City 

White Parish Schools . . 27 , 375 543 

Institutions for White 

Children 890 110 84 

Seton High School 733 24 

Loyola 471 21 

Institute of Notre 

Dame 287 161 27 

Calvert Hall 44 402 15 

Mt. St. Agnes' 223 129 24 

Notre Dame of Mary- 
land 139 193 19 

Mt. St. Joseph's 38 279 17 

Visitation 6 2 

Total 29.002 2,478 776 

Colored Parish Schools 1,027 24 
Institutions for Colored 

Children 231 19 

St. Francis' Academy. . 61 15 10 

Total 1.319 15 53 

Total State 

White 37.628 3.590 1.153 

Colored 1,901 66 78 



336 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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338 



1930 Report of State Department of EDUCATI0^5• 







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White Elementary Non Promotions; Teaching Positions 339 



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340 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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Certification in All Elementary and One-Teacher Schools 341 



i : 




342 



1930 



Report of State Department of Education 



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Certification in Two-Teacher and Colored Schools 



343 



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844 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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Average Number of Pupils and Average Salary per Teacher 



345 




1930 Report of State Department of Education 



TOTAL 


1 




i gsi! Sii^ Mm ii§ . 




1 S^^^ ||l 


1 




1 gpi ii^i gSg| ||§ 




1 lie ^iu ipi i^ii iiii pi 


GIRLS 1 


Super Gold 




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COUNTY 


Totals 

**Allegany 

Anne Arundel 




!( 


Dorchester 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 


**Prince George's. ... 
Queen Anne's 


Talbot 


Worcester 



Badge Tests and Games in White Schools 



347 



Total 
(iarnes 




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Baltimore City 


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1 

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348 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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Teams; Badge Tests in Colored Schools 349 
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1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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Games and Relays, Colored Schools; Receipts from 



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1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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Disbursements for General Control, Instruction and Operation 

i mmmmmmmmmsm s 



355 



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Maintenance, Auxiliary AoENaES, Debt Service, Capital Outlay 357 



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358 



1930 
S 



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saiouaSy 



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SSI isSii-sggSSii^iSI§l5 



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Education 

sill 
lis- 



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mi 



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Disbursements in White Elementary and One-Teacher Schools 359 



2 

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jaqiunx 
aSBJa.vy 



sjaqoBax 
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pilllplllpllillllilif 



JfJ 





1930 Report of State Department of Education 



is 



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2- - 



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Disbursements in Two-Teacher and Graded Schools 



§ mmBmmmmmm p 



saiouaSy 



ill iliiiiiiiiiiiiigissi 



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Disbursements in Junior High and in White High Schools 



363 





$943,799.27 

14,613.79 
2 , ()6() . 74 
225,559.02 
381 .25 
1 ,147.49 
1 1 , 979 . 94 
12,610.79 
49,099.32 
61 ,378.40 
5,702.39 
34,880.41 
2,552.32 
11,839.78 
1 ,736. 57 
29,739.22 
92,723.98 
734.12 
3 15., 54 
1 ,1,54.20 
48,918.46 
108,099.66 
23,5.58.23 
202,413.65 

225,201.41 

1 ,169.000.68 


sasuddxg; 






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$1 ,673.721 

al90,514 

a77,825 
al77,207 
10,361 
48,645 

106,800 
63,313 
27,617 
55,858 

121 ,402 
.53,918 
76,985 
37,064 
33,883 

106,818. 

106,072 
34,078 
13,978 
43,362 
48,176. 

123,382. 
61,582. 
54,870. 

a999,295. 

2,673.017. 


aSBJaAy 


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1 2^g^?^^:^2g•^5^^g^c^^iS?:^='s^^2^^ | | 



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364 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



I3fi 

X 



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iC(NOC0CCiNC>O-<*<'OC0 00T}*CD^i?0OL0t^;DiC'^ 
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fC M rH .-I 



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— IN 050 
00 00 ^ 00 
O IN IN 

r-IINI>(N 

CO >c CO 
cooc^ 



^ CO o >o 

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CO X o 



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00 iO(N <N CO 0*0 05 — lOIN 00-<*< 00 CO lO COiC X » l> CO CO 

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Disbursements in Colored Elementary and High Schools 



s 



i 
1 



1 

§ 

I 





1 mmmmmmmmm i s 




$2,587. If) 
280. 00 


5^58^ :2?858:2 : : :S8 8 S 

^ : : M ^ =^ 






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s - s s 


uoT:^onj:>sui jo 
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i ^^-^ — g 1 


uot;Dnj;sui jo 




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: CO- 


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sjiooq^xax 




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$874 

1 ,480 
1,032 
793 
794 
770 
982 
847 
797 
973 
844 
780 
834 
825 
721 
781 
1,151 
765 
771 

2,756 
1 ,741 










— ,_, eQ 


JO jsqumx 


cor^ — ^c.-^^:ocoro^o■<^'Or-,ouoc>^cDco g oo 



n ■ 

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n 



366 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



mo 



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Data on Individual High Schools 



367 



1^ : 



CO (N t> 00 <N Tf^ 



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oogooooooog 



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58 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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DAT 


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Lackev 


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Frederick 


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Oakland-Garrett 


Bel Air 


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Marlboro 


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Total Prince George's 

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Washington 


M a rion 


Total Somerset 



p. 



380 



1930 Report of State Department of Education 



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>>>,>.>> 93 ^ 

g u o o o C 

o a, oj oj g•- 



INDEX 



A 

Absence : 

Causes of. 28-34 

Colored Schools, 181-183, 336 

Long, 28-29, 31-32 

White elementary schools, 19-24, 28-34, 
336 

White high schools, 113-115, 336 
Academic course, high school, 196, 366-371 
Administration and supervision : 

Administration, 291-306. 353-354 

Colored schools, 224-228 

General control costs, 252-259, 353-354 

High school principals, 173-174 

Objectives, 297-306 

Organization chart, 295-296 

Superintendents. 3, 291-294 

Supervision, 99-111, 224-228, 252-254, 293, 
355, 358. 364 

Yearbook of N. E. A.. 105 
Agriculture vocational : 

Cost, 163-165 

Enrollment in, 127-128, 130-131, 165, 197, 

372-377 
Failures in, 132. 134, 136 
Schools having, 127, 137. 372-377 
Teachers of, 137 
Aid, State, Federal, and other, 6-14, 246- 

252, 351 
Colored, 8, 351, 366-371 
Comparison with State Public School Tax 

paid, 287-289 
Equalization Fund, 8-9, 14, 249-252, 285- 

287. 351 
Extension courses, 8, 59, 351 
Federal, 163-165, 260-262, 351. 366-371 
High schools. 8, 10, 154-155, 351, 366-371 
Medical examinations, 8, 13 
Normal schools, 8, 12, 231, 319-322 
Part-payment of salaries, 8, 13. 292, 351 
Retirement system, 8, 10, 323-325 
Rosenwald Fund, 213, 215-216, 352 
State. 6-14, 246-252. 261-262, 351-352, 

366-371 

Vocational education, 8, 11-12, 163-165, 

260-262, 351 
Vocational rehabilitation, 8, 12-13 
Appropriations : 

County, 246-252, 276-280, 352 
State, 246-252, 261-262, 351, 366-371 
From general funds, 6, 14 
Public school budget, 6-14 
Approved high schools, 149-151, 192, 366- 
380 



A — (Continued) 

Art, enrollment taking : 

Colored, 372-377 

White, 128-130, 372-377 
Assessable basis : 

County, 280-283 

State, 6-7 
Athletics : 

Colored schools, 221-223, 349-350 

Expenditures, 239-243 

White schools, 232-239, 346-348 
Attendance, 16-17, 19-24, 336-337 

Aggregate days of, 337 

By months, 21-22, 181-182 

Cause for failure, 47-49 

Classroom conditions, relation to, 31-33 

Colored schools, 178-179, 181-183, 192, 
195, 336-337, 364-365 

Elementary schools, white, 19-24, 336-337, 
358, 361 

High schools, white, 113-115, 336-337. 

363, 366-371 
Illness, relation to, 29-31 
Index of, 34-35 
Law, 294 

Number in, 16-17, 113-115. 178-179, 337 
Officers, 295 

Per Cent of, 19-22, 114, 181-182, 336 
Summer school : 

Colored teachers, 199-200 

Elementary and high school pupils, 
243-244 

White elementary teachers, 58-59 
White high school teachers, 138-140 
Teachers' relation to. 31-34 
Auxiliary agencies, expenditures, and cost 
per pupil. 253-256, 356 
Colored, 213, 364-365 
White elementary. 80-84, 358-361 
White high, 162, 167-170, 363 

B 

Badge test entrants and winners : 

Colored, 221-222, 349 

White, 234-236. 346 
Baltimore City schools : 

Capital outlay, 246-247. 353, 357-358, 363- 
365 

Colored. 197-198, 232, 364-365 
Evening, 245-246, 356 
Expenditures, 353-365 
Special classes, 53-54 

Summer schools, 243-244, 356, 358, 363- 
365 

Vocational program, 261-262 



881 



382 



Index 



B — (Continued) 

Belonging, average number, 16-17, 178-179, 
336 

By grades or years : 

Colored, 191-192, 366-371 
White, 35-38, 366-371 
Colored schools. 178-179, 192, 336, 364-365 
Elementary schools, white, 336, 358-361 
High schools, white, 336, 363, 366-371 
Per teacher, 344 

Colored, 207-208, 365 
White elementary, 69-72 
White high, 155-156 
Proportion in high school: 
Colored, 194-195 
White, 114-116 
Board of Education. State, 2 
Bond issues, school, 270-272 
Bonds outstanding, 270-272 
Books and materials of instruction, ex- 
penditures and cost per pupil, 253- 
255, 355 
Colored, 364-365 
White elementary, 79-81. 358-361 
White high, 162, 166, 363 
Boys to girls : 

Graduates, 38-41, 117-119, 187-188, 195- 
196 

In each grade, 35-36, 187 

Non-promotions, 41-47, 191-192, 338 

Ratio in high school, 116-117 
Budgets : 

County, 276-280 

School, 6-14, 246-256, 276-280 

State public school, 6-14 

Explanation of increases in, 8-14 

Tax. 276-280 
Buildings : 

Cost. 

Colored schools. 214-215. 269, 364-365 
White elementary, 90-91, 269, 358-361 
White high. 162, 172, 269, 363 
Number and capacity, 162, 172. 269 
Value of, 215, 217-218. 275-276 

c 

Capital outlay, expenditures and cost per 
pupil. 246-247, 253-266, 268-269, 357 
Colored schools, 214-215, 269, 364-365 
White elementary schools, 91-92, 269, 
358-361 

White high schools. 162. 172, 269. 363 
Caroline County study of absence due to 

illness. 29-31 
Causes of : 

Absence. 28-34 
Late entrance: 
Colored. 183-1?4 
White. 24-26 
Non-promotions, 47-49 



C— (Continued) 

Causes of — (Cont'd) 

Resignations of teachers, 59-61, 140-142, 
200-204 

Teacher turnover, 59-61, 140-142, 200-204 
Withdrawals : 
Colored, 185-186 
White, 27-28 
Census, 1930 Federal, 15-16 
Census and Attendance Fund, deficit in, 8. 

13-14, 248, 351 
Certificates : 

High school, not valid in elementary 

school. 307 
Medical examination required for. 309, 
325 

New requirements for high school, 174- 
177 

Number issued, 307 

Provisional, 138, 198, 308-309, 340-343 
Teachers in: 

Colored schools, 198, 343 

Non-public schools, 307 

White elementary schools, 54-58, 307, 
340-342 

White high schools, 138, 174-177 
Certification of teachers, 307-309 
Colored, 198. 343 
In non-public schools. 307 
Provisional, 138, 198, 308-309, 340-343 
White elementary, 54-58, 307, 340-342 
White high. 138, 174-177 
Classes : 

Evening, 245-246 
Size of, 344 

Colored, 207-208, 365 
White elementary, 69-72 
White high. 155-156 
Special. 53-54 
Classroom conditions, relation to absence, 

.H-33 
Clerks, 138, 354 
Colleges : 

Attended for summer courses, 58-59, 139- 
140. 199-200 

Per cent of high school graduates enter- 
ing. 122-125, 197 

Training Maryland teachers, 64-65. 143- 
145 

Colored schools : 

Aid. 8. 213. 215-216. 351 

Approved high schools. 149-151. 366-377 

Attendance. 178-179. 181-183, 192, 195, 

336-337, 364-365, 366-371 
Badge tests. 221-222. 349 
Baltimore City. 197-198. 232. 244-246 
Capital outlay. 214-215. 268-269. 364-365 
Consolidation, 219-220 



Index 



C — (Continued) 

Colored schools — (Cont'd) 

Cost per pupil, 211-212, 259, 366-371 
Enrollment, 178-179. 187, 192-194, 331. 
366-371 

Enrollment by subject. 196-197, 372-377 
Expenditures, 364-365 

Graduates, 187-189. 192, 195-196, 366-371 
High schools. 192-197, 221, 365-377 
Late entrants. 183-184 
Libraries, 213, 215 
Men teachers in, 206-207. 339 
Non-promotions. 188-192 
Normal school. 229-232^ 
Number belonging. 178-179. 192, 336, 
364-371 

Occupations of high school graduates, 
197 

Parent-Teacher Associations, 223-224 

Physical education, 221-223, 372-377 

Property valuation, 215, 217-218 

Ratio of high to total enrollment, 194-195 

Rosenwald Fund. 213. 215-216, 352 

Session. 179-180. 337, 366-371 

Size of class. 207-208, 344 

Size of, 219-221 

Supervision. 224-228. 364 

Teachers, 193-194, 339, 364-365, 366-371 

Certification. 198, 343 

Experience, 204-206 

Salaries, 193-194. 208-211. 345, 364-365 

Summer school attendance. 199-200 

Resignations. 200-204 

Turnover, 200-204 
Transportation of pupils. 213 
Value of school property, 215, 217-218 
Withdrawals. 185-186 

Commercial subjects : 

Enrollment taking. 127-128. 130, 378-380 
Failures in, 132-133. 378-380 
Teachers of. 136-137 

Conferences, programs of : 
Attendance officers. 295 
High school principals. 173-174, 227-223 
Superintendents, 292-294 
Supervisors, 

Colored schools, 225-227 

White elementary schools. 105-111, 293 

White high schools, 173-174 

Consolidation : 

Decrease in number of one-teacher 

schools. 91, 93-99. 219-220 
Frederick County study of. 95-97 
Schools closed, 330 

Transportation of school children. 81-82, 
167-168. 213. 263-26S 



C— (Continued) 

Cost per pupil, 256-260 
Auxiliary agencies : 

White elementary. 80-84 

White high. 162, 167-170 
Books and materials of instruction: 

White elementary, 79-81 

White high, 162, 166 
By type of white elementary school, 89- 

91, 259. 359-361 
Capital outlay: 

White elementary, 91 

White high, 162. 172 
Colored schools. 211-212. 259 
Current expenses, 77-84, 159-172, 211-212, 
256-260 

Elementary schools, white. 77-84, 89-91. 
258-260 

Excluding federal vocational aid. 163-164 
General control. 256-259 
Health activities : 

White elementary, 82. 84 

White high, 168, 170 
High schools, white, 159-172. 258-260. 366- 

371 
Instruction : 

White elementary. 78-31 

White high. 162-164. 166 
Libraries : 

White elementary. 82-83 

White high, 168-170 
Maintenance : 

White elementary. 80-81 

White high. 162, 167 
Normal schools : 

Colored, 231 

White, 319-322 
Operation and maintenance : 

White elementary. 80-81 

White high, 162, 166-167 
Salaries : 

Excluding federal vocational aid, 163- 
164 

White elementary. 78-8ii 

White high. 162-164 
Supervision, 79-80 
Transported, 265-266 

Colored. 213 

White elementary. 81-82 

White high. 167-168 
Costs (See also expenditures): 

Buildings. 92. 171, 214, 246-247. 268-269. 

353, 357-365 
Colored schools. 211-212, 364-365 
Elementary schools, white. 77-91, 358-361 
Evening schools. 165, 245-246. 356 
General control. 252-259, 353, 356 
High schools, white, 159-172, 363 
Junior high schools, 362 
Normal schools, 231. 319-322 



384 



Index 



C— (Continued) 

Costs— (Cont'd) 

Summer schools, 244, 319-322. 356, 358, 
363-365 

Supervision, 252-254, 355, 358, 364 
Total current expense, 246-248, 353-356, 
358-365 

Transportation, 81-82, 167-168, 213, 263- 
266, 356 

Vocational education, 163-165, 260-262 
County : 

Assessments, 280-283 

Budgets, 276-280 

Tax rates, 283-287 
Courses : 

Extension, 59 

In high school, 127-132, 196-197, 372-380 
Current expenses, expenditures, and cost 
per pupil, 246-248, 252-260 
Colored schools, 211-212, 364-365 
White elementary schools, 77-84, 259-260, 
358-361 

White high schools, 159-172, 259-260, 363 

D 

Dates, opening and closing of schools : 

Colored schools, 180 

White schools, 18 
Days in session, 337 

Colored schools, 179-180. 366-371 

White schools. 17-19, 366-371 
Debt service, 276-280, 283-287, 353, 357 
Deficits : 

Census and Attendance Fund, 8, 13-14, 

248, 351 
Equalization Fund, 8, 14 
Disbursements, 353-365 

Distribution of expenditures, 252-256, 353- 
365 

Colored schools, 364-365 
White elementary schools, 358-361 
White high schools, 363 
Division of school dollar, 252-256 

E 

Elementary schools : 
Colored : 

Attendance, 178-179, 181-183, 336-337, 
364 

Cost per pupil, 211-212, 259 

Enrollment, 178-179, 187, 331 

Expenditures, 364-365 

Graduates, 187-189 

Late entrants, 183-184 

Number belonging, 178-179, 336, 364 

Number of teachers, 219-220, 339, 364 

Promotions, 188-192 

Session in, 179-180, 3S7 

Size of class, 219-221. 344 

Teachers' certification, 198. 343 



E— (Continued) 

Elementary schools — (Cont'd) 
Colored : 

Teachers' salaries. 208-211, 345, 364 
Withdrawals, 185-186 
White : 

Attendance, 31-35, 336-337, 358-361 
Certification of teachers, 54-58, 340-342 
Consolidation, 91, 93-99 
Cost per pupil, 77-84, 89-91, 258-260, 

359-361 
Enrollment, 35-38, 331 
Expenditures, 82, 358-361 
Failures, 41-49, 338 
Graduates, 38-41 

Health program, 31-33, 82, 84-89 

Libraries, 82-84, 356 

Men teachers, 76-77, 339 

Number belonging, 336, 358-361 

Number of, 91, 93-94, 330 

Promotions, 41-49, 338 

Pupil-teacher ratio. 69-72, 344 

Sessions, length of, 17-19, 337 

Size of class, 69-72, 344 

Special classes, 53-54 

Standard tests, 50-52 

Supervision, 99-111, 293, 355, 358, 364 

Teachers : 

Certification, 54-58. 307, 340-342 
Experience, 66-69 
Number of, 91, 93-94, 339 
Resignations, 59-61 
Salaries, 72-76, 345, 358-361 
Summer school attendance, 58-59 
Turnover. 59-66 

Tests, 50-52 

Transportation, 81-82 
English : 

Enrollment taking. 372-377 

Colored. 196, 372-377 

White, 127-128, 372-377 
Failures in, 132-134 
Teachers of, 136-137" 
Enrollment, 7, 16-17, 178-179, 331 
By course, 366-371 

By subject, 127-132, 196-197, 372-380 
By type of elementary school, 22, 36, 38 
Colored, 178-179. 187, 192-194, 331, 366- 
377 

Elementary, white, 35-37. 331 
Grade. 35-38. 191-192, 366-371 
High school, white. 10, 112-113, 159-160, 
331 

Courses, 366-371 

Subjects, 127-132, 196-197, 372-380 

Years, 35-37, 366-371 
Non-public schools, 17, 332-335 
Normal schools : 

Colored, 229 



Index 



385 



E — (Continued) 

Enrollment — (Cont'd) 
Normal Schools — (Cont'd) 
White. 313-322 
Private and parochial schools, 17, 113, 

179. 332-335 
Public schools, 16-17, 178-179, 331 
Summer schools : 
Pupils, 243-244 

Teachers, 58-59, 138-140, 199-200 
Entrants : 

Athletic events : 

Colored. 222-223, 349-350 

White, 232-239, 346-348 
Colored : 

Late, 183-184 

Normal school, 196-197 
White: 

College and normal school, 119-125, 

197, 316-317, 366-371. 
High school, 41-42, 114 
Late. 24-26 

Normal school, 119-122,196-197. 316- 
317, 366-371 
Equalization Fund, 8-9, 14, 249-252, 285- 
287, 351 

Tax of 67 cents and expenditures for 
aids to instruction, 286-287 
Evening schools and courses, 165, 245-246, 
356 

Expenditures, 353-365 

Auxiliary agencies, 81-82, 167-168, 353. 

356, 358-365 
Capital outlay, 91-92, 171. 214-215, 246- 

247, 268-269. 353. 357-365 
Colored schools, 364-365 
Current expenses, 246-248, 353-356, 358- 

365 

Debt service, 276-280, 283-287, 353, 357 
Distribution of, 252-256, 353-365 
Elementary schools, white, 82, 358-361 
Evening schools, 165, 245-246, 356 
Fixed charges, 353, 356 
General control, 353-354 
Health, 82, 84-85, 168. 170, 356 
High schools, white, 363 
Instruction and operation, 353, 355, 358- 
365 

Junior high schools, 362 
Libraries, 82, 168, 356 
Maintenance, 353, 356, 358-365 
Normal schools, 231, 319-322 
Operation, 353, 355, 358-365 
Salaries, 10, 159-160. 353-355, 358-365 
State Department of Education, 327-329 
Summer schools, 319-322. 356, 358, 363- 
365 

Supervision, 355. 358, 364 
Transportation, 81-82, 168, 213, 263-266, 
356 

Tuition to adjoining counties, 353, 357 
Vocational work, 165, 260-262 



E— (Continued) 

Experience of teachers : 
Colored, 204-206 
White elementary, 66-69 
White high, 146-147 

Who resign from Maryland county 
schools, 60-61, 141-142, 201-202 

Extension courses, 59 



F 

Failures : 

By grade, 46-47, 191-192, 338 

Causes, 47-49 

Colored schools, 189-192 

In high school subjects, 132-136, 378-380 

White elementary schools, 41-49, 338 
Financial statements, 327-329 
Fixed charges, 353-354 

Frederick County study of consolidation, 

95-97 
French : 

Enrollment taking, 127-131, 197, 372-377 
Failures in, 132, 134, 136 
Teachers of, 136-137 

G 

Garrett County, attendance study, 31-34 
General control, 252-259, 353-354 
General course, high school. 196, 366-371 
George Reed Fund, 261 
Grade or year : 
Number enrolled : 

Colored schools. 191-192, 366-371 
White schools. 35-38, 366-371 
Promotions in 

Colored schools, 191-192 
White elementary schools, 46-47, 338 
Graduates : 
Colored : 

Elementary school, 187-189 
Entering normal school, 196-197, 366- 
371 

High school, 192, 195-196, 366-371 
Normal school, 229-230 
Occupations, 197 
White : 

Elementary school, 38-41 
Entering high school, 41-42, 114 
Entering normal school, 119-122, 316- 

317, 366-371 
High school, 117-120, 366-371 
Normal school, 309-313 
Occupations of high school, 119-126 



386 



Index 



H 

Handicapped children, aid for, 3 
Health : 

Cost, 82, 84-85, 168, 170, 356 

Relation to attendance, 28-33 

State Department of, 84-89, 268, 270 
High schools : 

Approved. 149-151, 366-380 

Colored : 

Attendance, 192, 195. 336-337. 365-371 
Cost per pupil, 211-212. 366-371 
Enrollment, 187, 192-194, 331, 366-377 
Expenditures, 365 
Graduates, 192, 195-196, 366-371 
Number belonging, 192, 336. 365-371 
Number of. 149-151. 330 
Ratio of high to total enrollment, 194- 
195 

State aid. 8. 10, 54-55, 366-371 
Statistics of individual schools, 366-377 
Subjects taught. 196-197, 372-377 
Teachers' certification. 198, 343 
Teachers' salaries. 193-194, 210-211, 345. 
365 

Teachers in, 193-194, 219-220. 339. 365- 
371 

Junior, 362 
White : 

Attendance. 113-115. 336-337. 363, 366- 
371 

Classes, size of, 155-156, 344 
Clerks, 138 

Cost per pupil, 159-172, 258-260. 366- 
371 

Courses. 127-132, 366-371 

Distribution of, 149-151 

Enrollment, 10. 35-37. 112-113, 127-132, 

159-160, 331, 336-380 
Expenditures, 363 
Failures, 132-136 
Graduates. 117-120, 366-371 
Location, 149-151 
Men teaching in, 148, 339 
Number belonging, 336. 363. 366-371 
Number in each group. 149-151 
Number of. 149-151, 330 
Number offering subjects, 127-132, 372- 

380 

Occupations of graduate^. 119-126 

Promotions. 132-136 

Proportion of enrollment in, 114-116 
Ratio of boys to girls, 116-117 

Relation of number belonging to teach- 
ing staff, 152-155 

Requirements for each group, 149 
Resignation of teachers, 140-142 

Session, length of, 17-18, 337. 366-371 

Size of. 152-154 

Size of classes, 155-156, 344 



H— (Continued) 

High Schools— (Cont'd) 

Special subjects, 127-132. 371-380 
SUte-aid, 8, 10, 154-155, 366-371 
Statistics, individual schools. 366-380 
Subjects available, 127-132, 372-380 
Supervision, 172-174, 298-300 
Teaching load, 155-156, 344 
Teachers. 10. 159-160. 339. 363, 366-371 

Certification, 138. 174-177 

Experience, 146-148 

For each subject, 136-138 

Salaries. 10, 156-160. 345, 363 

Turnover. 148 
Transportation, 167-168 
Withdrawals by subject. 132-136. 378- 

380 

Holding power of schools : 

Colored. 191-192. 366-371 

White. 35-38, 118-120, 366-371 
Home Economics : 

Cost. 165 

Enrollment in. 

Colored, 197, 372-377 

White. 127-128. 130-131. 165. 372-377 

Schools having, 127, 136-137, 372-377 

Teachers of, 136-137 

I 

Incorporated towns. Levy for, 278-280 
Index of school attendance, 34-35 
Industrial courses, 127-128, 130-131. 137, 

165, 197, 372-377 
Instruction, expenditures and cost per 
pupil, 252-255. 355 

Colored schools, 364-365 

Normal schools, 231, 319-322 

White elementary schools, 78-81, 358-361 

White high schools, 162-164, 166, 363 

J 

Junior high schools, 362 

K 

Kindergartens, enrollment in. 35, 37-38 

L 

Languages in high school : 

Enrollment in, 127-131, 197, 372-377 

Failures in, 132-135 

Teachers of, 136-137 
Late entrance : 

Colored schools. 183-184 

White schools. 24-26 
Latin : 

Enrollment taking 

Colored. 197. 372-377 
White. 127-130, 372-377 

Failures in. 132-136 

Teachers of, 136-137 



Index 



387 



L — (Continued) 

Legislation, Attendance law, 294 
Length of session, 337 

Colored schools, 179-180 

White schools, 17-19, 366-371 
Libraries, 356 

Colored schools. 213, 215 

White elementaiy schools, S2-S4 

White high schools, 168-170 
Library Advisory Commission, S3-84, 169- 
170 

M 

Maintenance, expenditures, and cost per 
pupil. 253-256, 356 
Colored schools, 364-365 
White elementary schools, 80-81, 358-361 
White high schools, 162, 167, 363 
Manual Training — See Industrial Arts 
Materials of instruction and books, expendi- 
tures and cost per pupil, 253-255, 
355 

Colored, 364-365 

White elementary, 79-81, 358-861 
White high, 162. 166, 363 
Mathematics : 

Enrollment taking. 
Colored, 196. 372-377 
White, 127-130, 372-377 
Failures in, 132-135 
Teachers of, 136-137 
Medical examinations : 

Pupils, 85-88. 231. 240-241 
Teachers, 8, 13, 309, 325 
Meetings, programs of: 
Attendance officers, 295 
High school principals, 173-174, 227-228 
Superintendents. 292-294 
Supervisors, 

Colored schools. 225-227 
White elementary schools, 105-111. 293 
White high schools, 173-174 
Membership. (See number belonging) 
Men teachers. 339 

Colored schools, 206-207 
White elementary schools, 76-77 
White high schools, 148 
Monthly attendance. 21-22, 181-182 
Music : 

Enrollment taking. 
Colored. 197, 372-377 
White 128-130, 132, 372-377 
Teachers of, 136-137 

N 

New high schools, establishment of, 153-154 
New positions, number of. 63, 143. 202-203 
New requirements for high school teachers' 

certificates, 174-177 
Night schools, 165, 245-246, 356 



N — (Continued) 

Non-promotions : 

By grade. 46-47. 191-192. 338 
Causes of, 47-49 
Colored schools, 189-192 
White elementary schools, 41-49. 338 
White high schools, 132-136, 378-380 
Normal schools : 
Colored, 229-232 

Baltimore City. 232 

Building program, 232 

Costs, 231 

Enrollment, 229 

Entrants, 196-197, 366-371 

Faculty, 230 

Financial statement, 231. 327-328 
Graduates, 229-230 
Summer school, 230-231 
White, 309-322 
Costs. 319-322 
Enrollment, 313-316 
Entrance requirements, 317 
Entrants, 119-122, 316-317, 366-371 
Faculty, 318 

Financial statement, 327-328 
Graduates : 

Number of, 309 

Placement, 310-313 

Teaching in home county. 312-313 
Inventories. 322 
Principals, 2 

Summer session, 319, 321-322 

Training centers, 319 

Withdrawals of juniors, 317-318 
Number belonging, 336 
By grades or years. 

Colored, 191-192. 366-371 

White, 35-38, 366-371 
Colored schools, 178-179. 192, 336, 364-365 
Elementary schools, white, 336, 358-361 
High schools, white. 336. 363. 366-371 
Per teacher, 344 

Colored. 207-208, 365 

White elementary, 69-72 

White high, 155-156 
Proportion in high school. 

Colored, 194-195 

White. 114-116 
Number of : 

High schools, 149-151, 192. 330 
Schools, 330 

Schools having transportation. 266-267 
Supervisors, 99-101. 224, 339 
Teachers in schools of each type, 339 
Colored, 193, 219-221 
White elementary, 91, 93-94, 98-99 
White high, 10, 137, 152-153, 159-160 
Nurses, County Health. 85-86 
Nursing, occupation of graduates, 122-125, 
197 



388- 



Index 



O 

Objectives of State Department members, 
297-306 

Occupations of high school graduates : 

Colored, 197 

White, 119-126 
One-teacher schools, decrease in 

Colored, 219-220 

White. 91, 93-99 
Opening date of schools : 

Colored, 179-180 

White, 17-19 
Operation, expenditures, and cost per pupil, 
253-255, 355 

Colored schools, 364-365 

White elementary, 80-81, 358-861 

White high, 162, 166-167, 363 
Organization chart, 295-296 

P 

Parent-teacher associations : 

Colored, 223-224 

White. 289-291 
Parochial and private schools, 17, 113, 179, 
332-335 

Part-payment of salaries, 8, 13, 351 
Patrons' organizations (See parent-teacher 

associations) 
Pensions (See Retirement Systerii) 
Persistence to high school graduation, 118- 

120 

Physical education, 8, 12, 232-243. 346-350 

Activities, 221-222, 232-239, 346-350 

Badge tests. 

Colored, 221-222, 349 
White, 234-236. 346 

Enrollment taking, 

. Colored, 197. 372-377 

White, 127-128, 130-131, 372-377^ 

Playground Athletic League, 12, 221-222, 
232-243, 346-350 

Teachers of, 137 
Physical examinations : ' 

Pupils, 85-88, 231, 240-241 

Teachers. 8, 13.-309. 325 
Playground Athletic League: 

Activities, 221-223, 232-239, 346-350 

Administration, 239-243 

Appropriation, 8-12 

Expenditures, 239-243 

Staff, 241-242 • 
Preparation of teachers, 307-309 

Colored, 198, 343 

White elementary schools, 54-58, 307, 340- 
342 

White high school. 138, 174-177 
Principals of normal schools, 2 
Private and parochial schools, 17, 113, 179, 
332-335 



P— (Continued) 

Programs and conferences : 
Attendance officers, 295 
High school principals, 173-174, 227-228 
Superintendents. 292-294 
Supervisors. 

Colored schools. 225-227 
White elementary schools. 105-111, 293 
White high school, 173-174 
Promotions : 

Colored schools, 189-192 
White elementary schools, 41-49. 338 
White high schools. 132-136. 378-380 
Property valuation. 280-283 
School. 

Colored, 215, 217-218 
White, 272-276 
Provisional certificates, 138, 198, 308-309, 
340-343 

Public School Tax, State. 6, 14 

Compared to State aid received. 287-289 
Pupils : 

In one-teacher schools. 94, 219-220. 336 
Per teacher. 344 

Colored. 207-208 

White elementary. 69-72 

White high, 155-156 
Transported, 263-264 

Colored. 213 

White elementary. 69-72 
White high. 167-168 

R 

Ratio of boys to girls in high school, 116- 
117, 187 

Ratio of high school to total attendance 
and enrollment : 

Colored, 194-195 

White. 114-116 
Receipts from 

All sources. 352 

Federal government, 163-165. 260-262 
Rosenwald Fund. 213, 215-216 
State, 6-14, 246-252, 261-262. 351, 366- 
371 

State Public School Tax. 287-289 
Rehabilitation, vocational, 8,12-13 
Required length of session. 17-19, 179-180, 
337 

Resignations of teachers : 

Colored, 200-204 

White elementary, 59-61 

White high. 140-142 
Retardation : 

By grade, 46-47, 191-192. 338 

Causes. 47-49 

Colored schools, 189-192 

White elementary schools, 41-49, 338 

White high schools, 132-136. 378-380 



Index 



389 



R_(Continued) 

Retirement System, Teachers', 2, 8, 10, 
323-325 

Rosenwald Fund, 213, 215-216, 352 
Rural schools, decrease in. 

Colored, 219-220 

White, 91, 93-99 

S 

Salaries of superintendents, 291-292, 354 
Salaries of teachers, 252-254, 345 

Colored, 193-194, 208-211, 364-365 

White elementary, 78-80, 358-361 

White high, 10, 156-160, 363 
Salary cost per pupil: 

White elementary, 78-80 

White, high, 162-164 
Sanitary inspections of school sites, 89, 

268, 270 
School bonds, 270-272 
School budgets, 6-14, 246-256 
School or college attended by teachers new 

to the State. 64-65, 143-145 
School tax dollar, 252-256 
School year, length of, 337 

Colored, 179-180, 366-371 

White. 17-19, 366-371 
Schools : 

Closed, 91, 93-99, 219-220, 330 

Evening, 245-246 

Having certain number of teachers : 

Colored, 219-221, 330 

White elementary, 91. 93-94. 330 

White high. 152-153, 366-371 
Normal : 

Colored, 229-232 

White, 309-322 
Number of, 330 

Colored. 219-221 

One-teacher, 91, 93-95, 219-220 
White elementary, 91, 93-95 
White high, 149-153 
Offering certain subjects, 127, 136-137, 
372-380 

Open less than legal requirement. 

Colored. 173-180 

White, 18-19 
Parochial and private, 17, 113, 179, 332- 
335 

Property, valuation of 

Colored, 215, 217-218 

White, 272-276 
Sanitary inspection of. 89. 268, 270 
Size of 

Colored. 219-221 

White elementary. 91, 93-95 

White high. 152-154 
Summer : 

For pupils, 243-244 

For teachers 



S — (Continued) 

Schools— (Cont'd) 
Summer for Teachers — (Cont'd* 
Colored, 199-200, 230 
White elementary. 58-59 
White high, 138-140 
Transportation provided to, 266-267 
Science : 

Enrollment taking. 
Colored, 196, 372-377 
White, 127-130, 372-377 
Failures in. 132, 134-135 
Teachers of, 136-137 
Session, length of, 337 

Colored schools, 179-180, 366-371 
White schools, 17-19, 366-371 
Sex of teachers, 76-77, 148, 206-207, 339 
Size of: 

Classes, 344 

Colored, 207-208, 365 
White elementary, 69-72 
White high, 155-156 
Schools : 

Colored. 219-221 
White elementary. 91. 93-95 
White high. 152-154, 366-371 
Small high schools, establishment opposed, 

153-154 
Smith-Hughes Act. 260-261 
Social Studies : 

Enrollment taking. 
Colored. 196. 372-377 
White. 127-130. 372-377 
Failures in. 132. 134-135 
Teachers of, 136-137 
Special classes, 

Baltimore City, 53-54 
State apropriation for, 8 
Special subjects in high school, 372-380 
Colored, 196-197 
White. 127-132 
Special high school teachers, 136-137. 366- 
371 

Standardized tests in elementary schools,. 
50-52 

State-aid. 6-14, 246-252. 261-262, 351. 366- 
371 

State Board of Education, 2 

State Department of Education, 2, 8. 295- 

307, 327-329 
State Department of Health, 84-89, 268. 270 
Statistical tables, 330-380 

Index to. 326 
Stenography, typewriting bookkeeping. 

Enrollment taking, 127-128. 130, 378-380 

Failures in, 132-133. 378-380 

Teachers of. 136-137 
Subjects studied in high schools. 372-330 

Colored schools, 196-197 

White schools. 127-132 



390 



Index 



S— (Continued) 

Summer school : 
Attendance : 

Colored teachers, 199-200 
Elementary and high school pupils, 
243-244 

White elementary teachers, 58-59 
White high school teachers, 138-140 
Cost, 319-322. 356, 358, 363-365 
Pupils in, 243-244 
Summer sessions : 

Colleges, 139-140, 199-200 
Normal schools. 
Colored, 230-231 
White, 319, 321-322 
Superintendents, 3, 291-294, 354 
Supervision : 

Colored, 224-227, 364 
Cost of, 252-254, 355, 358, 364 
White elementary, 99-111, 293, 355 
White high, 172-174 
Supervisors, 3 

Activities, 100, 102-105 
Colored, 224-227, 339 

Conferences, 105-111, 173-174, 225-227. 
293 

Elementary school (white), 99-111, 339 
High school, 172-174 
Objectives, 297-304 
Quota, 99-100, 339 
Salaries, 292, 355, 358, 364 

T 

Tables of statistics, 326, 330-380 
Taxable basis: 

For county purposes, 280-283 

For State purposes, 6-7 
Tax budgets, 276-280 
Tax rates, 6-7, 283-287 
Teacher pupil ratio, 344 

Colored, 207-208, 365 

White elementary, 69-72 

White high, 155-156 
Teacher (s) : 

Attending summer school, 58-59, 138-140, 
199-200 

Certification : 

Colored, 198, 343 

White elementary, 54-58, 307, 340-342 

White high, 138, 174-177 
Experience: 

Colored. 204-206 

White elementary, 66-69 

White high, 146-147 
Men, proportion of: 

Colored. 206-207, 339 

White elementary, 76-77, 339 

White high, 148. 339 



T— (Contimied) 

Teacher (s) — (Cont'd) 
Number, 339 

For each high School subject, 136-138 

In schools of each type, 339 
Colored, 193, 219-221, 364-365 
White elementary, 91, 93-94, 358-361 
White high, 10, 137, 152-153, 159-160, 
363, 366-371 

Total, 339 
Of certain high school subjects, 136-138 
Pupils per, 344 

Colored, 207-208, 365 

White elementary, 69-72 

White high, 155-156 
Relation to attendance, 31-34 
Resignation of 

Causes of, 59-61, 140-142, 200-204 

Colored teachers, 200-204 

White elementary, 59-61 

White high, 140-142 
Retirement of, 140-141, 323-325 
Salaries, 345 

Colored, 193-194, 208-211, 364-365 

White elementary, 78-80, 358-361 

White high, 10. 156-160, 363 
Sex of, 76-77, 148, 206-207, 339 
Special, 136-137 
Teaching load, 344 

Colored, 207-208, 365 

White elementary, 69-72 

White high, 155-156 
Training of, 340-343 

Colored, 198, 343 

White elementary, 54-58, 307, 340-342 
White high, 138, 174-177 
Turnover : 

Causes, 59-61, 140-142, 200-204 
Colored, 200-204 
White elementary, 59-66 
White high, 142-148 
Teachers* Retirement System, 2, 8, 10, 323- 
325 

Tests: 

Athletic badge 

Colored, 221-222. 349 
White, 234-236, 346 
Elementary school, 50-52 
Trade and industry, courses in, 127-128, 

130-131, 137, 165, 197, 372-377 
Training centers for normal schools, 230, 
319 

Training of teachers : 

At particular colleges, 64-65, 143-145 
Colored, 198, 229-232, 343 
White elementary, 54-58, 309-322, 340- 
342 

White high. 138, 174-177 



Index 



391 



T— (Continued) 

Transfer of teachers from county to county, 

62-63, 142-143. 202-203 
Transportation of pupils, 263-268 
Colored. 213 

Cost, 81-82, 167-168, 213, 263-266, 356 

White elementary, 81-82 

White high, 167-168 
Tuition to adjoining counties, 294, 353, 357 
Turnover in teaching staff: 

Causes, 59-61, 140-142, 200-204 

Colored. 200-204 

White elementary, 59-69 

White high school, 142-148 

V 

Valuation : 

Property, 280-283 
School property, 

Colored, 215, 217-218 
White, 272-276 
Vocational rehabilitation, 8, 12-13 
Vocational work : 

Agriculture. 127-128, 130-132, 134, 136, 
165, 197 

Cost of, 8, 11-12, 163-165, 260-262 
Home economics, 127-128, 130-131, 136- 
137. 165 



V — (Continued) 

Vocational work — (Cont'd) 

Industrial courses, 127-12S. 130-131, 137. 
165 

Vocations chosen by high school graduates : 
Colored, 197 
White, 119-126 

w 

Withdrawals : 
Colored, 185-186 
Normal school juniors, 317-313 
White elementary, 27-28 
White high, 132-136, 37S-3S'-. 

Y 

Yearbook of N. E. A., 105 
Year, length of, 337 

Colored, 179-180 

White, 17-19, 366-371 
Years of experience: 

Colored teachers, 204-206 

Teachers who resign. 60-61, 141-142, 201- 
202 

White elementary school teachers, 66-69 
White high school teachers. 146-147 
Years of service of teachers who resigned, 
60-61, 141-142. 201-202 



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